Billabong (//, BIL-ə-bong) is a Wiradjuri word that is used for an isolated pond that is left behind after a river changes course. Billabongs are usually formed when the path of a creek or river changes, leaving the former branch with a dead end. Billabongs are called oxbow lakes in other parts of the world. Billabongs, reflecting the arid Australian climate in which these "dead rivers" are found, fill with water seasonally and are dry for a greater part of the year.
The etymology of the word "billabong" is disputed. The word is most likely derived from the indigenous Wiradjuri term "bilabaŋ", which means "a watercourse that runs only after rain" and is derived from "bila", meaning "river", and possibly "bong" or "bung", meaning "dead". One source, however, claims that the term is of Scottish Gaelic origin.
References in Australian culture
Banjo Paterson's popular folk song "Waltzing Matilda" is set alongside a billabong, while Mary Grant Bruce wrote a series of books, known as the "Billabong series", in which the adventures of the Linton family, who live at Billabong station during World War I— from around 1911 until the late 1920s—are depicted.
Billabong is the name of an Australian surfwear and skateboard brand.
- "Rivers Continuing in Time". Burarra Gathering. Wurdeja, Ji-malawa and Yilan Aboriginal Communities. 21 June 2006. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- USGS [Annotated Definitions of Selected Geomorphic Terms and Related Terms of Hydrology, Sedimentology, Soil Science, and Ecology], USGS Open File Report 2008-1217.
- "billabong." The Macquarie Dictionary. South Yarra: The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd., 2005. Credo Reference. Web. 19 January 2012.
- A. P. Elkin (June 1967). "Review of Australian English: An Historical Study of the Vocabulary, 1788-1898 by W. S. Ramson". Oceania (Oceania Publications, University of Sydney) 37 (4): 318–319. JSTOR 40329620.
- "billabong". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, LLC. 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- Skilton, St J. The Survey of Scottish Gaelic in Australia and New Zealand, p. 300. Quote: A respondent to his survey said: "'Bill' = 'bile' = 'lip or mouth' and 'abong' is from 'abhainn' = 'river' with a parasitic 'G' added. A billabong probably has a mouth shape of sorts being at a bend in a river." University of Fribourg, Switzerland, June 2004. Last accessed 15 March 2008
- Clarke, R. "Australianisms in 'Waltzing Matilda'", Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, 10 December 2003. Last accessed 5 November 2009.
- Ludowyk, F. "Of Billy, Bong, Bung, & 'Billybong'", Australian National University, no date. Last accessed 15 March 2008
- "billabong", Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online. Accessed 15 March 2008
- From Billabong to London by Mary Grant Bruce
- A Little Bushmaid by Mary Grant Bruce
- Billabong Adventurers by Mary Grant Bruce
- Pierce, Peter (2009). The Cambridge history of Australian literature. Cambridge England New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88165-4.
- "Trees at a billabong". national museum australia. Australian Government. 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
Media related to Billabongs of Australia at Wikimedia Commons