|Municipality||Biržai district municipality|
|Eldership||Biržai city eldership|
|Capital of||Biržai district municipality
Biržai city eldership
|Granted city rights||1589|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
Biržai ( pronunciation (help·info), known also by several alternative names) is a city in northern Lithuania. Biržai is famous for its reconstructed Biržai Castle manor, and the whole region is renowned for its many traditional-recipe beer breweries.
The town's first written mention dates to 1450. The construction of Biržai Castle began in 1586, and the town was granted Magdeburg Rights in 1589. In 1575, as preparation for the castle's construction, a dam was built on the Agluona and Apaščia Rivers at their confluence, and the artificial Lake Širvėna, covering about 40 km2 (15 sq mi), was created. It is the oldest surviving artificial lake in Lithuania. The town's history is closely associated with the Radziwiłł family (Lithuanian: Radvila). Jerzy Radziwiłł was the first noble to settle in the town. Later, after his daughter, Barbara Radziwiłł married the Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Sigismund II Augustus in 1547, the power and influence of the family grew immensely. The Radvila family established a Protestant church and school, and the city became a cultural center of the Protestant Reformation in Lithuania.
The local community of Lithuanian Jews, which settled in the Duchy of Biržai at the end of the 16th century, was influential, establishing an interest-free loan society, two major flour mills, and an international linen export business. The Islamic Lipka Tatars performed military, police, and postal duties for the Radziwill family.
During the Wars with Sweden, Biržai Castle was an important point of defence. In 1625, Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, attacked the castle with 8000 soldiers and it was forced to surrender. The castle was left in ruins and was rebuilt, only to be burnt in 1655. In 1662-1669, it was rebuilt again in Renaissance style. In 1701, August II the Strong and Peter I of Russia signed a pact in the castle to unite their forces against Sweden. However, in 1704 the castle was completely destroyed and was left in ruins until its restoration in the 1990s.
The town's population suffered greatly due to wars and religious conflicts between the Protestants and Catholics. In the late 18th century, Biržai lost its city rights. The Radziwiłłs lost their wealth and influence, and Biržai was sold to the Tyszkiewicz family to cover debts in 1811. In 1849-1862, the Tyszkiewicz family built a neoclassic Astravas Manor palace across the lake from the site of the original castle.
In 1869, the town had about 2600 residents. Thirty years later, the population grew to 4400 people.
During World War II, the entire Jewish population of Biržai was annihilated. 15 Jews were shot to death by German soldiers at the Biržai Jewish cemetery in July 1941. On 8 August 1941, Gestapo and Lithuanian collaborators murdered the entire Jewish population of the town, some 2,400 people, by shooting them to death at a mass grave in a forest grove 3 kilometers outside the town. The town was almost completely burned down during the war.
In 1968, the population reached 10000. Currently, there are about 15,000 people living in Biržai.
The northern part of the city, along with Lake Širvėna, lies within Biržai Regional Park. About 9,000 sinkholes have been identified in the park, formed abruptly after gypsum in the soil has been dissolved by underground water. Some of these holes are dry, while others have become small ponds or lakes filled with water from the many underground rivers and streams. New holes appear annually. According to local legend, the 20-meter-deep sinkhole known as Karves ola (Cow's Hole) was discovered by a farmer after his cow disappeared. A tunnel at its bottom leads to an underground cave and lake.
- Jerzy Radziwiłł, Great Hetman of Lithuania
- Janusz Skumin Tyszkiewicz
- Julius Janonis, poet
- Kazys Binkis, poet, playwright
- Petras Kalpokas, painter
- Austra Skujytė, olympic silver medal winner
- Žydrūnas Savickas, strongman
- Vladas Garastas, basketball coach
- Romualdas Brazauskas, basketball referee
- Jokūbas Šernas, signatory of the Act of Independence of Lithuania
- Alfonsas Petrulis, signatory of the Act of Independence of Lithuania
- Jonas Mekas, film maker
- Bernardas Brazdžionis, poet
- Borisas Dauguvietis, poet
- Jurgis Bielinis, publicist and one of the main organizers of illegal book-smuggling (knygnešiai) at the time of the Lithuanian press ban
- Elchonon Wasserman, famous Lithuanian rabbi, disciple of Chofetz Chaim
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Biržai.|
- Official website of Biržai district municipality
-  Historical map of Lithuania by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon Anville with Birze
- "BIRZAI: Kovno". International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies. Retrieved 2009-07-01.
- "Istorija" (in Lithuanian). City of Biržai. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
- "SUMMARY - ŽIEMGALA INVESTIGATIONS". Žiemgala Journal. Retrieved 2009-06-30.
- "Mass Murder of the Jews at Biržai Jewish Cemetery". Holocaust Atlas of Lithuania. Vilna Gaon State Jewish Museum. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Mass Murder of the Jews from Biržai at the Pakamponys Forest". Holocaust Atlas of Lithuania. Vilna Gaon State Jewish Museum. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "PROJECT ENVIRONMENT". European Commission. Retrieved 2009-06-16.
- "A visit to holey ground". Baltic Times. Retrieved 2009-06-19.