present-day Uttar Pradesh, India
|Died||1586 (aged 60–61)
Swat valley, present-day Pakistan
|Occupation||Prominent courtier and advisor in the Mughal court of Emperor Akbar|
Birbal (Hindustani: [birbəl]; born Mahesh Das; 1528–1586) or more accurately Rajah Birbar, was a Hindu advisor in the court of the Mughal emperor Akbar during his rule in India and is mostly remembered in folk tales, which focus on his wit. He belonged to the Brahmin class and was appointed by the Emperor as a poet and singer around 1556–1562, later formed a close association with him, becoming an important advisor and soon being sent on military expeditions despite having no previous background. In 1586, the Emperor sent an army led by Birbal to crush an unrest in the north-west Indian subcontinent, which failed tragically when he was killed along with many troops in an ambush by the rebel tribe. This was one of biggest military setbacks during his reign and Birbal's death is said to have caused much grief to the Emperor.
Near the end of Akbar's reign, local folk tales began to emerge involving his interactions with Birbal, in which he was portrayed as being extremely clever and witty. As the tales gained popularity in India, he became even more of a legendary figure. He was mostly shown as being younger than Akbar, religious and being surrounded by envious Muslim courtiers; these tales involve him outsmarting them and sometimes even the Emperor, using only his intelligence and cunning, often with giving witty and humorous responses and impressing the Emperor. Some stories are told in versions containing a different set of characters from other Indian folklore. By the twentieth century onwards, plays, films and books based on these folk tales were made, some of these are in children's comics and textbooks.
No evidence is present that Birbal, like how he is shown in the folk tales, influenced the Emperor and his beliefs, decisions and policies mainly by his witticism. It was Akbar's affection for him, his religious tolerance and social liberalism that was the cause of his success in the court and Birbal was a supporter of his religious policy.
He was born as Mahesh Das in 1528, in a village near Kalpi, Uttar Pradesh, India; according to folklore, it was at Tikawanpur near the banks of river Yamuna. His father was Ganga Das and mother, Anabha Davito; he was the third son of this Hindu Brahmin family which had a previous association with poetry and literature.
He was educated in the Hindi, Sanskrit and Persian languages and specialised in music and poetry in the Braj language. Birbal was talented in writing prose and in music; he gained fame for his poetry and singing. He served at the Rajput court of Raja Ram Chandra of Reva, under the name "Brahma Kavi" and his position improved when he married the daughter of a respected and rich family, contrary to the notion that he was on poor economic terms before his appointment at the imperial court.
At the imperial court
The details and year of his first meeting with Akbar and his employment in the court are disputed to be between 1556 and 1562. He became the "Kavi Rai" (poet laureate) of the Emperor within a few years of his appointment. Akbar bestowed upon him the name 'Birbal' with the title "Rajah", by which he was known from then on.
Birbal comes from Bir Bar or Vir Var which means courageous and great, quite contrary for him since he was not known for his bravery or for his skill as a soldier. Akbar gave titles to his Hindu subjects according to their traditions and S. H. Hodivala writes that it could have been taken from a character in the folk tale Vetal Panchvinshati. This tale featured a courtier called Vir Var who showed great loyalty to his king. Akbar was fond of literature and had works of Sanskrit and other local languages translated into Persian.
Position and role
His growing reputation led him to be made part of Akbar's nine advisers, known as the navaratna or nine jewels, some of them being: Todar Mal, Man Singh, Bhagwan Das, Rajahs Bhar. Soon he played the role of a religious advisor, military figure and close friend of the Emperor, serving him for 30 years.
In 1572, he was among a large army sent by the Emperor to aid Husain Quli Khan against an attack from the Emperor's brother, Hakim Mirza, which was his first military role and he later accompanied the Emperor during his Gujarat campaigns. Despite having no military background, he often participated in Akbar's campaigns and was given leadership positions, like the other advisor Todar Mal, who helped the Emperor in economic matters.
Abul Fazl and Abdul Qadir Badayuni were historians of the court. While Fazl respected him, listed him having twenty five honorific titles and rank of a commander of two thousand; Badayuni however, showed distrust for Birbal because he was a Hindu, calling him a 'bastard' and in contempt, writing how he, as a Brahman musician, was getting favour and becoming the king's "confidant", but at the same time acknowledging his talent. Akbar's other orthodox Muslim advisers were known to dislike Birbal.
Association with Akbar
Akbar had started a religion called Din-i-Ilahi, which acknowledges Akbar as God's representative on earth and had a combination of Hindu and Muslim beliefs. In the Ain-i-Akbari (The Institutes of Akbar), it is mentioned that Birbal was one of the few people other than Akbar who were its followers, besides being the only Hindu. He had a close association with the Emperor, despite being fourteen years elder than him; of the nine ratnas, Birbal was often called the brightest jewel. Badaoni referred to this in sarcasm, as "a case of 'thy flesh is my flesh and thy blood my blood'". Akbar is reported to have saved Birbal's life in two instances.
The painting Akbari Nao Ratna in Victoria hall, Kolkata depicts Birbal having a prominent position right next to Akbar. The Emperor found him entertaining at the start but in later years, he was sent on important missions. Birbal was said to have received a two-storey house in Fatehpur Sikri within the palace complex from the Emperor, built close to his own chambers. He was said to enjoy having him by his side and was the only courtier to reside within the palace complex. One of the seven gates is known as "Birbal's gate".
Historic role versus folklore
In the folk tales, he is always portrayed as a pious Hindu, being younger than Akbar, and being morally strict in the midst of opposing Muslim courtiers, who are shown plotting against him; his success was only because of his skill and he convinces the Emperor to favour Hinduism over Islam. He is thus depicted as acquiring religious, political and personal influence over the Emperor, using his intelligence and sharp tongue and never resorting to violence. However, historically he never played such a role.
Badayuni mistrusted him but did mention that he was "having a considerable amount of capacity and genius". The Braj language poet, Rai Hol, praised Akbar and his nine companions, having a special emphasis on Birbal for his generosity. Abul Fazl respected him by emphasising on his spiritual excellence and position as a confidant of the Emperor rather than on his wit or poetry.
Modern Hindu scholars assert that he made Akbar make bold decisions and the orthodox Muslims in the court despised him, since he made the Emperor renounce Islam. But no evidence is present that he influenced Akbar's beliefs. Though sources suggest he influenced Akbar's policies to some extent. It was Akbar's affection for him, his religious tolerance and social liberalism which was the reason for this and Birbal was not the cause. Historically, he was more of a supporter of Akbar's religious policy and his religion, Din-i-Ilahi. Ain-i-Akbari mentions an incident involving prostitutes, where Akbar wanted to punish him, contrary to how he is portrayed as a deeply religious man.
The Yousafzai tribes of Afghanistan in the North West had started a rebellion along the east bank of the river Indus against the Mughal rule. After troops sent to crush the unrest suffered losses, Akbar sent Birbal with reinforcements from his new fort at Attock, to help the commander Zain Khan in 1586. Birbal advanced into a narrow pass in Swat valley (Pakistan) where the Afghans were waiting in prepared positions in the hills. In the ensuing heavy defeat, Birbal and over 8000 soldiers were killed and his body was never found.
This was one of the largest military losses for Akbar and he was said to have expressed his grief over the loss his favourite courtier, and not taken food or drink for two days.He was anguished since his body could not be found for Hindu cremation and even is said to have proclaimed that it was his greatest tragedy since his coming to the throne.
His majesty cared for the death of no grandee more than for that of Bir Bar. He said, 'Alas! they could not even get his body out of the pass, that it might have been burned"; but at last, he consoled himself with the thought that Bir Bar was now free and independent of all earthly fetters, and as the rays of the sun were sufficient for him, there was no necessity that he should be cleansed by fire.
Origins of Folklore
The origins of these tales can be traced to a hundred years after Akbar's reign where one of the first such works were found. In Ma'athir al-Umara, a biography of Mughal nobles, Birbal is mentioned as having a rising a fortune in the court for his poetry and wit, and his wit is praised indicating that it became popular in north India at that time when the Mughal rule had become stable because of Akbar's reign. Similarly, stories involving a king and his quick witted minister are common in Indian folklore like Tenali Raman with the Vijaynagar Rajah and Gopal Bhar with the King Krsnachandra of Nadiya. Stories based on Birbal are told in versions involving these other witty courtiers, including one in The Arabian Nights. In the later years, a third character, Mullah Do Pyaza began to appear, written by Muslim writers in the 1900s inspired by a Persian, who existed before Akbar. He was Birbal's Muslim counterpart and was fictional, who was like a proponent of orthodox Islam. He was shown getting the better of both Birbal and Akbar in some tales but there are others which portray him in poor light.
C. M. Naim writes that these folk tales should not be viewed as an historical commentary but they contribute to the understanding of political history, "Akbar and Birbal" stories show a bias of a Hindu narrator for a Mughal ruler. Akbar is shown in a slightly negative way and his Hindu courtier, Birbal always outmatches him. Each case, there is a powerful ruler who had a powerful reign at his time who is paired with a jester-like minister whose wit is just as sharp, having a legendary reputation. These jokes and stories make each powerful ruler including Akbar, because he inspired the people, seem more human-like and flawed for them. Naim further states Birbal was chosen and not the other courtiers because he was a Brahmin fitting the old Indian tradition: a powerful Kshatriya king ruling with an equally powerful Brahmin advisor and here, an indication of Hindu subversion over Islam.
In popular culture
These tales are passed on mainly by oral tradition, focus on how he manages to outsmart the envious courtiers who try to trap and portray him in poor light in front of the Emperor, often in a humorous manner with him shown giving sharp and intelligent responses. Others show his interactions with the Emperor which involve him trying to test Birbal's wit and Birbal making him realise his folly, which always ends with Akbar getting amused and impressed. He occasionally challenges Birbal by giving him a line of poetry which Birbal has to complete and some stories are simple humorous anecdotes. Getting an advantage in a seemingly impossible situation and making his challengers look silly are usual occurrences in these tales.
Akbar and Birbal stories and folk tales are featured in Amar Chitra Katha and Chandamama children's comics and many books are available containing these collections. There are various paperback editions, films, textbooks, booklets and plays with his character as the lead. The television channel Cartoon Network in India, has two featured animated series based on him, Chota Birbal and Akbar & Birbal. Salman Rushdie's novel The Enchantress of Florence has the character of Birbal.
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