Wiradjuri language

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Wiradjuri
Wirraaydhuurray
Wirraayjuurray
Region New South Wales
Native speakers
100  (2006 census)[1]
Dialects
Wirraayaraay (Wiraiari)
? Jeithi
Language codes
ISO 639-3 wrh
AIATSIS[2] D10
Glottolog wira1262[3]

Wiradjuri (/wəˈræəri/;[4] many other spellings, see Wiradjuri) is a Pama–Nyungan language of the Wiradhuric subgroup. It was the traditional language of the Wiradjuri people of Australia, but had become extinct as a native language by 2009. A progressive revival is underway, with the language being taught in schools. Wiraiari and Jeithi may have been dialects.[5][6]

Reclamation[edit]

The Wiradjuri language is taught in primary schools, secondary schools and at TAFE in the towns of Parkes and Forbes with the students being both indigenous and non-indigenous Australians.[7]

Dictionary[edit]

The process of reclaiming the language was greatly assisted by the publication in 2005 of A First Wiradjuri Dictionary by elder Stan Gran Senior and consultant Dr John Rudder. John Rudder described the dictionary: "The Wiradjuri Dictionary has three main sections in just over 400 B5 pages. The first two sections, English to Wiradjuri, and Wiradjuri to English, have about 5,000 entries each. The third sections lists Names of Things grouped in categories such as animals, birds, plants, climate, body parts, colours. In addition to those main sections the dictionary contains an introduction to accurate pronunciation, a basic grammar of the language and a sample range of sentence types." A revised edition, holding over 8,000 words, was published in 2010 and launched in Wagga Wagga, with the launch described by the member for Riverina to the Australian Parliament.[8][9]

Sample vocabulary[edit]

[needs IPA]

Animals[edit]

  • Animals: Gidyira, Balugan
  • Animals (male): Wambi
  • Animals (Female): Gunal
  • Baby (chicken or Pup): Mangga
  • Bandicoot, Long Nosed: Gurawang, Guyand, Gurang
  • Bat: Ngarradan
  • Bats and Birds (General): Budyaan
  • Bilby: Ngundawang, Bilbi, Balbu, Barru
  • Brushtail Possum (Male): Gidyay
  • Brush Tailed Rock Wallaby: Wirrang, Barrbay
  • Bunyip: Waawii seema
  • Butterfly: Budyabudya
  • Cattle: Gurruganbalang
  • Cockatoo: Guwariyan
  • Common Wallaroo: Walaruu, Yulama
  • Dingo: Yugay, Warragul, Dinggu, Dawarang, Garingali (female)
  • Dog: Mirri
  • Echidna: Wandayali, Wandhayirra, Ganyi, Ginaginbaany, Guwandiyala, Wambiyala
  • Emu: Dinawan
  • Frog: Gulaangga
  • Horse: Yarraman
  • Horse (stallion): Yindaay
  • Kangaroo: Wambuwany
  • Kangaroo (Red, Female): Bandhaa
  • Koala: Burrandhang
  • Kookaburra: Gugubarra
  • Magpie: Garuu
  • Owl: Ngugug
  • Platypus: Biladurang
  • Possum: Wilay
  • Snake: Gadi
  • Sugar Glider: Gindaany
  • Swan: Dhundhu
  • Wild Cat: Mabi, Babila, Mugiiny-mabi
  • Wombat: Wambad

Other[edit]

Ngawa: Yes (Pronounced ŋa-wa)
Wiray: No (Pronounced ɥi-ɾe)
Gunya: Home (Pronounced gu- ɲa)
Walang: Money/Pebbles (Pronounced wa-laŋ)

Family[edit]

  • Mother: Gunhi
  • Father: Babiin
  • Son: Wurrumany
  • Sister (older): Mingaan
  • Sister (younger): Minhi
  • Brother (older): Gaagang
  • Brother (younger): Gagamin
  • Girl: Migay
  • Boy: Birrany
  • Baby: Gudha
  • Grandmother: Badhiin, Baaydyin

Introductions[edit]

Widyu-ndhu yuwin ngulung? What’s your name?
Yuwin ngadhi James. My name is James.
Ngandhi nginha? Who’s this one?
Nginha gunhi. This is mother.

Greetings[edit]

Yamandhu marang? Are you well?
Ngawa baladhu marang. Yes I’m well.
Marang nganha. That’s good.

Numbers[edit]

  • One: Ngumbaay
  • Two: Bula
  • Three: Bula Ngumbaay
  • Four: Bula Bula
  • Five: Marra

Verbs[edit]

  • Dancing: Waganha
  • Digging: Wangarra
  • Laughing: Gindanha
  • Swimming: Bambinya

Body parts[edit]

  • Hand and is also the number five: Marra
  • Backside: Bubul

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wiradjuri at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Wiradjuri at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Wiradhuri". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ "Wiradjuri". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. 
  5. ^ Dixon, R. M. W. (2002). Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development. Cambridge University Press. p. xxxiv. 
  6. ^ There is quite some confusion over the names Wirraayarray, Wiriyarray, and Wirray Wirray. See AIATSIS:Wirraayaraay.
  7. ^ How a language transformed a town
  8. ^ ABC news interview with Grant
  9. ^ Hansart
  • Günther, James (1892). "Grammar and Vocabulary of the Aboriginal dialect called Wirradhuri". In Fraser, John. An Australian Language. Sydney: Government printer. pp. 56–120 of appendix. 
  • Hale, Horatio (1846). "The languages of Australia". Ethnography and philology. Vol VI of Reports of the United States Exploring Expedition, under the command of Charles Wilkes. New York: Lea and Blanchard. pp. 457–531. 
  • Hosking, Dianne; McNicol, Sally (1993). Wiradjuri. Panther Publishing. 
  • Mathews, R. H. (Jul–Dec 1904). "The Wiradyuri and Other Languages of New South Wales". The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 34) 34: 284–305. doi:10.2307/2843103. JSTOR 2843103. 
  • McNicol, Sally; Hosking, Dianne (1994). "Wiradjuri". In Nick Thieberger, William McGregor. Macquarie Aboriginal Words. Sydney: Macquarie Library. pp. 79–99. 

External links[edit]