Building management system
A Building Management System (BMS) is a computer-based control system installed in buildings that controls and monitors the building’s mechanical and electrical equipment such as ventilation, lighting, power systems, fire systems, and security systems. A BMS consists of software and hardware; the software program, usually configured in a hierarchical manner, can be proprietary, using such protocols as C-bus, Profibus, and so on. Vendors are also producing BMSs that integrate using Internet protocols and open standards such as DeviceNet, SOAP, XML, BACnet, LonWorks and Modbus.
Building Management Systems are most commonly implemented in large projects with extensive mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems. Systems linked to a BMS typically represent 40% of a building's energy usage; if lighting is included, this number approaches 70%. BMS systems are a critical component to managing energy demand. Improperly configured BMS systems are believed to account for 20% of building energy usage, or approximately 8% of total energy usage in the United States.
In addition to controlling the building's internal environment, BMS systems are sometimes linked to access control (turnstiles and access doors controlling who is allowed access and egress to the building) or other security systems such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) and motion detectors. Fire alarm systems and elevators are also sometimes linked to a BMS, for monitoring. In case a fire is detected then only the fire alarm panel could shut off dampers in the ventilation system to stop smoke spreading and send all the elevators to the ground floor and park them to prevent people from using them in the event of a fire .
Functions of Building Management Systems
The four basic functions of a central, computer-controlled BMS are:
the building’s facilities, mechanical, and electrical equipment for comfort, safety, and efficiency.
A BMS normally comprises:
- Illumination (lighting) control
- Electric power control
- Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning (HVAC)
- Security and observation
- Access control
- Fire alarm system
- Lifts, elevators etc.
- Trace Heating
- Closed-circuit television (CCTV)
- Other engineering systems
Benefits of BMS
- Good control of internal comfort conditions
- Possibility of individual room control
- Increased staff productivity
- Effective monitoring and targeting of energy consumption
- Improved plant reliability and life
- Effective response to HVAC-related complaints
- Save time and money during the maintenance
- Higher rental value
- Flexibility on change of building use
- Individual tenant billing for services facilities manager
- Central or remote control and monitoring of building
- Increased level of comfort and time saving
- Remote Monitoring of the plants (such as AHU's, Fire pumps, plumbing pumps, Electrical supply, STP, WTP etc.)
- Ease of information availability problem
- Computerized maintenance scheduling
- Effective use of maintenance staff
- Early detection of problems
- More satisfied occupants