Brooke Astor in 2002 in her duplex
|Born||Roberta Brooke Russell
March 30, 1902
Portsmouth, New Hampshire
|Died||August 13, 2007
Briarcliff Manor, New York
|Spouse(s)||J. Dryden Kuser
Charles H. Marshall
(m.1932–1952; his death)
(m.1953–1959; his death)
|Children||Anthony Dryden Marshall|
|Parents||John Henry Russell, Jr.
Mabel Cecile Hornby Howard
|Relatives||John Henry Russell, Sr., grandfather|
Roberta Brooke Russell Astor (previously Kuser and Marshall) also known as Mrs Vincent Astor (March 30, 1902 – August 13, 2007) was an American philanthropist, socialite and writer who was the chairwoman of the Vincent Astor Foundation, which had been established by her third husband, Vincent Astor, son of John Jacob Astor IV and great-great grandson of America's first multi-millionaire, John Jacob Astor. She is the author of two novels and two volumes of personal memoirs.
Early life 
She was born Roberta Brooke Russell in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, the only child of John Henry Russell, Jr. (1872–1947), the 16th Commandant of the Marine Corps, and his wife, Mabel Cecile Hornby Howard (1879–1967). Her paternal grandfather was John Henry Russell, Sr., a rear admiral in the U.S. Navy. She was named for her maternal grandmother (Roberta) and was known as Bobby to close friends and family.
Due to her father's career, she spent much of her childhood living in China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and other places. Also, she briefly attended The Madeira School in 1919 but graduated from Holton-Arms.
J. Dryden Kuser 
She married her first husband, John Dryden Kuser (1897–1964), shortly after her seventeenth birthday, on April 26, 1919, in Washington, D.C. "I certainly wouldn't advise getting married that young to anyone," she said later in life. "At the age of sixteen, you're not jelled yet. The first thing you look at, you fall in love with."
Kuser, the son of the financier and conservationist Anthony (Tony) Rudolph Kuser and grandson of U.S. Senator John F. Dryden, later became a New Jersey Republican councilman, assemblyman, and state senator. They also lived in Bernardsville, New Jersey.
"Worst years of my life" was how Astor described her tumultuous first marriage, which was punctuated by her husband's alleged physical abuse, alcoholism and adultery. According to Frances Kiernan's 2007 biography of Brooke Astor, when Brooke was six months pregnant with the couple's only child, her husband broke her jaw during a marital fight. "I learned about terrible manners from the family of my first husband," she told The New York Times. '"They didn't know how to treat people.". A year after the marriage, according to a published account of the divorce proceedings, Dryden Kuser "began to embarrass her in social activities, ... told her that he no longer loved her and that their marriage was a failure."
Astor had one child with Dryden Kuser, Anthony Dryden Kuser, born in 1924.
In June 1929, Kuser insisted that his wife leave him. After waiting for the successful end to his New Jersey senatorial campaign, she filed for divorce on February 15, 1930, in Reno, Nevada. It was finalized later that year.
Charles H. Marshall 
Her second husband, whom she married in 1932, was Charles Henry "Buddy" Marshall (1891–1952). Marshall was the senior partner of the investment firm Butler, Herrick & Marshall, a brother-in-law of the mercantile heir Marshall Field III, and a descendant of James Lenox, the founder of the Lenox Library.
Astor later wrote that the marriage was "a great love match."
She had two stepchildren by the marriage, Peter Marshall and Helen Huntington Marshall.
In 1942, Anthony Dryden Kuser, then 18 years old, changed his name to Anthony Dryden Marshall. He was not adopted but looked up to his stepfather so much he changed his last name.
Her husband's financial fortunes turned in the mid-1940s, at which time Brooke Marshall went to work for eight years as a features editor at House & Garden magazine. She also briefly worked for Ruby Ross Wood, a prominent New York interior decorator who, with her associate Billy Baldwin, decorated the Marshalls' apartment at 1 Gracie Square in New York City.
Vincent Astor 
In 1953, eleven months after Charles Marshall's death, she married her third and final husband, Vincent Astor (1891–1959), the chairman of the board of Newsweek magazine and the last notably rich American member of the famous Astor family. The oldest son of Titanic victim John Jacob Astor IV (1864–1912) and his first wife, Ava Lowle Willing, he had been married and divorced twice before and was known to have a difficult personality.
"He had a dreadful childhood, and as a result, had moments of deep melancholy," Astor recalled. "But I think I made him happy. That's what I set out to do. I'd literally dance with the dogs, sing and play the piano, and I would make him laugh, something no one had ever done before. Because of his money, Vincent was very suspicious of people. That's what I tried to cure him of."
According to an oft-told story in society circles, Astor agreed to divorce his second wife, Minnie, only after she had found him a replacement spouse. After first suggesting Janet Newbold Rhinelander-Stewart, the newly divorced wife of James S. Bush, who turned down Astor's proposal with startling candor—“I don't even like you," she reportedly said—Minnie Astor suggested the recently widowed Brooke Marshall. Whatever the circumstances, few people believed that the Astor-Marshall union was anything more than a financial transaction. As Brooke Astor's friend the novelist Louis Auchincloss said, “Of course she married Vincent for the money,” adding, “I wouldn’t respect her if she hadn’t. Only a twisted person would have married him for love.”
During her brief marriage to Mr. Astor, whom she called "Captain," Mrs. Astor participated in his real-estate and hotel empire and his philanthropic endeavors. Between 1954 and 1958, she redecorated one of his properties, the Hotel St. Regis, which had been built by his father.
Though she received several proposals after Astor's death, she chose not to remarry. "I'd have to marry a man of a suitable age and somebody who was a somebody, and that's not easy. Frankly, I think I'm unmarriageable now," Astor said in an interview in 1980, when she was 78. "I'm too used to having things my way. But I still enjoy a flirt now and then."
Though she was appointed a member of the board of the Astor Foundation soon after her marriage, upon Vincent Astor's death in 1959, she took charge of all the philanthropies to which he left his fortune. She served as a Trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and chaired the Visiting Committee of the Metropolitan's Department of Far Eastern Art; she is credited with the idea for a Chinese garden courtyard, the Astor Court, in the Metropolitan. Despite liquidating the Vincent Astor Foundation in 1997, she continued to be active in charities and in New York's social life. The New York Public Library was always one of Astor's favorite charities, as was The Animal Medical Center. In 1988, she was awarded the National Medal of Arts. She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1992. As a result of her charity work, Astor was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1998. Her life's motto summed up her prodigious generosity: “Money is like manure; it’s not worth a thing unless it’s spread around.” 
Among numerous other organizations, she was involved with Lighthouse for the Blind, the Maternity Center Association, the Astor Home for emotionally disturbed children, the International Rescue Committee, the Fresh Air Fund, and the Women's Auxiliary Board of the Society of New York Hospital.
Like the entire Astor family, she was a steadfast Republican. When Ronald Reagan ran for president, she was one of his strongest supporters, donating thousands of dollars to his campaign. She was also a strong supporter of the Bush campaigns and was invited to the White House on numerous occasions.
Elder abuse controversy 
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On July 26, 2006, the New York Daily News ran a front-page cover story on the family feud between Astor's son, Anthony Dryden Marshall, and her grandson Philip Cryan Marshall, regarding the welfare of the centenarian Astor, then 104 years old.
The story detailed how Astor's grandson, a historic preservationist and associate professor at Roger Williams University, had filed a lawsuit seeking the removal of his father as the socialite's guardian and the appointment of Annette de la Renta, the wife of designer Oscar de la Renta, instead.
According to accounts published in The New York Times and the New York Daily News, Astor was diagnosed with Alzheimer's Disease and suffered from anemia, among other ailments. The lawsuit alleged that Marshall had not provided for his elderly mother and, instead, had allowed her to live in squalor and that he had cut back on necessary medication and doctor's visits, while enriching himself with income from her estate. Philip Marshall further charged that his father sold his grandmother's favorite Childe Hassam painting in 2002 without her knowledge and with no record as to the whereabouts of the funds received from the sale. In addition to Annette de la Renta, Henry Kissinger and David Rockefeller provided affidavits supporting Philip Marshall's requests for a change in guardianship.
The day the story appeared, New York Supreme Court Justice John Stackhouse sealed the documents pertaining to the lawsuit and granted an order appointing Annette de la Renta guardian and JPMorgan Chase & Co. to be in charge of Astor's finances. Several news organizations including Associated Press and The New York Times sued to have the records of the Astor case unsealed in the public interest, and they were, on September 1, 2006. Astor was moved to Lenox Hill Hospital, where an unidentified nurse called her appearance "deplorable," according to the New York Daily News. Anthony Marshall unsuccessfully attempted to have his mother transferred to another hospital.
In 2008, a book, entitled Mrs. Astor Regrets, by Meryl Gordon, makes use of diaries kept by the nurses who cared for Astor during the last years of her life. The diaries were compiled over the four years Astor received care, and detail the abuse that Mrs. Astor reportedly received from her son, Anthony (Tony).
Estate tampering 
On August 1, 2006, The New York Times reported that Anthony Marshall was accused by Alice Perdue, who was employed in his mother's business office, of diverting nearly $1 million from his ailing mother's personal checking accounts into theatrical productions. Marshall, through a spokesman, said that his mother knew of the investments and approved of them. Perdue countered that Marshall had advised her never to send to his mother any documents of a financial nature because "she didn't understand it."
The claims made by Philip Marshall regarding his father's handling of the estate prompted interest into the matter. On November 27, 2007, indictments on criminal charges were announced against Astor's son, Anthony D. Marshall, and attorney Francis X. Morrissey Jr. The charges stemmed from the district attorney's office and subsequent grand jury investigation into the mishandling of Astor's money and a questionable signature on the third amendment to her 2002 will, made in March 2004. That amendment called for Astor’s real estate to be sold and the proceeds added to her residuary estate. An earlier amendment, also made in 2004, which designated Marshall as the executor of his mother's estate and left him the entirety of the residuary estate, was also under investigation.
The specific charges included grand larceny, criminal possession of stolen property, forgery, scheming to defraud, falsifying business records, offering a false instrument for filing, and conspiracy in plundering her $198 million estate. The most severe charge, grand larceny, carries up to a 25-year sentence.
The trial of Marshall and Morrissey started March 30, 2009, with the jury selection. The judge, Justice A. Kirke Bartley Jr., had originally indicated that the trial could last up to three months. After deliberations that stretched over twelve days and were reportedly marked by bitter disagreements that left one female juror claiming to feel personally threatened, on October 8, 2009, the jury convicted Anthony D. Marshall of one of two charges of grand larceny, the most serious of a number of charges brought against him. The same jury convicted Francis X. Morrissey Jr. of forgery. In December 2009, Marshall and Morrisey were both sentenced to 1–3 years in prison. Philip C. Marshall, Astor's grandson, said that now that his father has been convicted in the Brooke Astor will case, he expects the will to be contested by various charities.
On November 30, 2011, Sotheby's announced plans for an April 19, 2012 auction of jewelry as well as fine and decorative arts from her Park Avenue apartment and Holly Hill, her Westchester estate.
One of Astor's death notices in the Times, a paid notice from The Rockefeller University, ended with these lines:
Among the organizations who lamented her death included the New York Public Library, New York University, the New York Regional Association of Grantmakers, the New York Botanical Garden, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, WNET-TV, Historic Hudson Valley, The Juilliard School, the New York Landmarks Conservancy, the Wildlife Conservation Society, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Carnegie Hall, the Morris-Juemel Mansion Museum, the Citizens' Committee for New York City, the Rockefeller University, the Animal Medical Center, the Merchant's House Museum, the Library of America, the Pierpont Morgan Library, the Lotos Club, Lenox Hill Neighborhood House and the Brooklyn Stained Glass Conservation Center.
- Astor, Brooke (1962). Patchwork Child: Early Memories. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-42687-6.
- Astor, Brooke (1965). The Bluebird is at Home. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-42687-6.
- Astor, Brooke (1980). Footprints. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-14377-X.
- Astor, Brooke (1986). The Last Blossom on the Plum Tree: A Period Piece. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-90545-9.
In fiction 
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See also 
- Klemesrud, Judy (June 15, 1980). "Brooke Astor: The Private Moments of a Public Benefactor; Married at 16.". The New York Times.
- In 1927, Astor and Dryden Kuser lived in a New York City townhouse which they rented from Madeleine Talmadge Astor Dick (nèe Force) (Mrs. William K. Dick), the stepmother of Astor's eventual third husband.
- Miller, Judith. "Old Money, New Needs", The New York Times, November 17, 1991. Retrieved March 21, 2011. "Eventually Kuser fell in love with another woman and left his wife. She moved from Bernardsville, N.J., to New York and took up a career writing features and book reviews, and eventually became an editor at House & Garden."
- Schillinger, Liesl (June 17, 2007). "Astor's Place". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-07-21. "The lady in question, who celebrated her 105th birthday on March 30 at Holly Hill, her Westchester estate, is worth knowing better, as Frances Kiernan’s guardedly admiring biography, “The Last Mrs. Astor,” proves. Until last summer, most people thought of Brooke Astor as the dapper, aged socialite whose face so often popped up in society photos in The New York Times. They also knew her as the widow of Vincent Astor (her third and final husband), and, through the Vincent Astor Foundation, a great benefactress of many New York cultural and charitable institutions."
- "Mrs. Kuser Files Suit; Gets Custody of Son. Wife of New Jersey Senator in Reno Court Relinquishes Her Dower Rights.". The New York Times. February 16, 1930.
- On September 6, 1930, in Virginia City, Nevada, Dryden Kuser married, as his second wife, Vieva Marie Fisher Banks (formerly Mrs. James Lenox Banks, Jr.). They had one daughter, Suzanne Dryden Kuser, and divorced in October 1935. A week later, Sen. Kuser married Louise Mattei Farry (formerly Mrs. Joseph Farry). In 1958, he married, as his fourth wife, Grace Egglesfield Gibbons (widow of John J. Gibbons). An amateur ornithologist and president of the New Jersey Audubon Society, Sen. Kuser introduced the bill that made the Eastern Goldfinch the state bird of New Jersey. He also was, at various times, an insurance and real estate broker in New Jersey (1937–1942) and Nevada (1942–1955), a vice president of Lenox, Inc., the pottery and china company, a columnist for the Nevada State Journal (1943–1947), and a director of the Fox Film Corporation.
- Helen Marshall married firstly the composer Ernest Schelling (Gray, Christopher (July 12, 1998). "Streetscapes: 863 Park Avenue; One of the Oldest Luxury Apartment Houses on Park". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-08-28.) and, secondly, the cellist János Scholz (Pace, Eric (June 6, 1993). "Janos Scholz, 89, Cellist, Scholar And Morgan Library Benefactor". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-23.).
- Astor's association with House & Garden has been established by a contemporary issue of the magazine, which shows "Mrs. Charles H. Marshall of Ruby Ross Wood, Inc." in the design firm's office. The gossip columnist Cindy Adams stated on July 28, 2006 that Astor was fired from her position at House & Garden and also worked briefly as a secretary to the American decorator Dorothy Draper.
- www.newyorksocialdiary.com. Janet Newbold married (1) Allan A. Ryan Jr, (2) William Rhinelander Stewart, and (3) James S. Bush. Her third husband, to whom she was married from 1948 until 1952, was a brother of Senator Prescott S. Bush, an uncle of U.S. president George Herbert Walker Bush, and a great-uncle of U.S. president George W. Bush.
- One Hundred Eleventh Annual Report of the Trustees, The Metropolitan Museum of Art for the Fiscal Year July 1, 1980, Through June 30, 1981 October 19, 1981.
- "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter A". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
- Berger, Marilyn (August 13, 2007). "Brooke Astor, New York’s First Lady of Philanthropy, Dies at 105.". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-08-13. "Brooke Astor...died yesterday afternoon at her weekend estate, Holly Hill, in Briarcliff Manor, New York. She was 105."
- "New York Day by Day. 2 Honors for Brooke Astor.". The New York Times. May 2, 1985. p. B3. "It was a big day for Brooke Astor yesterday. At lunch, she received the Frederick Law Olmsted Award for being wonderful to Central Park. At cocktails, she received the Governor's Arts Award for being wonderful to New York. The Olmsted Award, named after one of the architects of Central Park, is the annual excuse for about 700 New York movers, shakers and climbers to mingle in the park, which benefits from the lunch."
- "Astor Painting Becomes Focus of Courtroom Battle" New York Times, Sep 1, 2006
- The Daily Beast "The Baby Monitor Diaries." Mason, Christopher. Nov. 17,2008.
- Kovaleski, Serge F. Son of Astor Is Said to Face Criminal Case. The New York Times. November 27, 2007. Access date: November 27, 2007.
- Brooke Astor's son accused of plundering estate. MSNBC.com. November 27, 2007.
- John Eligon (March 30, 2009). "Jury Selection Begins in Fraud Trial of Brooke Astor’s Son". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-04-20.
- John Eligon (October 8, 2009). "Brooke Astor’s Son Guilty in Scheme to Defraud Her". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- James Barron (December 21, 2009). "Brooke Astor's Son Is Sentenced to Prison". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
- Thomas J. Morgan (October 14, 2009). "Philanthropist Astor’s will headed for court challenge, grandson says". The Providence Journal. Retrieved 2009-10-14.
- "A Brooke Astor Auction Planned by Sotheby's", Vogel, Carol NY Times. December 1, 2011
- "ASTOR—Brooke". The New York Times. August 16, 2007. p. C15. Retrieved 2007-08-28.
- From the pop standard Young at Heart, lyrics by Carolyn Leigh
- Young, Peter (August 13, 2007). "Brooke Astor, New York Society Doyenne, Benefactor, Dies at 105.". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2007-08-28.
- "Remembering Brooke Astor". The New York Times. August 13, 2007.
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- Detailed description of Mrs. Astor's 14 room duplex at Rosario Candela's 778 Park Avenue including the oft-photographed Albert Hadley library. Sales offering as of June 2009 and NYTimes Article 6FEB09
- "Brooke Astor". Find a Grave. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
- Steve Fishman, "Mrs. Astor's Baby: The Fight for A Mother's Love, And Money", New York Magazine, November 12, 2007
- Lifetime Honors – National Medal of Arts