Betsy Ross

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"Elizabeth Claypoole" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Elizabeth Claypole.
For other people named Betsy Ross, see Betsy Ross (disambiguation).
Betsy Ross presenting the first American flag to General George Washington, by Edward Percy Moran.

"Betsy Ross" (January 1, 1752 – January 30, 1836), born "Elizabeth Phoebe Griscom" [1] and was also later known by her second and third married names: "Elizabeth Ashburn" and "Elizabeth Claypoole",[2] is widely credited with making the first American flag purportedly in 1776, according to family tradition, upon a visit from General George Washington, commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and changing the shape of the stars described on the flag from six-pointed to easier-to-produce five-pointed stars.[3][4][5] However, there is no archival evidence or other verbal traditions that this story or "legend" of the first American flag is true and supposedly the story first surfaced in the early 1870s by the description of her descendents, (a grandson), a century later with no mention being made of documented anywhere in earlier decades.[6]

Beginning[edit]

Betsy Ross was born to parents, Samuel Griscom, (1717-1793), and Rebecca James Griscom, (1721-1793), in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on January 1, 1752, the eighth of seventeen children, but only Betsy and eight of her siblings survived childhood. Two younger siblings, sister Sarah, (1745-1747) and brother William, (1748-1749), died before Elizabeth ("Betsy") was born (another younger sister, Sarah Griscom Donaldson (1749-1785), was named after the earlier deceased Sarah). Betsy was just five years old when her elder sister, Martha, (1754-1757), died, and another sister, Ann, (1757-1759), only lived to the age of 2. Betsy also lost elder brothers Samuel I,(1753-1756), and Samuel II, (1758-1761), who both died at the age of three. Two others, twins - brother Joseph, (1759-1762), and sister Abigail, (1759-1762), died of the one of the frequent smallpox epidemics then sweeping through the city in the autumn of 1762.[7][8] She grew up in a household where the plain dress and strict discipline of the Society of Friends dominated her life.[9] She learned to sew from her great-aunt Sarah Elizabeth Ann Griscom.[9] Her great-grandfather, Andrew Griscom, a member of the Religious Society of Friends, (Quakers, was a carpenter, who emigrated in 1680 from England.[8]

After she finished her schooling at a Quaker-run public school, her father apprenticed her to an upholsterer named William Webster.[10] At this job, she fell in love with fellow apprentice John Ross, who was the son of the Rev. Aeneas Ross (and his wife Sarah Leach), an Anglican/Church of England (later Episcopal Church) priest and assistant rector at the historic city parish of Christ Church. The young couple eloped in 1773 when she was age 21, getting married at Hugg's Tavern in Gloucester City, New Jersey.[11] The marriage caused a split from her Griscom family and meant her expulsion from the Friends (Quaker) congregation. The young couple soon started their own upholstery business and later joined Christ Church, of the Church of England, where their fellow congregants occasionally included visiting Virginia colonial militia regimental commander, Colonel, and soon-to-be-General George Washington (of the newly organized Continental Army) and his family from their home Anglican parish of Christ Church in Alexandria, Virginia, near his river-front Mount Vernon estate on the Potomac River, along with many other visiting notaries and delegates in future years to the soon-to-be-convened Continental Congress and the political/military leadership of the colonial rebellion.[8] Betsy and John Ross had no children.[8][12]

The War[edit]

The American Revolutionary War broke out when the two young Rosses had been married for only two years. As a member of the local Pennsylvania Provincial Militia and its units from the city of Philadelphia, John Ross was assigned to guard munitions and, according to one legend, was killed by a gunpowder explosion, but family sources have doubts about this claim.[13] The 24-year-old Elizabeth ("Betsy") continued working in the upholstery business repairing uniforms and making tents and blankets and stuffed paper tube cartridges with musket balls for prepared packaged ammunition in 1779 for the Continental Army.[14]

There is speculation that Betsy was the "beautiful young widow," who distracted Carl von Donop in Mount Holly, New Jersey, after the Battle of Iron Works Hill, thus keeping his forces out of the crucial "turning-of-the-tide" Battle of Trenton during Christmas, 1776, annilating the mercenary "Hessians" after the famous crossing of the Delaware River.[15]

On June 15, 1777, she married her second husband, marinner Joseph Ashburn. In 1780, Ashburn's ship was captured by a British Royal Navy frigate and he was charged with treason (for being of British ancestry and "naturalized" American colonial citizenship was not recognized) and imprisoned at Old Mill Prison, in England. During this time, their first daughter, Zilla, died at the age of nine months and their second daughter, Eliza, was born.[8] Unfortunately, seaman Ashburn died in the British jail.[8]

Three years later, in May 1783, she married John Claypoole, who had coincidentally earlier met Joseph Ashburn in the English Old Mill Prison and had informed her of her husband's circumstances and death. The new couple had additionally five daughters: Clarissa, Susanna, Jane, Rachel, and Harriet, (who died in infancy). With the birth of their second daughter Susanna, they moved to a larger house on Philadelphia's Second Street, settling down to a peaceful post-war existence, as Philadelphia prospered, now becoming the temporary National Capital, (1790-1800) of the newly independent United States of America, with the first President George Washington, his Vice President, John Adams, and the convening members of the new Federal Government and the U.S. Congress. In 1793, her mother, father, and her sister Deborah Griscom Bolton (1743-1793) have all died in another severe "yellow fever" epidemic (a disease unknowingly caused by infected mosquitoes that back then in those times still ranged further north from the sub-tropical zones of the southern U.S.). After two decades of poor health, husband and father Claypoole died in 1817. Mrs. Claypoole (the former Mrs. Ross), continued the upholstery business for 10 more years.[9] Upon retirement, she moved in with her second Claypoole daughter, Susanna, (1786-1875), to a section of Abington Township in then rural Montgomery County, outside of Philadelphia.[16] Her eldest Claypoole daughter, Clarissa, (1785-1864), had taken over Betsy's business back in the city.

Ross (Mrs. Claypoole), by then completely blind, spent her last three years living with her middle Claypoole daughter, Jane, (1792-1873), in rapidly growing and industrializing Philadelphia. On Saturday, January 30, 1836, sixty years after the "Declaration of Independence", "Betsy Ross" died at the age of 84. She was survived then by five daughters from John Claypoole: Eliza, Clarissa, Susanna, Jane, and Rachel, and one sister, Hannah Griscom Levering (1755-1836), who herself died about eleven months later.[17]

Although it is one of the most visited tourist sites in the city of Philadelphia,[18] the claim that Ross once lived at the so-called "Betsy Ross House" is still a matter of historical academic dispute.[19]

Burials[edit]

Betsy Ross's body was first buried at the "Free Quaker" burial grounds on North Fifth Street in Philadelphia. Twenty years later, her remains were exhumed and reburied in the Mt. Moriah Cemetery in the Cobbs Creek Park section of Philadelphia. In preparation for the American Biccentennial, in1976, the City ordered the remains moved to the courtyard of the now legendary "Betsy Ross House" in 1975; however, cemetery workers found no remains under her tombstone. Bones found elsewhere in the Mt. Moriah Cemetery family plot were deemed to be hers and were re-interred in the current grave visited by tourists at the historic/tourist site of the "Betsy Ross House".

Betsy Ross postage stamp[edit]

Betsy Ross 200th Anniversary commemorative stamp, issued in 1952[20]

On January 1, 1952, the U.S. Post Office issued a commemorative postage stamp to honor the 200th Anniversary/Biccentennial of her birth. It shows her presenting the new 13-striped, 13-starred flag to George Washington, with Robert Morris, and George Ross aside. The design was taken from a painting by Charles H. Weisberger, one of the founders and first secretary of the Memorial Association, who has cared for and operated the so-called Ross House. This was issued when the "Ross Legend" was still strong and accepted by many of the American public before additional historical and academic scrutiny had been done and researched.[20]

Memory and legend[edit]

See also: Betsy Ross flag

Research conducted by the National Museum of American History of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. (opened on the National Mall in 1964), notes that the story of "Betsy Ross" making the first American flag for General George Washington entered into American consciousness about the time of the 1876 Centennial celebrations, with the premier Centennial Exposition then scheduled to be held in Philadelphia.[21] In 1870, Ross's grandson, William J. Canby, presented a research historical paper to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania in which he claimed that his grandmother had "made with her hands the first flag" of the United States.[22] Mr. Canby said he first obtained this information from his aunt Clarissa Sydney (Claypoole) Wilson in 1857, twenty years after Betsy Ross's death. Canby dates the historic episode based on General Washington's journey to Philadelphia, in the late spring 1776, a year before the Second Continental Congress passed the first Flag Act of June 14th, 1777.[23]

In the 2008 book "The Star-Spangled Banner: The Making of an American Icon", Smithsonian Institution experts point out that Canby's recounting of the event appealed to patriotic Americans then eager for stories about the Revolution and its heroes and heroines. Betsy Ross was promoted as a patriotic role model for young girls and a symbol of women's contributions to American history.[24] American Historian Laurel Thatcher Ulrich further explored this line of enquiry in a 2007 article, "How Betsy Ross Became Famous: Oral Tradition, Nationalism, and the Invention of History."[12] Ross biographer Marla Miller ("Betsy Ross and the Making of America", published 2010) points out, however, that even if one accepts Canby's presentation,

Betsy Ross was merely one of several flag makers in Philadelphia, (such as Rebecca Flower Young, who is historically documented to have made the earlier "Grand Union Flag" of 1775-1776, with the British "Union Jack" of crosses of Sts. George and Andrew, in the upper corner canton and thirteen red and white alternating striped for the "United Colonies") for the Continental Army, along with many other ships' colors, banners and flags which were advertised in local newspapers.

Her later daughter Mary Young Pickersgill, (1776-1857), made the famous "Star Spangled Banner" of 15 stars and stripes in 1813 begun at her house and finished on the floor of a nearby brewery, delivered to the commander of the Fort the year before the famous British attack of September 12-13-14, 1814, on Fort McHenry in Baltimore, during the War of 1812, (receiving a government-issued receipt for the work of two flags, a large 30 by 42 foot "garrison flag" and a smaller "storm flag"), then seen by Francis Scott Key, (1779-1843), and which inspired him to write the poem which later became the National Anthem, the "Star-Spangled Banner". Pickersgill's small 1793 rowhouse in still preserved in East Baltimore's Old Town neighborhood at East Pratt and Albemarle Streets and is known as the ""Star-Spangled Banner Flag House". Occasionally over the decades, there has been some controversy and disagreement between the relative merits and historical accuracies of the two flag-making traditions and historical sites in Philadelphia and Baltimore. It is thought that Ross's only contribution to the flag design was to change the 6-pointed stars to the easier 5-pointed stars.[3] Other historians accept the subsequent claim by Francis Hopkinson, a member of the Continental Congress who also designed the "Great Seal of the United States" as having proposed designs used for the early American flag.

Despite the accuracy or not of the historical legend, the Betsy Ross Bridge, connecting Philadelphia with Pennsauken, New Jersey, over the Delaware River is named in her honor.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Story of Our Flag...", 2nd Edition by Addie Guthrie Weaver, A.G.Weaver, pub. 1898, page 73
  2. ^ "The Story of Our Flag...", 2nd Edition by Addie Guthrie Weaver, A.G.Weaver, 1898, page 73
  3. ^ a b Miller, 176
  4. ^ Gene Langley, "The legend and truth of Betsy Ross" The Christian Science Monitor 94.141 (6/14/2002): 22.
  5. ^ Lucinda Snyder Whitehurst, "Review of "The Life and Times of Betsy Ross" and "The Life and Times of Nathan Hale"," "School Library Journal", vol. 53.7 (July 2007).
  6. ^ Marc Leepson, "Five myths about the American flag", "The Washington Post", June 12, 2011, p. B2.
  7. ^ Marla Miller, Betsy Ross and the Making of America, pg 45.
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Betsy Ross: Her Life". ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association. Retrieved 17 October 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c William C. Kashatus, "Seamstress for a Revolution," in "American History", vol. 37.3, (August 2002).
  10. ^ Kashatus, William C. ushistory.org, June 2005, "Seamstress for a Revolution". Accessed 2 February 2010.
  11. ^ Betsy Ross at History Resource Center, by George H. Genzmer. Website accessed 1 June 2009
  12. ^ a b http://common-place.org/vol-08/no-01/ulrich
  13. ^ Marla Miller, Betsy Ross and the Making of America, pg 151-152
  14. ^ Laurel Thatcher Ulrich (May 7, 2010). "Book Review — Betsy Ross and the Making of America — By Marla R. Miller — NYTimes.com". The New York Times. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  15. ^ Fischer, David Hackett (2004). "Washington's Crossing". New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517034-2. 
  16. ^ "Betsy Ross Lived in Abington," Rydal-Meadowbrook Civic Association
  17. ^ Miller, Marla R. "Betsy Ross and the Making of America", p 342. Macmillan, pub. 2010.
  18. ^ Andrew Carr, "The Betsy Ross House," "American History", vol. 37.3, (August 2002): 23.
  19. ^ "Was This Her House?" at UShistory.org.
  20. ^ a b Smithsonian National Postal Museum
  21. ^ "The Star-Spangled Banner", by Lonn Taylor, Kathleen M. Kendrick, and Jeffrey L Brodie, Smithsonian Books/Collins Publishing (New York: 2008)
  22. ^ Buescher, John. "All Wrapped up in the Flag" Teachinghistory.org, accessed August 21, 2011.
  23. ^ "The History of the Flag of the United States" by William Canby
  24. ^ What About Betsy Ross, pp.68–69

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Chanko, Pamela. Easy Reader Biographies: Betsy Ross: The Story of Our Flag (Easy Reader Biographies). 2007.
  • Cohon, Rhody, Stacia Deutsch, and Guy Francis. Betsy Ross' Star (Blast to the Past). 2007.
  • Cox, Vicki. Betsy Ross: A Flag For A Brand New Nation (Leaders of the American Revolution). 2005.
  • Harker, John B. and Museum Images & Exhibits. Betsy Ross's Five Pointed Star. 2005.
  • Harkins, Susan Sales and William H. Harkins. Betsy Ross (Profiles in American History) (Profiles in American History). 2006.
  • Leepson,Marc. Flag: An American Biography (Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press, 2005).
  • Loewen, James W., Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. 1995
  • Mader, Jan. Betsy Ross (First Biographies). 2007.
  • Mara, Wil. Betsy Ross (Rookie Biographies). 2006.
  • Miller, Marla R. (2010). Betsy Ross and the Making of America. New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC. ISBN 978-0-8050-8297-5. 

External links[edit]