Beaded lizard

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Beaded lizard[1]
BeadedLizard-AHPExotics.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Superfamily: Varanoidea
Family: Helodermatidae
Genus: Heloderma
Species: H. horridum
Binomial name
Heloderma horridum
(Wiegmann, 1829)
Synonyms

Trachyderma horridum Wiegmann, 1829

The beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) is a species of venomous lizard found principally in Mexico and southern Guatemala. It and its congener the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum), are the only lizards known to have evolved an overt venom delivery system. The beaded lizard is larger than the Gila monster but has duller coloration, black with yellowish bands of differing width depending on the subspecies. As it is a specialized predator that feeds primarily upon eggs, the primary use of its venom is still a source of debate among scientists. However, this venom has been found to contain several enzymes useful for manufacting drugs in the treatment of diabetes, and research on the pharmacological use of its venom is on-going.

Threatened throughout its range by overcollection and habitat loss, it is a CITES protected species. The Motagua Valley subspecies (H. h. charlesborgeti) is one of the rarest lizards in the world, with a wild population of fewer than two hundred.

Taxonomy[edit]

The beaded lizard has one close living relative, the Gila monster (H. suspectum), as well as many extinct relatives in the Helodermatidae, whose genetic history may be traced back to the Cretaceous period. The genus Heloderma has existed since the Miocene, when H. texana ranged over most of North America.[3] Because the helodermatids have remained relatively unchanged morphologically, they are occasionally regarded as living fossils.[4] Although the beaded lizard appears closely related to the monitor lizards (varanids) of Africa, Asia and Australia, the wide geographical separation and unique features not found in the varanids indicates that the beaded lizard is better placed in a separate family.[5]

The species was first described in 1829 by Arend Wiegmann as Trachyderma horridum, however, he renamed it Heloderma horridum six months later.[6] Its generic name Heloderma means "studded skin", from the Ancient Greek words hêlos (ἧλος)—the head of a nail or stud—and dérma (δέρμα), meaning skin. Its specific name, horrĭdum, is the Latin word meaning rough or rude.

There are four subspecies of beaded lizard, elevated to full species in 2013:[7]

Description[edit]

Close-up of a helodermatid's skin, composed of beadlike scales

Adult beaded lizards range from twenty-four to thirty-six inches (sixty-one to ninety-one centimetres) in length. It is substantially larger than the Gila monster, which only reaches lengths of twelve to sixteen inches (thirty to forty-one centimetres). Although males are slightly larger than females, the lizards are not sexually dimorphic. Both males and females are stocky with broad heads, although the males tend to be broader.[12] The beaded lizard's scales are small, beadlike, and not overlapping. Except for the lizard's underside, the majority of its scales are underlaid with bony osteoderms.[12]

Their base color is black and marked with varying amounts of yellow spots or bands, with the exception of H. h. alvarezi, which tends to be all black in color. The beaded lizard has a short tail which is used to store fat so it can survive during months of estivation. Unlike many other lizards, this tail does not autotomize and can not grow back if broken. The beaded lizard has a forked, black tongue which it uses to smell, with the help of a Jacobson's organ; it sticks its tongue out to gather scents and touches it to the opening of the organ when the tongue is retracted.[3]

Habitat and range[edit]

The beaded lizard is found in the Pacific drainages from southern Sonora to south-western Guatemala and two Atlantic drainages, from central Chiapas to south-eastern Guatemala.[12] Their habitats are primarily tropical deciduous forests and thorn scrub forests, but are found in pine-oak forests, with elevations from sea level to 1500 metres. In the wild, the lizards are only active from April to mid-November, spending about an hour per day above the ground.[13]

The nominate subspecies H. h. horridum is found in Mexico, from Sonora to Oaxaca. The Rio Fuerte beaded lizard (H. h. exasperatum) is found from southern Sonora to northern Sinaloa. The black beaded lizard (H. h. alvarezi) is found in the northern Chiapas and the depression of the Río Lagartero in Huehuetenango to north-western Guatemala.[13] The ranges of these three subspecies overlap, making them sympatric.[14] The Motagua Valley subspecies (H. h. charlesbogerti) is the only allopatric one, separated from the nearest population (H. h. alvarezi) by 250 kilometres of unsuitable habitat.[14] The Motagua Valley beaded lizard is the most endangered of the subspecies if not of all lizards; it is found only in the dry valley of the Río Motagua in north-eastern Guatemala; less than two hundred are believed to exist in the wild.[13]

Ecology[edit]

Diet[edit]

A pair of Mexican beaded lizards at the Buffalo Zoo: The specimen on the right is in the process of molting.

The beaded lizard is a specialized vertebrate nest predator, feeding primarily on bird and reptile eggs. A semiarboreal species, it is found climbing deciduous trees in search of prey when encountered above ground.[15] It will occasionally prey upon small birds, mammals, frogs, lizards, and insects. Steve Angeli and Robert Applegate, noted captive breeders of the beaded lizard, have remarked that captive specimens, do best on a diet of small vertebrates primarily Mice and Rats. Problem Feeders or confiscated wild caught specimens can be made to feed by using egg on the prey item.[12][16]

Venom[edit]

The venom glands of the beaded lizard are modified salivary glands located in the reptile's lower jaw. Each gland has a separate duct leading to the base of its grooved teeth. When biting, the beaded lizard hangs on its victim and chews to get its venomous saliva into the wound. Although its jaw grip is strong, its unsocketed teeth are easily broken off at their bases. The beaded lizard's venom is a weak hemotoxin, and although human deaths are rare, it can cause respiratory failure. It consists of a number of components, including L-amino acid oxidase, hyaluronidase, phospholipase A, serotonin, and highly active kallikreins that release vasoactive kinins. The venom contains no enzymes that significantly affect coagulation. Almost all documented human bites (eight in the past century) have resulted from prodding captive lizards with a finger or bare foot.[17]

While invertebrates are essentially immune to the effects of this venom, effects on vertebrates are more severe and varied. In mammals such as rats, major effects include a rapid reduction in carotid blood flow followed by a marked fall in blood pressure, respiratory irregularities, tachycardia, and other cardiac anomalies, as well as hypothermia, edema, and internal hemorrhage in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, eyes, liver, and kidneys. In humans, the effects of bites are associated with excruciating pain that may extend well beyond the area bitten and persist up to twenty-four hours. Other common effects of bites on humans include local edema (swelling), weakness, sweating, and a rapid fall in blood pressure. Beaded lizards are immune to the effects of their own venom.[18]

The Mexican beaded lizard's base color is black, with yellow bands or patches.

The compounds in its saliva which have been studied have pharmacological properties relating to diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and even HIV.[19] This hormone was named exendin-3 and is marketed by Amylin Pharmaceuticals as the drug exenatide.[20] One study reported in 1996 revealed that it binds to cell receptors from breast cancer cells and may stop the growth of lung cancer cells.[21]

Reproduction[edit]

The beaded lizard becomes sexually mature at six to eight years and mates between September and October. Males engage in ritual combat that often lasts several hours; the victor mates with the female.[3] The female lays her clutch of two to 30 eggs between October and December, the clutch hatching the following June or July.[12]

Young lizards are seldom seen. They are believed to spend much of their early lives underground, emerging at two to three years of age after gaining considerable size.[22]

Conservation[edit]

Mexican beaded lizard at the Louisville Zoo, Kentucky.

The beaded lizard is surrounded by myth and superstition in much of its native range. It is incorrectly believed, for example, that the lizard is more venomous than a rattlesnake, that it can cause lightning strikes with its tail, or make a pregnant woman miscarry by merely looking at it. As a result of this superstition, locals often kill the lizard on sight.[22]

The seldom seen lizard is poached for resale through the illegal exotic beast trade. It does not reproduce well in captivity, and its scarcity means a high price for collectors. As a direct result, the beaded lizard is protected by Mexican law under the category A (Threatened), and it dwells within the range of several protected areas.[23] In Guatemala it is protected by national legislation, and part of their range is within protected areas. It is listed on Appendix II of C.I.T.E.S.[22]

Fewer than two hundred lizards remain in the dry forest habitat of the Motagua Valley and this subspecies of beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum charlesbogerti) was facing extinction due to local extermination and loss of habitat for agricultural purposes.[22] A conservation effort has been launched known as Project Heloderma in order to preserve the semi-arid habitat of the Motagua Valley by The Nature Conservancy and partners such as ZOOTROPIC, CONAP, the IRCF (International Reptile Conservation Foundation), Lincoln Park Zoo, Zoo Atlanta, and the San Diego Zoo. This effort has been successful in getting the Guatemalan government to list the beaded lizard under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (C.I.T.E.S.) as an Appendix I animal, making it illegal to export the species.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Heloderma horridum". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  2. ^ Canseco Marquez, L. & Muñoz, A. (2007). "Heloderma horridum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 19 June 2010.  Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern
  3. ^ a b c Cogger (1992) p. 156
  4. ^ King, Ruth Allen; Pianka, Eric R.; King, Dennis (2004). Varanoid Lizards of the World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34366-6. 
  5. ^ Mattison, Chris (1998). Lizards of the World. London: Blandford. ISBN 0-7137-2357-2. 
  6. ^ Wiegmann, A.F.A. (1829). "Über die Gesetzlichkeit in der geographischen Verbreitung der Saurier". Isis (Oken) 22 (3-4): 418–428. 
  7. ^ http://www.redlist-arc.org/Article-PDFs/Special%20Mexico%20Issue_ARC_7(1)_74-96_low_res.pdf Reiserer & al., 2013, Taxonomic reassessment and conservation status of the beaded lizard, Heloderma horridum (Squamata: Helodermatidae)
  8. ^ "Heloderma horridum horridum". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  9. ^ "Heloderma horridum alvarezi". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  10. ^ "Heloderma horridum exasperatum". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  11. ^ "Heloderma horridum charlesborgeti". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Angeli, Steven (2005). "Beaded Dragon". Reptile Care 9 (1): 36–39. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
  13. ^ a b c Beck 2005, pp. 35–36
  14. ^ a b Campbell, J.; J. Vannini (1988). "A new subspecies of beaded lizard, Heloderma horridum, from the Motagua Valley of Guatemala". Journal of Herpetology 22 (4): 457–468. doi:10.2307/1564340. JSTOR 1564340. 
  15. ^ Pianka, Eric (1966). "Convexity, desert lizards and spatial heterogeneity". Ecology 47 (6): 1055–1059. doi:10.2307/1935656. JSTOR 1935656. 
  16. ^ Applegate, Robert (1991). "Northern California Herpetological Society's Conference on Captive Propagation and Husbandry of Reptiles and Amphibians". Sacramento, California: Northern California Herpetological Society. pp. 39–44. 
  17. ^ Freiberg 1984, pp. 116–120
  18. ^ Beck 2005, p. 44
  19. ^ Beck 2005, pp. 41–61
  20. ^ Eng, John; Wayne A. Kleinman, Latika Singh, Gurchar Singh, Jean-Pierre Raufman (1992). "Isolation and Characterization of Exendin-4, an Exendin-3 Analogue,from Heloderma suspectum Venom". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 267 (11): 7402–7406. PMID 1313797. Retrieved 2008-09-21. 
  21. ^ Raufman, J.P. (1996). "Bioactive peptides from lizard venoms". Regulatory Peptides 61 (1): 1–18. doi:10.1016/0167-0115(96)00135-8. PMID 8701022. 
  22. ^ a b c d "Protecting the Guatemalan Beaded Lizard". The Nature Conservancy in Guatemala. The Nature Conservancy. 2007. Retrieved 2010-09-14. 
  23. ^ a b "CONSIDERATION OF PROPOSALS FOR AMENDMENT OF APPENDICES I AND II" (pdf). Fourteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna. 2007. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 

References[edit]

  • Ariano, D. 2008. Envenomation by a wild Guatemalan beaded lizard Heloderma horridum charlesbogerti. Clinical toxicology 46 (9): 897-899. [1]
  • Ariano, D. y G. Salazar. 2007. Notes on the Distribution of the Endangered Lizard, Heloderma horridum charlesbogerti, in the Dry Forests of Eastern Guatemala: An Application of Multi-criteria Evaluation to Conservation. Iguana 14(3): 152-158.[2]
  • Ariano, D. 2006. The Guatemalan beaded lizard: Endangered inhabitant of a unique ecosystem. Iguana 13(3): 178-183. [3]
  • Beaman (1996). Heloderma horridum. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 11 May 2006. Listed as Vulnerable (VU A2cd v2.3)
  • Beck, Daniel D. (2005). Biology of Gila Monsters and Beaded Lizards (Organisms and Environments). University of California Press. p. 247. ISBN 0-520-24357-9. 
  • Berkow, Robert, Ed. (1992). The Merck Manual, 16th Ed. Merck Research Laboratories. ISBN 0-911910-16-6. 
  • Cogger, Harold; Zweifel, Richard (1992). Reptiles & Amphibians. Sydney: Weldon Owen. ISBN 0-8317-2786-1. 
  • Freiberg, Dr. Marcos; Walls, Jerry (1984). The World of Venomous Animals. New Jersey: TFH Publications. ISBN 0-87666-567-9. 

External links[edit]