Battle of Lewis's Farm
|Battle of Lewis's Farm|
|Part of the American Civil War|
|United States (Union)||CSA (Confederacy)|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Gouverneur K. Warren
|Casualties and losses|
The Battle of Lewis's Farm (also known as Quaker Road, Military Road, or Gravelly Run) was fought on March 29, 1865, in Dinwiddie County, Virginia during the American Civil War. It is generally considered the opening battle of the Appomattox Campaign. In climactic battles at and after the end of the Siege of Petersburg, the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia commanded by General Robert E. Lee was dislodged from their defensive lines. On April 2–3, 1865, they began a fighting retreat to the west and on April 9, 1865 they surrendered to the pursuing Union Army after the Battle of Appomattox Court House.
In the early morning of March 29, 1865, as ordered by Union General-in-chief, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant on March 24, two corps of the Union Army of the Potomac under Major Generals Gouverneur K. Warren and Andrew A. Humphreys, moved to the south and west of the existing trench lines toward the Confederate right flank on the White Oak Road Line. Major General Philip Sheridan's cavalry corps of the Army of the Shenandoah took a longer route to the south and west toward Dinwiddie Court House where, with the infantry's support, they could strike the important road junction of Five Forks, which was then beyond the end of the Confederate line. From there, Sheridan planned to cut the remaining Confederate railroad supply lines, the Southside Railroad and the Richmond and Danville Railroad. The Confederate defensive line was manned by the Fourth Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, composed only of the division of Major General Bushrod Johnson, under the command of Lieutenant General Richard H. Anderson.
Warren's lead brigade, commanded by Brigadier General Joshua Chamberlain, met two brigades of Johnson's division at the Lewis Farm on the Quaker Road only about 1 mile (1.6 km) south of the end of the White Oak Road Line. Chamberlain was wounded in the battle but his outnumbered troops held the Confederates at bay until they were reinforced by a four-gun artillery battery and relieved by two large regiments from the brigade commanded by Colonel and Brevet Brigadier General Edgar M. Gregory. Through a clever ruse, Chamberlain avoided capture by several Confederates who surrounded him while he was at the front of his command. Union Colonel and Brevet Brigadier General Alfred L. Pearson was awarded the Medal of Honor 32 years later for his heroic actions at this battle.
Casualties were nearly even at 381 for the Union and 371 for the Confederates, but as the battle ended, Warren's corps held a portion of the Boydton Plank Road, one of the few remaining Confederate supply routes between Petersburg and North Carolina. Within hours, Sheridan's cavalry occupied Dinwiddie Court House, also severing the Boydton Plank Road. The Union forces were close to the Confederate line and poised to attack the Confederate flank, Five Forks and the two remaining open Confederate railroad lines.
Siege of Petersburg
The Siege of Petersburg began after the Overland Campaign and at the end of Grant's first offensive at Petersburg, known as the Second Battle of Petersburg, on June 18, 1864. The Union Army was strong enough to pin down most of the Army of Northern Virginia to trenches and fortifcations from northeast of Richmond to southwest of Petersburg but not large enough or strong enough to cut all routes of supply to Petersburg and Richmond or to turn the Confederate Army out of its defenses. The Confederate Army was strong enough to detach some units for independent operations early in the Siege but not large enough to send a field army out to fight a major battle with the Union force that might compel it to retreat.
Grant launched five more offensives at Petersburg during the remaining months of 1864, another in February 1865, and two more at the end of March and beginning of April 1865, with the objectives of cutting off Confederate supplies and forcing the Army of Northern Virginia to extend and eventually to give up their overstretched lines. He wanted to wear down the Confederate Army, cut their sources and routes of supply both near Petersburg and in more distant locations and to extend the Confederate lines to the breaking point.
As Grant slowly moved his forces to the west over the winter, the Confederates extended their lines to compensate, but they were stretched increasingly thin. Lee knew that his army could not survive the siege indefinitely and looked for ways to escape from the Petersburg trap as spring arrived, the winter and early spring rains diminished, the local road system became passable again and Union reinforcements had not yet arrived. Sherman's operations in the Carolinas were already cutting Lee's supply lines and making his position at Petersburg increasingly untenable.
Lee determined to break out of the Richmond and Petersburg lines, resupply his increasingly hungry and ill-supplied troops at Lynchburg, Virginia or if necessary at Danville, Virginia and join his army with that of General Joseph E. Johnston in opposition first to Sherman's army, then possibly in opposition to Grant's. Lee's opening move was to attack the Union's Fort Stedman in an effort to break through the Union lines or, more likely, to compel Grant to shorten his lines and give Lee more of an opening and head start in a movement to the west.
Battle of Fort Stedman
Before Grant could make his move against the Confederates in an eighth offensive at the end of March 1865, Lee's forces, led by Major General John B. Gordon, attempted to break the siege along a narrow front near Fort Stedman, south of Petersburg. After some initial success under the leadership of Major General John B. Gordon, the Confederates were defeated at the Battle of Fort Stedman on March 25, 1865 and forced to return to their lines and give up their advance picket line while suffering about 4,000 casualties which they could ill afford. The United States National Park Service and some historians consider the Battle of Fort Stedman to have been the concluding battle of the Siege of Petersburg.
Grant's initial orders for March 29 movements
Grant already had issued orders on March 24, 1865 for an offensive to begin on March 29. Sheridan's cavalry would move to cut the two remaining open railroads the Southside and the Richmond and Danville Railroads while infantry would be moved to the Union Army left, to the southwest of Petersburg, in order to turn the Confederates out of their positions. On March 28, Grant clarified to Sheridan that Sheridan should lead his troops around the far right flank of the Confederate Army and fight the Confederates with Union infantry support if the Confederates came out of their trenches. Otherwise, Sheridan should wreck the two open Confederate railroads and either return to the Army of the Potomac or join Sherman in North Carolina at his discretion.
Grant ordered the Fifth Corps under Major General Gouverneur K. Warren and the Second Corps under Major General Andrew A. Humphreys to support Sheridan and to outflank the Confederates at the western end of their line. Grant instructed Warren to move toward Dinwiddie Court House via the Vaughan Road at 3:00 a.m. on March 29 while Humphreys would move at 9:00 a.m. to form a line on the right of Warren's corps from the Quaker-Vaughan roads intersection to Hatcher's Run. Grant told Warren that after making that move his corps should move to the Boydton Plank Road, with Humphreys's corps to the right, and advance northeast. Four divisions of Major General John Gibbon's Twenty-Fourth Corps of the Army of the James, then under the overall command of Major General Edward Ord, would move from the Richmond lines to fill in the Petersburg lines being vacated by the Second Corps.
March 29 Movements
Warren's Fifth Corps of over 17,000 men moved out on the Stage Road at 3:00 a.m. as directed, crossed Rowanty Creek and proceeded west on Vaughan Road to the intersection with Quaker Road. A good verbal description of the roads and positions in the area, given by Brigadier General Joshua Chamberlain in his 1915 book The Passing of the Armies, is recited in the footnote.Warren reported to his commander, Major General George Meade who remained in direct tactical command of the Army of the Potomac, that Dinwiddie Court House was undefended. By 8:45 a.m., Meade ordered Warren to advance in strength on the Quaker Road across Gravelly Run and contact the Second Corps to his right. Warren misunderstood or ignored the order and sent only one brigade up the Quaker Road until noon when he sent other units forward in response to a second order from Meade.
The Second Corps moved from Hatcher's Run at about 6:30 a.m. Humphreys was careful not to leave a gap between his corps at Hatcher's Run and the troops of the Twenty-Fourth Corps which took the positions being vacated by the Second Corps. In turn, Meade wanted the Fifth Corps to move up the Quaker Road to prevent a gap developing between the Fifth Corps and the Second Corps.
When Lee was told of the Union Army movements on the morning of March 29, he directed Samuel McGowan's Brigade to move from its position near Tudor Hall to Burgess's Mill. Lee ordered Pickett to take the brigades of Brigadier Generals William R. Terry, Montgomery Corse and George H. Steuart on the Southside Railroad to Sutherland Station, 10 miles (16 km) west of Petersburg, and he ordered Brigadier General Eppa Hunton to be ready to move to reinforce Pickett or to defend the junction of the Southside and Richmond and Danville Railroads at Burkeville, Virginia. Lee also ordered Major General Fitzhugh Lee to take his cavalry division to Sutherland Station and join with the cavalry divisions of Major Generals Rooney Lee and Thomas L. Rosser. Pickett was ordered to take command of the combined cavalry. Lee thought that Pickett might be able to extend the Confederate line from its right flank 4 miles (6.4 km) east of Five Forks to Five Forks. These troops were not in place to take part in the fighting on March 29.
Confederate Lieutenant General Richard H. Anderson, as a corps commander of only the division of Major General Bushrod Johnson, was stationed on the Confederate right flank west of Petersburg at Hatcher's Run about 4 miles (6.4 km) east of Five Forks and immediately south of Sutherland Station. When Confederate scouts reported that a large force of Union infantry was moving north on Quaker Road, Anderson ordered Johnson to drive them back to Vaughan Road. Three Confederate regiments of the brigade commanded by Brigadier General Henry A. Wise, followed by the brigades of Brigadier Generals William H. Wallace, Young Marshall Moody and Matt Whitaker Ransom, moved south on the Quaker Road and the Boydton Plank Road which the intent of carrying out the order.
After proceeding on the Vaughan Road to within 2 miles (3.2 km) of Dinwiddie Court House, the brigade of Brigadier General Joshua Chamberlain marched a short distance back to the Quaker Road and led the Union advance north on that road. Chamberlain's skirmishers reported that the bridge over Gravelly Run had been destroyed and that Confederates were entrenched on the other side.
Chamberlain placed the 198th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Regiment on the right side of the road to fire on the Confederates as a diversion while he led the 185th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment across Gravelly Run to attack the Confederate right flank where a hand-to-hand fight developed. Both Union regiments were oversized for that time period with about 1,000 officers and men. The rest of Chamberlain's brigade crossed the stream following the New Yorkers' attack. The Confederates retreated to the Lewis farmhouse clearing about 1 mile (1.6 km) further north on the Quaker Road. After a stand near the farmhouse, the Confederates moved back into the woods where they were reinforced by other Confederate soldiers behind breastworks. Here, the Confederates drove back the advancing Union skirmishers but not without losing about 100 men as prisoners. Chamberlain brought the rest of his men forward and the Confederates who had moved out to meet the skirmishers again returned to their works.
After a pause in the fighting, Chamberlain's division commander, Brigadier General and Brevet Major General Charles Griffin came forward and told Chamberlain that the Confederate position must be taken. Deploying men to both sides of the Quaker Road, Chamberlain, on horseback, led a charge up the Quaker Road toward the Confederate strong point of a large sawdust pile which provided cover for many Confederate soldiers. Chamberlain got ahead of his men and became an obvious target. He was wounded in the arm and his horse was wounded in the neck. Chamberlain slumped on his horse, initially unconscious, but regained consciousness in time to respond to General Griffin who had come up to check on Chamberlain's condition. Then Chamberlain rallied his Pennsylvania regiment which was in retreat from a Confederate charge. When his wounded horse could not continue, Chamberlain went to the front of his line on foot. Several Confederates soon appeared and demanded Chamberlain's surrender. Chamberlain had lost his hat and was wearing a faded coat, almost gray in color. Pretending to be a Confederate officer, he led the Confederate soldiers back toward the Union troops who promptly captured them.
After a brief pause, Chamberlain saw that his New York regiment was being driven back from an attempt to take the Confederate works in the woods. Chamberlain and the regiment's officers steadied the men and soon they pushed the Confederates back until Union artillery under Regular Army Lieutenant John Mitchell came up with four guns to support them. Despite the artillery fire, the Confederates tried to outflank and charge the Union position. Chamberlain's men and the artillery held the position, but then the Confederates charged the Pennsylvania troops in the center and on the right of the Union position. These Union troops were nearly out of ammunition and began to slowly retreat.
As Chamberlain's line was falling back, his First Brigade was reinforced by the 188th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment and the 155th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Regiment (Zouaves) of Colonel and Brevet Brigadier General Edgar M. Gregory's Second Brigade. Colonel and Brevet Brigadier General Alfred L. Pearson led the Pennsylvanians to the center and toward the sawdust pile that the Confederates were using for cover. Pearson grabbed the regimental colors and charged toward the sawdust pile with his men following and passing through the ranks of the exhausted First Brigade. Thirty-two years later, Pearson was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions at Lewis's Farm.
Seeing these Union reinforcements, the Confederates retreated to their main entrenchments along White Oak Road, abandoning control of the Boydton Plank Road and leaving behind badly wounded men and some others who surrendered. Chamberlain then positioned his men along with the artillery battery on either side and in front of the Lewis farm buildings.
Chamberlain wrote that he had fewer than 1,700 officers and men in his brigade and that his reinforcements numbered about 1,000. He wrote that the Confederates had 6,277 effective officers and men in Johnson's Division according to their morning report. He stated that he lost about a quarter of his men while the Confederate total loss was "slight in numbers," although a paragraph after this statement he said that he saw that evening 150 dead and severely wounded Confederates laying around the breastworks and noted that almost 200 prisoners had been taken by his brigade. Modern casualty estimates are 381 for the Union force and 371 for the Confederates.
Sheridan's cavalry divisions reached Dinwiddie Court House at about 5:00 p.m. on March 29, 1865. Warren was able to take a position near the junction of the Quaker Road and the Boydton Plank Road. Griffin's division and Brigadier General Samuel Crawford's division taking up positions along the Boydton Plank Road, the Union movements on March 29 and Chamberlain's success in taking the Lewis Farm position enabled the Union Army to cut this important communication and supply road and to set up to attack the White Oak Road Line.
Encouraged by the Confederate failure to press their attack at Lewis's Farm and their withdrawal to their White Oak Road Line, Grant decided to expand Sheridan's mission to a major offensive rather than just a railroad raid and forced extension of the Confederate line.
Lee had anticipated that with the Confederate defeat at Fort Stedman and the arrival of Sheridan's cavalry at Petersburg, Grant would make a move such as he had ordered on March 24. Lee had only 6,000 cavalry north of the James River or at Stony Creek Depot, 18 miles (29 km) south of Petersburg and about 5,000 effective infantry that he could send to extend his line to the west to counter the anticipated Union movement. In the morning on March 29, Lee prepared to have Major General George Pickett take this force to Sutherland Station and move to protect Five Forks in Dinwiddie County. These troops would not be engaged until after the Battle of Lewis's Farm.
The Union Army movement on March 29 troubled Lee so he ordered movements in addition to those which he had directed in the morning. Besides moving Brigadier General Samuel McGowan's brigade farther west to extend Johnson's line along White Oak Road, he thinned the White Oak Road line further by moving Brigadier General William MacRae's brigade to the west. On March 30, as ordered, Pickett moved his three brigades under Wallace, Terry and Corse, Ransom's and Wallace's brigades from Johnson's division, a cavalry division and six guns to Five Forks. Then he sent Terry's brigade and Corse's brigade to the south. Nonetheless, a gap continued to exist between Pickett's force and McGowan's brigade at the end of the Confederate White Oak Road Line. Lee ordered Hunton's brigade to stand in reserve near Manchester, Virginia where it could support Pickett or move by rail to defend the junction of the Southside Railroad and Richmond and Danville Railroad at Burkeville, Virginia if a Union force moved to attack it.
Rain poured down on the area all night on March 29 and continued the following day, which limited the fighting on that day. Grant thought about suspending operations altogether until the weather cleared and the ground dried but Sheridan convinced him to press ahead. On March 30, half of Sheridan's cavalry under Brigadier General Thomas Devin skirmished with Confederate cavalry under Fitzhugh Lee and the infantry of Terry's brigade and Corse's brigade south of Five Forks, delaying Pickett's force from reaching Five Forks until 4:30 p.m. Rosser's and Rooney Lee's cavalry divisions arrived even later. Meanwhile, skirmishers from Warren's Fifth Corps kept the Confederates in their White Oak Road Line between the Boydton Plank Road and Claiborne Road. Humphrey's Second Corps closed the gap between the Fifth Corps and the Twenty-Fourth Corps. The latter corps captured a large part of the Confederate picket line.
The fighting, maneuvering and skirmishing at Lewis's Farm on March 29, 1865 and in the vicinity on March 30, 1865 set the stage for the Battle of White Oak Road and the Battle of Dinwiddie Court House on March 31, 1865.
- Kennedy, p. 412; Salmon, p. 459; NPS cites 381 Union and 371 Confederate; Eicher, p. 806, states "370 killed and wounded in Warren's corps; at least 130 Confederates were killed and 200 captured."
- Hess, Earl J. In the Trenches at Petersburg: Field Fortifications & Confederate Defeat. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8078-3282-0. pp. 18–37.
- Hattaway, Herman, and Archer Jones. How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983. ISBN 978-0-252-00918-1. p. 593.
- Stoker, Donald. The Grand Design: Strategy and the U.S. Civil War. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-19-537-305-9. pp. 367, 372–373, 384.
- Weigley, Russell F. A Great Civil War: A Military and Political History, 1861–1865. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-253-33738-0. p. 336.
- Hess, 2009, pp. 18–37.
- Sommers, Richard J. Richmond Redeemed: The Siege at Petersburg. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1981. ISBN 978-0-385-15626-4. p. 2.
- Beringer, Richard E., Herman Hattaway, Archer Jones, and William N. Still, Jr. Why the South Lost the Civil War. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1986. ISBN 0-8203-0815-3. pp. 331–332.
- Trudeau, Noah Andre. The Last Citadel: Petersburg, Virginia, June 1864–April 1865. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8071-1861-3. p. 18.
- Weigley, 2000, p. 432.
- Trudeau, 1991, pp. 324–325.
- Greene, A. Wilson. The Final Battles of the Petersburg Campaign: Breaking the Backbone of the Rebellion. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2008. ISBN 978-1-57233-610-0. p. 111
- Hattaway, 1983, pp. 669–671.
- Greene, 2008, p. 154.
- Calkins, 1997, pp. 14, 16.
- Hess, 2009, p. 253.
- Longacre, Edward G. The Cavalry at Appomattox: A Tactical Study of Mounted Operations During the Civil War's Climactic Campaign, March 27 – April 9, 1865. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2003. ISBN 978-0-8117-0051-1. p. 39.
- Trudeau, 1991, pp. 337–352.
- Greene, 2008, pp. 114–115.
- National Park Service Civil War Battle Summaries by Campaign (Eastern Theater).
- Calkins, 1997, p. 12, states that Grant's orders of March 24, 1865 to Meade, Sheridan and Ord to begin operations on March 29 that would start the Appomattox Campaign.
- Greene, 2008, p. 152.
- Hess, 2009, pp. 254–255.
- Greene, 2008, p. 155.
- The principal road leading out westerly from Petersburg is the Boydton Plank Road, for the first ten miles nearly parallel with the Appomattox [River], and distant from it from three to six miles. The Southside Railroad is between the Boydton Road and the river. South of the Boydton is the Vaughan Road; the first section lying in rear of our main entrenchments, but from our extreme left at Hatcher's Run inclining towards the Boydton Road, being only two miles distant from it to Dinwiddie Court House. Five miles east of this place the Quaker Road, called by persons of another mood, the "Military Road," crosses the Vaughan and leads northerly into the Boydton Road midway between Hatcher's Run and Gravelly Run, which at this junction became Rowanty Creek.
A mile above the intersection of the Quaker Road with the Boydton is the White Oak Road, leading off from the Boydton at right angles westerly, following the ridges between the small streams and branches, forming the headwaters of Hatcher's and Gravelly Runs, through and beyond the "Five Forks." This is a meeting place of roads, the principal of which, called the Ford Road, crosses the White Oak at a right angle, leading from a station on the Southside Railroad, three miles north, to Dinwiddie Court House, six miles south.
The enemy's main line entrenchments west from Petersburg covered the important Boydton Plank Road, but only so far as Hatcher's Run, where at Burgess' Mill their entrenchments leave this and follow the White Oak Road for some two miles, then cross it, turning to the north and following the Claiborne Road, which leads to Sutherland's Station on the Southside Railroad ten miles distant from Petersubrg, covering this road till it strikes Hatcher's Run about a mile higher up. This "return" northerly forms the extreme right of the enemy's entrenched line. Chamberlain, Joshua L. The Passing of Armies: An Account of the Final Campaign of the Army of the Potomac. New York: Bantam Books, 1993. ISBN 0-553-29992-1. pp. 31–32. First published New York and London, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1915.
- Greene, 2008, p. 155–157.
- Greene, 2008, p. 157.
- Hess, 2009, p. 255.
- Greene, 2008, p. 158.
- Trulock, Alice Rains. In the Hands of Providence: Joshua L. Chamberlain and the American Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8078-2020-2. p. 230.
- Chamberlain, 1915, p. 33.
- Trulock, 1992, p. 231.
- Calkins, Chris. The Appomattox Campaign, March 29 – April 9, 1865. Conshohocken, PA: Combined Books, 1997. ISBN 978-0-938-28954-8. p. 20.
- Trulock, 1992, pp. 231, 234.
- Calkins, 1997, p. 20–21.
- Chamberlain, 1915, p. 34.
- Trulock, 1992, p. 234.
- The same bullet deflected off some papers and a pocket mirror with a brass back in Chamberlain's coat pocket near his heart, then hit his aide, Lieutenant Vogel, in his pistol and knocked him from his horse. Chamberlain, 1915, p. 35.
- Chamberlain, 1915, p. 35.
- Trulock, 1992, p. 235.
- Trulock, 1992, pp. 235–236.
- Chamberlain, 1915, p. 37.
- Trulock, 1992, pp. 236–237.
- Calkins, 1997, p. 20.
- Chamberlain, 1915, pp. 38–39.
- Trulock, 1992, pp. 237–238.
- Trulock, 1992, p. 238.
- Pearson's citation reads: "At Lewis' Farm, Va., 29 March 1865, Seeing a brigade forced back by the enemy, he seized his regimental color, called on his men to follow him, and advanced upon the enemy under a severe fire. The whole brigade took up the advance, the lost ground was regained, and the enemy was repulsed. Date of issue: 17 September 1897."
- Chamberlain, 1915, p. 40.
- Salmon, John S., The Official Virginia Civil War Battlefield Guide, Stackpole Books, 2001, ISBN 0-8117-2868-4. p. 459.
- Although he notes that Ransom's brigade moved out to meet Chamberlain's advance, Historian A. Wilson Greene does not identify that unit from Johnson's division as among the brigades he states were in the fighting. Greene, 2009, p. 158.
- Chamberlain, 1915, pp. 41–42.
- Kennedy, Frances H., ed., The Civil War Battlefield Guide, 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., 1998, ISBN 0-395-74012-6. p. 412.
- Hess, 2009, p. 255.
- Hess, 2009, p. 256.
- Calkins, 1997, p. 21.
- Greene, 2008, p. 162.
- Greene, 2008, p. 154.
- Hess, 2009, p. 257.
- Greene, 2008, pp. 163, 165.
- Hess, 2009, pp. 258–260.
- Calkins, Chris. The Appomattox Campaign, March 29 – April 9, 1865. Conshohocken, PA: Combined Books, 1997. ISBN 978-0-938-28954-8.
- Chamberlain, Joshua L. The Passing of Armies: An Account of the Final Campaign of the Army of the Potomac. New York: Bantam Books, 1993. ISBN 0-553-29992-1. First published New York and London, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1915.
- Greene, A. Wilson. The Final Battles of the Petersburg Campaign: Breaking the Backbone of the Rebellion. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2008. ISBN 978-1-57233-610-0.
- Hattaway, Herman, and Archer Jones. How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983. ISBN 978-0-252-00918-1.
- Hess, Earl J. In the Trenches at Petersburg: Field Fortifications & Confederate Defeat. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8078-3282-0.
- Kennedy, Frances H., ed., The Civil War Battlefield Guide, 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., 1998, ISBN 0-395-74012-6.
- Longacre, Edward G. The Cavalry at Appomattox: A Tactical Study of Mounted Operations During the Civil War's Climactic Campaign, March 27 – April 9, 1865. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2003. ISBN 978-0-8117-0051-1.
- Salmon, John S., The Official Virginia Civil War Battlefield Guide, Stackpole Books, 2001, ISBN 0-8117-2868-4.
- Stoker, Donald. The Grand Design: Strategy and the U.S. Civil War. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-19-537-305-9.
- Trudeau, Noah Andre. The Last Citadel: Petersburg, Virginia, June 1864–April 1865. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8071-1861-3.
- Trulock, Alice Rains. In the Hands of Providence: Joshua L. Chamberlain and the American Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8078-2020-2.*
- Weigley, Russell F. A Great Civil War: A Military and Political History, 1861–1865. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-253-33738-0.