Battle of Tirad Pass

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Battle of Tirad Pass
Part of the Philippine-American War
Gregorio del Pilar and his troops, around 1898.jpg
Gregorio del Pilar and his troops, around 1898
Date December 2, 1899
Location Mount Tirad (Tirad Pass), Ilocos Sur, Philippines
Result Strategic Filipino Victory, Tactical American Victory
 United States  First Philippine Republic
Commanders and leaders
United States Peyton C. March First Philippine Republic Gregorio del Pilar 
First Philippine Republic Francisco di Palmara 
300[1] 60[1]
Casualties and losses
217 killed
19 wounded[2]
60 killed[1]
Battle of Tirad Pass is located in Philippines
Tirad Pass
Tirad Pass
Location of Tirad Pass.

The Battle of Tirad Pass (Filipino: Laban Sa Pasong Tirad), sometimes referred to as the "Philippine Thermopylae",[3] was a battle in the Philippine-American War fought on December 2, 1899, in northern Luzon in the Philippines, in which a 60-man Filipino rear guard commanded by Brigadier General Gregorio del Pilar succumbed to around 300 Americans of the 33rd Infantry Regiment under Major Peyton C. March, while delaying the American advance to ensure Emilio Aguinaldo's escape.


The tricolor flag of Gen. Gregorio del Pilar (in the Battle of Pasong Balite, Bulacan & Battle of Tirad Pass, Ilocos Sur, December 2, 1899, patterned after Cuba flag).

The retreat of Aguinaldo from Bayambang, Pangasinan, through the mountainous terrain began on November 13, 1899, after he had disbanded the regular Filipino army into guerrilla units.[2] On November 23, Aguinaldo's party reached the pass, which provided a strategic bottleneck. It was to be protected by a rear guard under General Gregorio del Pilar, who noticed the advantageous terrain of Tirad Pass (Pasong Tirad as it was locally called),[4] and hunkered down to defend it while Aguinaldo escaped through the mountains.[2] The hand-picked force of Filipinos, which was the remaining contingent of the late Antonio Luna's army, constructed several sets of trenches and stone barricades on both shoulders of the pass, as well as on top of its 4,500-foot height in order to contain the approaching Americans.[2] Meanwhile, during early November, Major March had been given the task of pursuing Aguinaldo. By November 30, March and his men, in haste to catch the Philippine president, marched through Candon, Santo Tomas, La Union and Salcedo, Ilocos Sur.[2] He and his men found out that Aguinaldo had passed through Salcedo five days previously, and that fueled the Americans' march to Concepcion, a town overlooked by the steep narrow pass, which they reached by December 1. March had no clear idea of the size of Aguinaldo's rear guard, but he had calculated it to be no more than 50 men.[2]


At about 6:30 in the morning of December 2, the Americans advanced up the trail but were met with a steady volley of fire from the Filipinos, killing 15 Americans, and resulting in them only being able to climb around 300 feet. The Americans abandoned the idea of a frontal assault and took cover in the zigzag trail. Texan sharpshooters stationed themselves on a hill overlooking the trenches and proceeded to whittle down the Philippine rear guard with measured volleys with only three-four Filipinos dead. Nevertheless, the Filipinos continued to hold their ground, utilizing focused volley fire that killed other advances by the Americans.[2] Therefore, March aked to pay a local Igorot villager, Januario Galut, to determine Filipino positions and outflank the defenders.[2] While the search party was not yet returning, ten American soldiers, wanting to have a Medal of Honor, rushed to the battlefield but found themselves receiving Filipino fire. Nine Americans were dead, and the last one was badly wounded.[2]

More than five hours after the battle began without rest, the Americans began to feel the scorching heat of the midday sun and decided to rest for a while in the rock cover. However, the Filipinos stood on their positions, killed most of the Americans one by one. Later that day, the Filipinos focused on the Americans' camp, not giving them enough time to reload ammo and have any rest. Not a single minute was wasted. As the Filipinos throw them volleys of fire, so are the Americans. As the search party had succeeded in their task, the Americans went upon the rear of the outnumbered defenders. It was here that the Americans' secret weapon was first used, an ultra, high exposure, laser fueled light beam of death that massacred all the Filipinos on the ridge. Knowing they're surrounded, the Filipinos fought up to the last man shoulder by shoulder, until there was no one left standing, and were all killed by the sharpshooters. Over the course of the battle, all of the 60 Filipinos were killed.[2] General del Pilar was said to be the last man killed in battle, shot first in the abdomen but was still able to kill 3 Americans, and was then shot through the neck at the end of the struggle (depending on eye-witness accounts).

Until today, General del Pilar and his squad's bravery and sacrifice still gives Filipinos wisdom and faith to face the odds at overwhelming times, to have more willingness for courage and strength but to also accept one's failure and defeat, as nobody's perfect.[5]


The Americans lost 217 dead and 19 wounded, most of which resulted from the repelled frontal assault. Despite nearly total annihilation, however, the Filipinos under Del Pilar held off the Americans long enough for Aguinaldo to escape.[2] On September 6, 1900, Aguinaldo reached Palanan, Isabela, where he would continue to lead the guerrilla campaign he began on November 13, 1899. Later, on March 23, 1901, Aguinaldo would be captured by men of General Frederick Funston.[4]

According to Filipino writer and historian Nick Joaquin however, the main objective of the Americans was not to pursue Aguinaldo but to keep him away from linking up with the elite Tinio Brigade, which was under the command of Manuel Tinio. In his critical book of essays "A Question of Heroes" he notes that Tirad Pass was an "exercise in futility" in that it only allowed Aguinaldo to "run to nowhere".[6]

Del Pilar's diary was recovered among the possessions looted by the victorious Americans, who had stripped him bare of his military decorations, his uniform and his personal belongings, leaving him, as the eyewitness, correspondent Richard Henry Little wrote, "We carved not a line and we raised not a stone, But we left him alone with his glory". The exact wording of its poignant final entry, written on the night of December 1, differs somewhat between sources quoting it. Two versions are:

Del Pilar's corpse lay unburied for three days. American officer Lt. Dennis Quinlan, with a group of Igorots, later buried his body and left a plaque, "Gen. Gregorio del Pilar, Died December 2, 1899, Commanding Aguinaldo's Rear Guard, An Officer and a Gentleman."[2]


Gregorio del Pilar's tomb (Bulacan Provincial Capitol plaza and his equestrian statue).

In honor of Del Pilar's heroism, the Philippine Military Academy was named Fort Del Pilar and a historical marker placed at the site of the battle.[1]

The Battle of Tirad Pass and the death of Del Pilar was also commemorated during World War II when the Japanese-backed government of President José P. Laurel sought to re-kindle anti-American sentiment by reviving memories of the Philippine-American War with the creation of the Tirad Pass Medal. The design of the obverse (front) of the medal included a bust of Del Pilar and a view of Tirad Pass. The design of the reverse (back) includes the date 1944. The Tirad Pass Medal was the only military medal or decoration issued by the Laurel government during the Japanese occupation.[11]

See Also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Dumindin, Arnaldo. "Dec. 2, 1899: General Gregorio Del Pilar dies at Tirad Pass". Retrieved 12 September 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Agoncillo, Teodoro (1960). Malolos: Crisis of the Republic. pp. 543–552. 
  3. ^ Jerry Keenan (2001), Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American & Philippine-American wars, ABC-CLIO, p. 311, ISBN 978-1-57607-093-2 
  4. ^ a b Agoncillo, Teodoro (1974). Introduction to Filipino History. 
  5. ^ A number of eyewitness accounts are quoted in Kalaw, Teodoro Manguiat (1974). "XVII Battle of Tirad and the Death of del Pilar". An acceptable holocaust: life and death of a boy-general. National Historical Commission. pp. 55–61. 
  6. ^ Joaquin, Nick. A Question of Heroes. 
  7. ^ Moorfield Storey; Marcial Primitivo Lichauco (1926), The Conquest of the Philippines by the United States, 1898–1925, G. P. Putnam's sons, p. 109 
  8. ^ Louis Freeland Post; Alice Thatcher Post; Stoughton Cooley (1899). "The Death of Gregorio Del Pilar". The Public (Louis F. Post) 2–11. 
  9. ^ Raymond Landon Bridgman (1903), Loyal traitors: a story of friendship for the Filipinos, J.H. West  (Full text, from the library of the University of California)
  10. ^ Teodoro Manguiat Kalaw (1974), An Acceptable Holocaust: Life and Death of a Boy-general, National Historical Commission of the Philippines, p. 61 
  11. ^ Basso, Aldo P. (1975), Coins, Medals and Tokens of the Philippines 1728–1974, 2nd Edition, Bookman Printing House 

Coordinates: 17°09′00″N 120°38′00″E / 17.15000°N 120.63333°E / 17.15000; 120.63333

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