Dr. Ben Goertzel after giving a talk at the 2009 Humanity+ Summit in Irvine California
December 8, 1966 |
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Ben Goertzel (born December 8, 1966, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) is Chief Scientist of financial prediction firm Aidyia Holdings; Chairman of AI software company Novamente LLC, which is a privately held software company, and bioinformatics company Biomind LLC, which is a company that provides advanced AI for bioinformatic data analysis (especially microarray and SNP data); Chairman of the Artificial General Intelligence Society and the OpenCog Foundation; Vice Chairman of futurist nonprofit Humanity+; Scientific Advisor of biopharma firm Genescient Corp.; Advisor to the Singularity University; Research Professor in the Fujian Key Lab for Brain-Like Intelligent Systems at Xiamen University, China; and general Chair of the Artificial General Intelligence conference series, an American author and researcher in the field of artificial intelligence. He is an advisor to the Machine Intelligence Research Institute (formerly the Singularity Institute) and formerly its Director of Research.
Goertzel is the son of Ted Goertzel, a professor of sociology at Rutgers University. He left high school after the tenth grade to attend Bard College at Simon's Rock, where he graduated with a bachelor's degree in Quantitative Studies. Goertzel went on to obtain a Ph.D. in mathematics from Temple University in 1989. Before entering the software industry, he served as a university faculty in several departments of mathematics, computer science and cognitive science, including the University of Nevada, City University of New York, the University of Waikato, and the University of Western Australia. Presently, he spends most of his time at a residence in the New Territories of Hong Kong.
His research work encompasses artificial general intelligence, natural language processing, cognitive science, data mining, machine learning, computational finance, bioinformatics, virtual worlds and gaming and other areas. He has published a dozen scientific books, 100+ technical papers, and numerous journalistic articles.
He actively promotes the OpenCog project that he co-founded, which aims to build an open source artificial general intelligence engine. He is focused on creating benevolent superhuman artificial general intelligence; and applying AI to areas like financial prediction, bioinformatics, robotics and gaming.
Life and career
Ben Goertzel has three children, many pets, and in his spare time enjoys avant-garde fiction, music, philosophy, mathematics, exploring the outdoors, and lots of other stuff. He is panpsychist and agnostic.
In 1966, he was born to Carol and Ted Goertzel, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. His parents are both American, and his heritage is mainly Eastern European Jew, but due to being born in Brazil, Goertzel has a dual (US/Brazilian) citizenship. In 1968, he moved to Eugene, Oregon and considered it to be an "excellent, hippy-ful place, at that time". In 1973, he moved to suburban South Jersey. In 1982, he left high-school after the 10th grade to start university at age 15 at Simon’s Rock College, which he considered "an outstanding institution that I highly recommend to all bright high-school age people". In 1984, at Simon's Rock College, he met his future wife Gwen Yorgey (later Gwen Goertzel, now Gwendalin Qi Aranya).
In 1985, he graduated from Simon's Rock College with a degree in Quantitative Studies. He then moved to New York City and attended graduate school in applied mathematics at NYU’s Courant Institute. During his spare time, he began to do serious research in cognitive science and AI. In 1987, he moved to Philadelphia, attended graduate school in mathematics at Temple University, and got married. In 1989, he received his PhD in math from Temple University, moved to Las Vegas to take his first real job, as a math professor at UNLV.
Late in 1989, Gwen’s and his first son, Zarathustra Amadeus, was born. In 1993, his second son, Zebulon Ulysses, was born, he toured around extensively, and moved to New Zealand, where he lectured in the Computer Science department at Waikato University. In 1995, he moved to Perth, Western Australia, where he had a research fellowship in Cognitive Science at the University of Western Australia. He stated that Perth was a "Wonderful place! Of all the places I’ve lived, I’d rate Perth by far the best. Would be great to move back there one day." In 1996 Goertzel together with Francis Heylighen founded the Global Brain Group to study the global brain emerging from an increasingly intelligent Internet, and in 2011 he joined the scientific board of the newly founded Global Brain Institute at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In 1997, he left academia, which he said made his life much more interesting, but a lot more stressful. In 1997, he started a software company, and relocated to New York City to launch Intelligenesis Corp. (later known as Webmind Inc.), a company with the mission of creating a truly intelligent AI system and making money along the way by productizing its components. In early 1997, Gwen and Goertzel had their first girl, Scheherazade Okilani Nastasya. He taught at the College of Staten Island, part of the CUNY system, during 1997–98, while Intelligenesis was getting off the ground. From 1997 until 2001 he headed Webmind Inc. (also known as Intelligenesis Corp.). This work was reviewed by the Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, explaining the approach as machine learning combined with natural language processing applied to textual information gathered from the internet, in order to predict business risk or to aid in making buying decisions.
In 2001, he moved to New Mexico where he had a research professorship in the Computer Science department of UNM. During this time, he lived in Zuzax, in the mountains east of Albuquerque, which he considered to be the second best place he ever lived, after Perth. In 2001, he also founded Novamente LLC, Webmind’s successor; and also Biomind LLC, a company specifically intended to apply Novamente technology to bioinformatics. In 2002, he relocated to the Washington DC metro area because he found a small amount of funding for Biomind from an investor near there, and he wanted the company based near him. Shortly after moving to the DC area, Gwen and Goertzel split up.
In 2004, Goertzel remarried Izabela Lyon Freire. In 2005–2007, while operating Novamente and Biomind as companies and developing his AI (and other) research projects, he started putting time into developing AGI as a research community: organizing the AGI conference series, a few edited volumes, etc. In May 2007, he spoke at a Google Tech talk about his approach to creating Artificial General Intelligence. He defines intelligence as the ability to detect patterns in the world and in the agent itself. He tries to create a "baby-like" artificial intelligence first, and then raise and train this agent in a simulated or virtual world such as Second Life to produce a more powerful intelligence. Knowledge is represented in a network whose nodes and links carry probabilistic truth values as well as "attention values", with the attention values resembling the weights in a neural network. Several algorithms operate on this network, the central one being a combination of a probabilistic inference engine and a custom version of evolutionary programming. He claimed that this combination is able to avoid the combinatorial explosions that both these algorithms suffer from when exposed to large problems. In 2008, he founded OpenCog, which was an open-source AGI software project. In an August 2008 audio interview, Goertzel stated that he is a founding member of the transhumanist Order of Cosmic Engineers and that he has signed up with Alcor to have his body frozen after his death, and that he expects to live essentially indefinitely barring some catastrophic accident.
In 2009, he became a Visiting Faculty member in the Artificial Brain Lab in Xiamen University in China, and began a project there using OpenCog to control a humanoid robot. In 2009, Izabela and Goertzel (amicably) split up. In 2010, he began a collaborative project with Hong Kong Poly University aimed at applying OpenCog to control intelligent game characters. In 2011, he got an apartment in Hong Kong, together with Ruiting Lian, and started spending a lot of time in HK working on various AI & AGI projects. In 2011, he also co-founded Aidyia Holdings, a startup focused on HK stock prediction. In 2012, he got married to Ruiting Lian, and split his time between Hong Kong and Maryland. As of 2013, he is living full-time in Hong Kong, in a charming little village north of Tai Po in the New Territories.
He also worked for Genescient, a company that applied bioinformatics and other tools to exploit the genomes of long-lived flies to create therapeutics to combat age-associated disease. He also worked for Igenesis, a consulting/R&D firm based in Belo Horizonte, Brazil that is involved in AI and other advanced software development.
In 2009, Ben Goertzel and Hugo DeGaris starred in a 45-minute documentary called 'Singularity or Bust'. In 2014, Goertzel appeared on the American science documentary television series, Through the Wormhole, in episode 1 of season 5.
The feature-length documentary film The Singularity (film) by independent filmmaker Doug Wolens (released at the end of 2012), showcasing Goertzel’s deep vision and understanding of making general AI general thinking, has been acclaimed as “a large-scale achievement in its documentation of futurist and counter-futurist ideas” and “the best documentary on the Singularity to date." 
- The Structure of Intelligence: A New Mathematical Model of Mind (Springer, 1993)
- The Evolving Mind (Gordon and Breach, 1993)
- Chaotic Logic: Language, Thought and Reality From the Perspective of Complex Systems Science (Plenum Press, 1994)
- Linus Pauling: A Life in Science and Politics (Basic Books, 1995). Written with his father Ted Goertzel. Ted in turn is son of Victor and Mildred Goertzel and Ted credits his parents also as co-authors of the Pauling biography.
- From Complexity to Creativity (Plenum Press, 1997)
- Creating Internet Intelligence (Plenum Press, 2001).
- Mind in Time (Hampden Press, 2003) co-edited by Allan Combs and Mark Germine.
- Artificial General Intelligence: Cognitive Technologies (Springer, 2005), co-edited with Cassio Pennachin, describes the mathematics underpinning the Novamente AI Engine.
- The Hidden Pattern: A Patternist Philosophy of Mind (Brown Walker Press, 2006)
- The Path to Posthumanity (Academica, 2006) co-authored with Stephan Vladimir Bugaj
- Advances in Artificial General Intelligence (IOS Press, 2007) co-edited with Pei Wang
- Goertzel, Ben (2012). When Should Two Minds Be Considered Versions of One Another?, Journal of Machine Consciousness, July 2012 http://goertzel.org/Goertzel_IJMC_Special_Issue.pdf
- Sam Adams, Itmar Arel, Joscha Bach, Robert Coop, Rod Furlan, Ben Goertzel, J. Storrs Hall, Alexei Samsonovich, Matthias Scheutz, Matthew Schlesinger, Stuart C. Shapiro, John Sowa (2012). Mapping the Landscape of Human-Level Artificial General Intelligence. AI Magazine, Winter 2012. http://aaai.org/ojs/index.php/aimagazine/article/view/2322
- Loosemore, R.P.W. & Goertzel, B. (2012c). Why an Intelligence Explosion is Probable. To appear in: Eden, A., Moor, J., Soraker, J., & Steinhart, E. (Eds.), The Singularity Hypothesis. Springer. http://richardloosemore.com/docs/2012c_IntelligenceExplosion_rpwl_bg.pdf
- Goertzel, Ben (2012). Should Humanity Build a Global AI Nanny to Delay the Singularity Until It’s Better Understood?, Journal of Consciousness Studies, 19(1–2) http://commonsenseatheism.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Goertzel-Should-Humanity-Build-a-Global-AI-Nanny-to-Delay-the-Singularity-Until-its-Better-Understood.pdf
- Goertzel, Ben and Joel Pitt (2012). Nine Ways to Bias Open-Source AGI Toward Friendliness. Journal of Evolution and Technology 22–1 http://jetpress.org/v22/goertzel-pitt.htm
- Goertzel, Ben, Matt Ikle and Jared Wigmore (2012). The Architecture of Human-Like General Intelligence. In Theoretical Foundations of Artificial General Intelligence, Ed. Pei Wang & B. Goertzel, Atlantis Press http://goertzel.org/Goertzel_Foundations_AGI.pdf
- Cai, Zhenhua, Ben Goertzel, Changle Zhou, Yongfeng Zhang, Min JIan, Gino Yu (2011). Dynamics of a computational affective model inspired by Dörner’s PSI theory. Cognitive Systems Research. doi:10.1016/j.cogsys.2011.11.002 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1389041711000647
- Nisansa de Silva, Nirmal Fernando, Chamilka Wijeratne, Danaja Maldeniya, Shehan Perera, Ben Goertzel. SeMap – Mapping Dependency Relationships into Semantic Frame Relationships. ERU Research Symposium, University of Morutawa (Paper online at Nisansa de Silva's academic profile)
- Goertzel, Ben (2011). Integrating a Compositional Spatiotemporal Deep Learning Network with Symbolic Representation/Reasoning within an Integrative Cognitive Architecture via an Intermediary Semantic Network. Proceedings of AAAI Symposium on Cognitive Systems, Arlington VA
- Kogut, Paul, June Gordon, David Morgenthaler, John Hummel, Edward Monroe, Ben Goertzel, Ethan Trewhitt and Elizabeth Whitaker (2011). Recognizing Geospatial Patterns with Biologically-Inspired Relational Reasoning. Proceedings of BICA 2011, Arlington VA
- Goertzel, Ben, Joel Pitt, Jared Wigmore, Nil Geisweiller, Zhenhua Cai, Ruiting Lian, Deheng Huang, Gino Yu (2011). Cognitive Synergy between Procedural and Declarative Learning in the Control of Animated and Robotic Agents Using the OpenCogPrime AGI Architecture. Proceedings of AAAI-11 
- Goertzel, Ben (2011). Lifelong Forgetting: A Critical Ingredient of Lifelong Learning, and its Implementation in the OpenCog Integrative AI Framework. Proceedings of AAAI-11 Workshop on Lifelong Learning 
- Goertzel, Ben (2011). Imprecise Probability as a Linking Mechanism Between Deep Learning, Symbolic Cognition and Local Feature Detection in Vision Processing. Proceedings of AGI-11, Lecture Notes in AI, Springer Verlag 
- Ikle, Matthew and Ben Goertzel (2011). Nonlinear-Dynamical Attention Allocation via Information Geometry, Proceedings of AGI-11, Lecture Notes in AI, Springer Verlag 
- Cai, Zhenhua, Ben Goertzel and Nil Geisweiller (2011). OpenPsi: Realizing Dorner’s ”Psi” Cognitive Model in the OpenCog Integrative AGI Architecture, Proceedings of AGI-11, Lecture Notes in AI, Springer Verlag 
- Goertzel, Ben and Matthew Ikle (2011). Three Hypotheses About the Geometry of Mind, Proceedings of AGI-11, Lecture Notes in AI, Springer Verlag 
- Goertzel, Ben (2011). Self-Programming = Learning about Intelligence-Critical System Features, Proceedings of Self-Programming Workshop at AGI-11, Mountain View CA 
- Goertzel, Ben, Joel Pitt, Zhenhua Cai, Jared Wigmore, Deheng Huang, Nil Geisweiller, Ruiting Lian, Gino Yu (2011). Integrative General Intelligence in a Minecraft-Type Environment. Proceedings of BICA-2011, Arlington VA
- Goertzel, Ben and Jared Wigmore (2011). Cognitive Synergy Is Tricky. Chinese Journal of Mind and Computation
- Goertzel, Ben (2011). Should Humanity Build a Global AI Nanny to Delay the Singularity Until It’s Better Understood?, Journal of Consciousness Studies 
- Ruiting Lian, Ben Goertzel, Rui Liu, Michael Ross, Murilo Queiroz, and Linas Vepstas. Sentence generation for artificial brains: a glocal similarity matching approach. Neurocomputing, Dec 2010 
- Goertzel, Ben and Allan Combs. Water Worlds, Naive Physics, Intelligent Life, and Alien Minds. Journal of Cosmology 5, 897–904. 
- Goertzel, Ben, Lucio Coelho, Mauricio Mudado and Cassio Pennachin. Classifier Ensemble Based Analysis of a Genome-Wide SNP Dataset Concerning Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease. Journal of Cognitive Informatics, to appear 
- Ikle’, Matthew and Ben Goertzel. Grounding Possible Worlds Semantics in Experiential Semantics. Proceedings of the Third Conference on Artificial General Intelligence, Atlantis Press 
- Goertzel, Ben, Cassio Pennachin, Samir Araujo, Ruiting Lian, Fabricio Silva, Murilo Queiroz, Welter Silva, Mike Ross, Linas Vepstas, Andre Senna. A General Intelligence Oriented Architecture for Embodied Natural Language Processing. Proceedings of the Third Conference on Artificial General Intelligence, Atlantis Press 
- Goertzel, Ben. Toward a Formal Characterization of Real-World General Intelligence. Proceedings of the Third Conference on Artificial General Intelligence, Atlantis Press 
- Geisweiller, Nil and Ben Goertzel. Uncertain Spatiotemporal Logic for General Intelligence. Proceedings of the Third Conference on Artificial General Intelligence, Atlantis Press 
- De Garis, Hugo, Xiaoxi Chen and Ben Goertzel. The China Brain Project: An Evolutionary Engineering Approach to Building China's First Artificial Brain Consisting of 10,000s of Evolved Neural Net, in Kansei Engineering and Soft Computing: Theory and Practice, Edited by Ying Dai, IGI Global Press 
- Goertzel, Ben, Hugo de Garis, Cassio Pennachin, Nil Geisweiller, Samir Araujo, Joel Pitt, Shuo Chen, Ruiting Lian, Min Jiang, Ye Yang, Deheng Huang (2010). OpenCogBot: Achieving Generally Intelligent Virtual Agent Control and Humanoid Robotics via Cognitive Synergy. Proceeedings of ICAI 2010, Beijing. 
- Goertzel, Ben, Hugo de Garis. Shuo Chen, Ruiting Lian, Min Jiang (2010). Artificial Brains: a Review of the State of the Art and a Roadmap for Future Development. Proceeedings of ICAI 2010, Beijing.
- Goertzel, Ben, and Ruiting Lian (2010). A Probabilistic Characterization of Fuzzy Set Membership, with Application to Mixed Fuzzy-Probabilistic Inference. Proceeedings of ICAI 2010, Beijing. 
- Hugo de Garis, Chen Xiaoxi, Yang Ye, Chen Shuo, Ben Goertzel, and Ruiting Lian (2010). “Object/Gesture Recognition Software in the “China Brain Project,” Proceedings of ICCI 2010, Beijing 
- Goertzel, Ben, Ruiting Lian, Itamar Arel, Hugo de Garis, and Chen Shuo (2010). World Survey of Artificial Brains Part 2: Biologically-Inspired Cognitive Architectures. Neurocomputing, Dec 2010 
- De Garis, Hugo, Chen Shuo, Ben Goertzel and Ruiting Lian. (2010). World Survey of Artificial Brains Part 1: Large-Scale Brain Simulations. Neurocomputing, Dec 2010 
- Goertzel, Ben, Lucio Coelho, Mauricio Mudado and Cassio Pennachin (2010). Classifier Ensemble Based Analysis of a Genome-Wide SNP Dataset Concerning Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease. International Journal of System Science and Cognitive Informatics.  
- Duong, Deborah, Nicholas Stone, Ben Goertzel, and Jim Venuto. “Indra: Emergent Ontologies from Text for Feeding Data to Simulations.” Spring Simulation Interoperability Workshop, Orlando, April 12–16, 2010 
- Baum, Seth D., Ben Goertzel, and Ted G. Goertzel. "How long until human-level AI? Results from an expert assessment". Technological Forecasting & Social Change, forthcoming, DOI 10.1016/j.techfore.2010.09.006. 
- Goertzel, Ben and Pennachin, Cassio. The Collective Pet Unconscious: Balancing Intelligence and Individuality in Populations of Learning-Enabled Virtual Pets, The Reign of Catz and Dogz Symposium, ACM-CHI, Boston, 2009 
- Goertzel, Ben. OpenCogPrime: A Cognitive Synergy Based Architecture for General Intelligence. International Conference on Cognitive Informatics, Hong Kong, 2009 
- Goertzel, Ben. Cognitive Synergy: A Universal Principle for General Intelligence?, International Conference on Cognitive Informatics, Hong Kong, 2009 
- Goertzel, Ben. The Embodied Communication Prior: A Characterization of General Intelligence in the Context of Embodied Social Interaction. International Conference on Cognitive Informatics, Hong Kong, 2009 
- Goertzel, Ben, Lucio Coelho, Mauricio Mudado and Cassio Pennachin. Classifier Ensemble Based Analysis of a Genome-wide SNP Dataset Concerning Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease. International Conference on Cognitive Informatics, Hong Kong, 2009  
- Goertzel, Ben. All Things Are Conscious, But Some Things Are More Conscious Than Others: A Panpsychist Approach to Quantifying Intensity of Consciousness in Natural and Engineered Systems. Machine Consciousness Workshop, Toward a Science of Consciousness, Hong Kong, 2009
- Goertzel, Ben and Stephan Vladimir Bugaj. AGI Preschool: A Framework for Evaluating Early-Stage Human-like AGIs. Proceedings of the Second Conference on Artificial General Intelligence, Atlantis Press. 
- Ikle, Matthew, Joel Pitt, Ben Goertzel and George Sellman. Economic Attention Networks: Associative Memory and Resource Allocation for General Intelligence. Proceedings of the Second Conference on Artificial General Intelligence, Atlantis Press. 
- Looks, Moshe and Ben Goertzel. Program Representation for General Intelligence. Proceedings of the Second Conference on Artificial General Intelligence, Atlantis Press. 
- Goertzel, Ben. OpenCog NS: A Deeply-Connected, Hybrid Neural-Symbolic Architecture, Proceedings of BICA-2010, Alexandria VA 
- De Garis, Hugo and Ben Goertzel. The First Conference on Artificial General Intelligence. AI Magazine 30–1, p. 121 
- Goertzel, Ben, Lucio Coelho and Cassio Pennachin. Identifying Potential Biomarkers for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome via Classification Model Ensemble Mining. in Methods of Micorarray Data Analysis VI, edited by McConnell, P, Lim, S., and A.J. Cuticchia. Scotts Valley, California: CreateSpace Publishing, 2009). 
- Goertzel, Ben. Mirror Man: a speculative case study of the synergetic potential of data visualization and virtual worlds. In Working Through Synthetic Worlds, Ed. By Cap Smith, Kenneth Kisiel and Jeffrey Morrisson, Ashgate Press 
- Wang, Yingxu, et al. [incl. Ben Goertzel]. Perspectives on Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computing. International Conference on Cognitive Informatics, Hong Kong, 2009 and Journal of Cognitive Informatics 4–1 
- Goertzel, Ben, Lucio Souza, Mauricio Mudado and Cassio Pennachin . Identifying the Genes and Genetic Interrelationships Underlying the Impact of Calorie Restriction on Maximum Lifespan: An Artificial Intelligence Based Approach. Rejuvenation Research 
- Goertzel, Ben; Aam, O.; Smith, F.T.; Palmer, K. Mirror Neurons, Mirrorhouses, and the Algebraic Structure of the Self. Cybernetics & Human Knowing, Volume 15, Number 1, 2008, pp. 9–28(20) 
- Goertzel, Ben and Hugo de Garis. XIA-MAN: An Integrative, Extensible Architecture for Intelligent Humanoid Robotics. AAAI Symposium on Biologically-Inspired Cognitive Architectures, Washington DC, November 2008 
- Goertzel, Ben . A Pragmatic Path Toward Endowing Virtually-Embodied AIs with Human-Level Linguistic Capability, Special Session on Human-Level Intelligence, IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence (WCCI) Hong Kong, 2008 
- Goertzel, Ben and Pennachin, Cassio . An Inferential Dynamics Approach to Personality and Emotion Driven Behavior Determination for Virtual Animals. The Reign of Catz and Dogz Symposium, AI and the Simulation of Behavior (AISB), Edinburgh, 2008 
- Goertzel, Ben, Cassio Pennachin, Nil Geissweiller, Moshe Looks, Andre Senna, Ari Heljakka, Welter Silva, Carlos Lopes . An Integrative Methodology for Teaching Embodied Non-Linguistic Agents, Applied to Virtual Animals in Second Life, in Proceedings of the First AGI Conference, Ed. Wang et al., IOS Press 
- Goertzel, Ben and Stephan Vladimir Bugaj. Stages of Ethical Development in Artificial General Intelligence Systems, in Proceedings of the First AGI Conference, Ed. Wang et al., IOS Press 
- Ikle’, Matthew and Ben Goertzel . Probabilistic Quantifier Logic for General Intelligence: An Indefinite Probabilities Approach, in Proceedings of the First AGI Conference, Ed. Wang et al., IOS Press 
- Hart, David and Ben Goertzel. OpenCog: A Software Framework for Integrative Artificial General Intelligence, in Proceedings of the First AGI Conference, Ed. Wang et al., IOS Press 
- Pennachin, Cassio and Ben Goertzel. How Might Probabilistic Reasoning Emerge from the Brain?, in Proceedings of the First AGI Conference, Ed. Wang et al., IOS Press 
- Goertzel, Ben. Human-level artificial general intelligence and the possibility of a technological singularity. Artificial Intelligence 171–18 
- Goertzel, Ben, Cassio Pennachin, Lucio Coelho, Leonardo Shikida, Murilo Queiroz. Biomind ArrayGenius and GeneGenius: Web Services Offering Microarray and SNP Data Analysis via Novel Machine Learning Methods. In Proceedings of IAAI 2007, Vancouver CA, July 2007 
- Goertzel, Ted and Benjamin Goertzel, "Soziologische Wirklichkeit und ihre ökonometrische Verzerrung – Sociological Realities and Econometric Distortions." Pages 417-–452 in Wolfgang Koschnick, editor. Focus-Jahrbuch 2007 – Schwerpunkt: Neuroökonomie, Neuromarketing und Neuromarktforschung. Mit weiteren Beiträgen über Messen und Befragen, Treiberanalysen, ökonometrisches Modeling und Verkehrsmittelwerbung. Munich, Germany: Focus Magazin Verlag GmbH, 2007. 
- Looks, Moshe, Ben Goertzel, Lucio de Souza Coelho, Mauricio Mudado, and Cassio Pennachin, “Clustering Gene Expression Data via Mining Ensembles of Classification Rules Evolved Using MOSES”, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation COnference (GECCO), 2007. 
- Looks, Moshe, Ben Goertzel, Lucio de Souza Coelho, Mauricio Mudado, and Cassio Pennachin, “Understanding Microarray Data through Applying Competent Program Evolution”, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation COnference (GECCO), 2007 
- Ikle’, Matt and Ben Goertzel. Indefinite Probabilities for General Intelligence, in Advances in Artificial General Intelligence, IOS Press.
- Goertzel, Ben. Virtual Easter Egg Hunting: A Thought-Experiment in Embodied Social Learning, Cognitive Process Integration, and the Dynamic Emergence of the Self, in Advances in Artificial General Intelligence, IOS Press.
- Heljakka, Ari, Ben Goertzel, Welter Silva, Izabela Goertzel and Cassio Pennachin. Reinforcement Learning of Simple Behaviors in a Simulation World Using Probabilistic Logic, in Advances in Artificial General Intelligence, IOS Press.
- Goertzel, Ben and Stephan Bugaj (2006). Stages of Cognitive Development in Uncertain-Logic-Based AI Systems.iin Advances in Artificial General Intelligence, IOS Press. 
- Goertzel, Ben, Cassio Pennachin, Lucio Coelho and Mauricio Mudado. Application of MUTIC to the Exploration of Gene Expression Data on Prostate Cancer. Genet. Mol. Res. 6 (4): 890–900 (2007)
- Goertzel, Ben, Ari Heljakka, CassProbabilistic Logic Based Reinforcement Learning of Simple Embodied Behaviors in a 3D Simulation World, Welter Silva, Cassio Pennachin, Andre Senna, Izabela Goertzel, Teemu Keinonen, Matthew Ikle’, Sanjay Padmane, Proceedings of International Symposium on Intelligence Computation and Applications (ISICA) 2007 
- Goertzel, Ben, and Matthew Ikle’. Assessing the Weight of Evidence Implicit in an Indefinite Probability. Proceedings of International Symposium on Intelligence Computation and Applications (ISICA) 2007
- Goertzel, Ben, Cassio Pennachin, Lucio Coelho, Brian Gurbaxani, Elizabeth B. Maloney, James F. Jones (2006). Combinations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in neuroendocrine effector and receptor genes are predictive of chronic fatigue syndrome, Pharmacogenomics 
- Pennachin, Cassio, Ben Goertzel Lucio Coelho, Izabela Freire Goertzel, Murilo Queiroz, Francisco Prosdocimi, Francisco Lobo (2006). Learning Comprehensible Classification Rules from Gene Expression Data Using Genetic Programming and Biological Ontologies, Proceedings of CIBB 2006, Genova, Italy
- Maloney, Elizabeth M. Maloney, Brian M. Gurbaxani, James F. Jones, Lucio de Souza Coelho, Cassio Pennachin, Benjamin N. Goertzel (2006). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is Associated with High Allostatic Load, Pharmacogenomics
- Goertzel, Ben, Cassio Pennachin, Lucio de Souza Coelho, Elizabeth B. Maloney, James F. Jones, Brian Gurbaxani (2006). Allostatic Load is Associated with Symptoms in CFS Patients, Pharmacogenomics 
- Gurbaxani, Brian, James F. Jones, Benjamin N. Goertzel, Elizabeth M. Maloney (2006). Linear Data Mining the Wichita Clinical Matrix Suggests Sleep and Allostatic Load Involvement in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Pharmacogenomics 
- Looks, Moshe and Ben Goertzel (2006). Mixing Cognitive Science Concepts with Computer Science Algorithms and Data Structures: An Integrative Approach to Strong AI, AAAI Spring Symposium, Cognitive Science Principles Meet AI-Hard Problems, San Francisco 2006  
- Goertzel, Ben, Moshe Looks, Ari Heljakka, and Cassio Pennachin (2006). Toward a Pragmatic Understanding of the Cognitive Underpinnings of Symbol Grounding, in Semiotics and Intelligent Systems Development, Edited by Ricardo Gudwin and João Queiroz, Eds., 2006 
- Duong, Deborah, Ben Goertzel and Jim Venuto (2006). Support Vector Machines to Weight Voters in a Voting System of Entity Extractors. Proceedings of International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IJCNN 2006, Vancouver CA 
- Goertzel, Ben and Jim Venuto (2006). Accurate SVM Text Classification for Highly Skewed Data Using Threshold Tuning and Query-Expansion-Based Feature Selection. Proceedings of International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IJCNN 2006, Vancouver CA 
- Goertzel, Ben (2006). Patterns, Hypergraphs and General Intelligence. Proceedings of International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IJCNN 2006, Vancouver CA 
- Goertzel, Ben, Lucio Coelho, Cassio Pennachin and Mauricio Mudada (2006). Identifying Complex Biological Interactions based on Categorical Gene Expression Data. Proceedings of Conference on Evolutionary Computing 2006, Vancouver CA 12. Goertzel, Ben, Hugo Pinto, Ari Heljakka, Michael Ross, Izabela Goertzel, Cassio Pennachin. Using Dependency Parsing and Probabilistic Inference to Extract Gene/Protein Interactions Implicit in the Combination of Multiple Biomedical Research Abstracts, Proceedings of BioNLP- 2006 Workshop at ACL-2006, New York  
- Queiroz, Murilo, Francisco Prosdocimi, Izabela Freire Goertzel, Francisco Pereira Lobo, Cassio Pennachin, Ben Goertzel. Inferring Gene Ontology Category Membership via Gene Expression and Sequence Similarity Data Analysis. Proceedings of KR-Med 2006: Biological Ontologies in Action 
- Goertzel, Ben, Cassio Pennachin, Lúcio de Souza Coelho and Maurício de Alvarenga Mudado(2006). Identifying Complex Biological Interactions based on Classification of Gene Expression Data. 14th ISMB – 2006 (http://ismb2006.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br/), August 10, 2006, in a simultaneous co-event – the 2nd AB3C X-Meeting (Associação Brasileira de Bioinformática e Biologia Computacional – Brazilian Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Association).
- Goertzel, Ted and Ben Goertzel (2006). Capital Punishment and Homicide Rates: Sociological Realities and Econometric Distortions, Critical Sociology 
- Goertzel, Ted and Ben Goertzel, Popper, Lakatos and the Death Penalty (2006), in Esperando a Godot (Buenos Aires) 17. Goertzel, Ben, Ari Heljakka, Stephan Vladimir Bugaj, Cassio Pennachin, Moshe Looks, Exploring Android Developmental Psychology in a Simulation World, Symposium “Toward Social Mechanisms of Android Science”, Proceedings of ICCS/CogSci 2006, Vancouver 
- Smigrodzki, Rafal, Ben Goertzel, Cassio Pennachin, Lucio Coelho, Francisco Prosdocimi, W. Davis Parker Jr. (2005). Genetic algorithm for analysis of mutations in Parkinson's disease. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 35 (3):227–41. 
- Looks, Moshe, Ben Goertzel, and Cassio Pennachin, Learning Computer Programs with the Bayesian Optimization Algorithm, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO),  
- Goertzel, Ben (2005). Levels of mind versus levels of being, Cortex Vol. 41, No. 5, pp. 727–731)
- oertzel, Ben (2005). Quantum Cognition: Foreseeing the Emergence of a Fundamentally Novel Form of Intelligence from Quantum Computing Technology. In Mind Factory, edited by Louis Armand, Litteraria Pragensia 2004
- Goertzel, Ben, Moshe Looks and Cassio Pennachin (2004). Novamente: An Integrative Architecture for Artificial General Intelligence. Proceedings of AAAI Symposium on Achieving Human-Level Intelligence through Integrated Systems and Research, Washington DC, August 2004 
- Goertzel, Ben, Cassio Pennachin, Andre Senna, Thiago Maia and Guilherme Lamacie (2003). Novamente: An Integrative Architecture for Artificial General Intelligence. Proceedings of IJCAI-03 Workshop on Agents and Cognitive Modeling, Acapulco, August 2003 
- Goertzel, Ben (2003). Chance and Consciousness. In Mind in Time, Ed. by Combs et al. NY: Hampden Press 
- Goertzel, Ben (2003). On the Algebraic Structure of Consciousness. In Mind in Time, Ed. by Combs et al. NY: Hampden Press 
- Goertzel, Ben (2003). Does Time Move Forward? In Mind in Time, Ed. by Combs et al. NY: Hampden Press 
- Goertzel, Ben (2001). Neural Networks: The Promise and the Reality, Future (German language magazine)
- Pressing, J., Goertzel, B., Wood, T. & Pazer, L. (2000). Enhanced market prediction using textual analysis: Limitations in the efficient market hypothesis. Proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Investment Technology 1999, Bond University.
- Ben Goertzel, Ken Silverman, Cate Hartley, Stephan Bugaj, Mike Ross (2000). The Baby Webmind Project, Proceedings of AISB 2000, the annual conference of The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour 
- Goertzel, Ben and Stephan Bugaj (2000). WebWorld. A conceptual and software framework for Internet Alife. Proceedings of VII International conference on Artificial Life, Portland OR 
- Goertzel, Ben, Yuri V. Macklakov, Vladimir C. Redko (2000). A Model of the Evolution of Web Agents. Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences
- Goertzel, Ben (1998). Symbolic Dynamics in Complex Psychological Systems, in Models of Action, Edited by Wynne and Stadden, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah: N.J.
- Goertzel, Ben (1998). Meaning is a Fuzzy Web of Patterns. In Proceedings of the 1998 Joint Conferences: Intelligent Control, International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation, Intelligent Systems and Semiotics (ISIC/CIRA/ISAS 98) 
- Goertzel, Ben (1997). The Complex Mind/Brain—II. A Theory of Cortical Dynamics, Complexity
- Goertzel, Ben, Harold Bowman and Malwane Ananda (1996). Second-Order Evolution. Journal of Biological Systems
- Goertzel, Ben (1997). Chaos and Pattern in Complex Systems. In Chaos in Society, Edited by Albert et al., IOS Press
- Goertzel, Ben (1997). The Complex Mind/Brain—I. The Psynet Model of Mental Structure and Dynamics, Complexity 
- Goertzel, Ben (1997). Dream Dynamics: A Process Perspective. In Noetic Journal, Special issue on Mind as a Complex System
- Goertzel, Ben (1997). Faces of Complexity in Psychology. In Noetic Journal, Special issue on Mind as a Complex System 
- Goertzel, Ben and Mike Kalish (1997). Mindspace Curvature. In Noetic Journal, Special issue on Mind as a Complex System
- Goertzel, B. (1997). Subself dynamics in human and machine intelligence, CC-AI (Communication and Cognition – Artificial Intelligence)
- Goertzel, Ben and Harold Bowman (1996). Walks on Random Digraphs, Applied Mathematics Letters, 9-1, pp. 43–47 
- Goertzel, Ben (1996). Mobile Activation Bubbles in Kohonen Networks, Applied Mathematics Letters. 
- Goertzel, Ben (1996). Artificial Selfhood—the Path to True Artificial Intelligence, Informatica 
- Goertzel, Ben (1996). Belief Systems as Attractors, in A Chaos Psychology Reader, Ed. by Combs and Robertson. Hilldale NJ: Erlbaum
- Goertzel, Ben (1996). A Cognitive Equation, in A Chaos Psychology Reader, Ed. by Combs and Robertson. Hilldale NJ: Erlbaum
- Goertzel, Ben (1996). Musical Psychology and the Aesthetics of Computer Music. Journal of ElectroAcoustic Music.
- Goertzel, Ben (1995). Rapid Generation of Chaotic Attractors with the Eugenic Genetic Algorithm, Computers and Graphics 19-1, p. 151  2. Goertzel, Ben (1995). The Convergence Rate of the Simple GA as Population Size Tends to Infinity, Proceedings of ICEC 1995
- Goertzel, Ben and Harold Bowman (1995). Self-Reference, Computation and Mind, J. Soc. and Ev. Sys, 18-1, p. 95
- Goertzel, Ben (1995). Evolutionary and Chaotic Dynamics in Minds and Immune Systems, in Chaos and Psychology, Edited by Fred Abraham and Roger Gilgen, New York: Greenwood Press
- Goertzel, Ted and Ben Goertzel (1995). The Dynamics of Belief in the Anita Hill/Clarence Thomas Trial, in Chaos and Society, Ed. by Pierre Lemiux
- Goertzel, Ben and Gwen Goertzel (1995). The Markovian Language Algorithm: Toward a Neural Network Architecture for Grammar Induction, Proceedings of ANZIIS 1995
- Goertzel, Ben and Gwen Goertzel (1995) Language as a Biological System. ASSA Journal of System Science 3
- Goertzel, Ben (1994). Lagrange Interpolation on a Processor Tree with Ring Connections, J. of Parallel and Distributed Computation 22-2, p. 321 
- Goertzel, Ben (1994). Simulated Annealing on Uncorrelated Fitness Landscapes, Int. J. Math. and Math. Sci. 17-4, p. 791
- Karabekian, Moses and Ben Goertzel (1995). Discriminant Analysis of Hydrocollapse in Las Vegas Soils, Civil Engineering Systems 
- Goertzel, Ben, Hiroo Miyamoto and Yoshimasa Awata (1994). Fractal Image Compression with the Genetic Algorithm, Complexity International 
- Goertzel, Ben (1994). Evolving Fractal Industrial Music, Proceedings of SYNAESTHETICA94 Conference on Computer Animation and Computer Music, Canberra: Australian Centre for Arts and Technology
- Goertzel, Ben (1994). The Software Market as a Self- Organizing System, J. Soc. and Ev. Sys. 17-1, p. 9
- Goertzel, Ben (1993). Brain Function as Evolution, J. Soc. and Ev. Sys. 15-4, p. 399
- Goertzel, Ben (1993). Some Thoughts on Akin's Spiteful Computer, Minds and Machines 4-1, p. 75 
- Goertzel, Ben (1993). Psychology and Logic, J. Soc. and Ev. Sys. 16-4, p. 439 4. Goertzel, Ben (1993). Phase Transitions in Associative Memory Networks, Minds and Machines 3-3, p. 313 
- Goertzel, Ben (1993). Self-Reference and Complexity: Component-Systems and Self-Generating Systems in Biology and Cognitive Science, Evolution and Cognition 2, p. 257
- Goertzel, Ben, Harold Bowman and Richard Baker (1993). Dynamics of the Radix Expansion Map, J. Math. and Math. Sci. 17-1, p. 143 
- Goertzel, Ben (1992) Self-organizing Evolution, J. Social and Evolutionary Systems 15-1, p. 7
- Goertzel, Ben (1992). What is Hierarchical Selection?, Biology and Philosophy 7-1, p. 27 
- Goertzel, Ben (1992). Measuring Static Complexity, Int. J. Math. and Math. Sci. 15-1, p. 161 
- Goertzel, Ben (1992) Quantum Theory and Consciousness, J. of Mind and Behavior 13-1, p. 29
- Goertzel, Ben (1992). Structural Complexity of Sequences, Images and Automata, in Finite Fields, Coding, and Advances in Communication and Computing, ed. Shiue and Mullen, Marcel Dekker, p. 307 6. Goertzel, Ben (1992). Global Optimization by Multilevel Search, J. of Optimization Theory and Applications 77-2, p. 423 
- Goertzel, Ben (1991). Expression and Simulation in the Rock Guitar Solo, Popular Music and Society 
- "The Singularity Institute's Scary Idea (and Why I Don't Buy It)", The Multiverse According to Ben, 29 October 2010
- Pauling's Prizes, The New York Times, 5 November 1995
- Goertzel, Benjamin (1985). Nonclassical Arithmetics and Calculi. Simon's Rock of Bard College.
- "Mathematician Sees The Mind as a Model For Company Intranets", The Wall Street Journal, 22 May 1998
- Can a computer program figure out the market? A former analyst and a mathematician are betting that theirs can, The New York Times, 8 February 1999
- Google Tech Talk by Ben Goertzel, 30 May 2007
- "Online worlds to be AI incubators", BBC News, 13 September 2007
- "Virtual worlds making artificial intelligence apps 'smarter'", Computerworld, 13 September 2007
- "Patterns, Hypergraphs and Embodied General Intelligence", Ben Goertzel, WCCI Panel Discussion: "A Roadmap to Human-Level Intelligence", July 2006
- The Future and You, 13 August 2008
- "The Singularity: A Documentary by Doug Wolens". Ieet.org. Retrieved 2013-10-22.
- "Pondering Our Cyborg Future in a Documentary About the Singularity - Kasia Cieplak-Mayr von Baldegg". The Atlantic. 2013-01-08. Retrieved 2013-10-22.
- Ted George Goertzel: Rutger's vita. Retrieved 2010-12-29.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ben Goertzel.|
- Ben Goertzel's web site and blog
- Ben Goertzel's Machines Like Us interview
- Artificial Intelligence and Human Immortality, video of Ben Goertzel presentation at the Immortality Institute conference, 17 May 2006
- Google Tech Talk by Ben Goertzel, 30 May 2007
- Interview of Ben Goertzel, by the Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence
- Nine Years to a Positive Singularity – If We Really, Really Try. Speech given by Ben Goertzel at the Singularity Summit in September 2007
- Using Virtual Agents and Physical Robots for AGI Research. A Talk given by Ben Goertzel at The Third Conference on Artificial General Intelligence in March 2010 in Lugano Switzerland
- A General Intelligence Oriented Architecture for Embodied Natural Language Processing. A Talk given by Ben Goertzel at The Third Conference on Artificial General Intelligence in March 2010 in Lugano Switzerland
- Video interview with Ben Goertzel. Ben was interviewed during May 2011 about AGI, open cog and new book 'Building Better Minds'