||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (January 2008)|
|Culture and music|
Candomblé (Portuguese pronunciation: [kɐ̃dõˈblɛ], dance in honour of the gods) an African-originated or Afro-Brazilian religion, practiced mainly in Brazil by the "povo de santo" (people of the saint). It is a mixture of traditional Yoruba, Fon, Ewe and Bantu beliefs which originated from different regions in Africa. It has also incorporated some aspects of the Catholicism over time. It officially originated in Salvador, Bahia at the beginning of the 19th century when the first Candomblé temple was founded, but it traces back to the earliest days of the slave trade, when enslaved Africans brought their beliefs with them when they were shipped to Brazil. Although Candomblé is practiced primarily in Brazil, it is also practiced in other countries, including Uruguay, Argentina, Venezuela, Colombia, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain, having as many as two million followers.
The religion derives from African Traditional Religion beliefs and practices. It was developed in Brazil with the knowledge of African priests who were enslaved and brought to Brazil, together with their mythology, their culture and language, between 1549 and 1888. It is an oral tradition and therefore has no holy scripture. Practitioners of Candomblé believe in one all powerful God called Oludumaré, who is served by lesser deities, which are called orishas.[a] Candomblé practitioners believe that every person has their own individual orisha which controls his or her destiny and acts as a protector. Music and dance are important parts of Candomblé ceremonies, since the dances enable worshippers to become possessed by the orishas. The rituals also involve offerings from the mineral, vegetable and animal kingdoms. There is no concept of good or bad in Candomblé; each person is required to fulfil his or her destiny to the fullest, regardless of what that is.
- 1 Overview
- 2 History
- 3 Nations
- 4 Beliefs
- 5 Syncretism
- 6 Rituals
- 7 Temples and priesthood
- 8 Priesthood Initiation
- 9 Priesthood
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 Books
- 14 External links
Candomblé is an African-Brazilian syncretic religion; it is a mixture of traditional Yoruba, Fon, Ewe and Bantu beliefs which originated from different regions in Africa, and has also incorporated some aspects of Catholicism over time. In many parts of Latin America, orishas are now conflated with Roman Catholic saints. Candomblé, like most African religions, is an oral tradition and therefore has not been put into text throughout the years. Only recently have scholars and "povo de santo" begun to write down its practices.
The word Candomblé means "dance in honour of the gods", and music and dance are important parts of Candomblé ceremonies. The name Batuque is also used to refer to the religion, especially before the 19th century, when Candomblé became more common. Both words are believed to be derived from a Bantu-family language, mainly that of the Kingdom of Kongo. Candomblé may also be called Macumba in some regions of Brazil, notably Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, although Macumba has a distinct set of practices more akin to European witchcraft.
Although confusion is usually made by non-practitioners, Candomblé is different from Umbanda – another African-Brazilian religion founded in the early 20th century by combining African beliefs with Kardecism – and from similar African-derived religions such as Quimbanda, Haitian Vodou, Cuban Santería, and Obeah, which developed independently of Candomblé and are all virtually unknown in Brazil.
Candomblé was born of a people who were forcibly removed from their homes in Africa and transplanted to Brazil during the slave trade. From the earliest days of the slave trade, many slave owners and Catholic Church leaders felt it was important to convert enslaved Africans. This was in order to fulfil their religious obligations but also in the hope of making the enslaved more submissive. Others also argue that enslaved Africans were religiously persecuted in order that they held no connection to a shared past.
Although the Church succeeded in many cases, not all slaves converted. Many outwardly practised Christianity but secretly prayed to their own God, gods or ancestor spirits. In Brazil, adherents of Candomblé saw in the worship of saints a similarity with their own religion, and Bantu followers found a shared system of worship with Brazil's indigenous people and through this connection they re-learned ancestor worship. They often concealed the sacred symbols of their deities inside their Catholic saints. In addition to that, in the segregated communities of the country, it was easy to create Catholic fraternities where black people would meet with each other. These meetings, however, were actually an opportunity for Candomblé worship to happen and for feasts to be held on special religious days. They were also opportunities for the enslaved to gather and plan rebellions against their masters.
Candomblé was condemned by the Catholic Church, and followers of the faith were persecuted violently right up through government-led public campaigns and police action. The persecution stopped when a law requiring police permission to hold public ceremonies was scrapped in the 1970s. The religion has surged in popularity in Brazil since then, with as many as two million people professing to follow the faith. It is particularly popular in Salvador, Bahia, in the northeast region of Brazil. Currently, many people from African countries visit Bahia in order to learn more about the faith of their ancestors. For many followers, Candomblé is not a matter of religious belief but also of reclaiming the cultural and historical identity which slavery stripped them of. There is also a movement to remove Catholic imagery from worship services, in an attempt to return the faith to its more fundamental origins.
Brazilian slaves came from a number of African ethnic groups, including Igbo, Yoruba, Ewe, Fon, and Bantu. Slave handlers classified them by the shore of embarkment, so the relation to their actual ethnicity may be accurate or not. As the religion developed semi-independently in different regions of the country, among different ethnic groups, it evolved into several "sects" or nations (nações), distinguished chiefly by the set of worshiped deities, as well as the music and language used in the rituals.
The division into nations was also influenced by the religious and beneficent brotherhoods (irmandades) of Brazilian slaves organized by the Catholic Church in the 18th and 19th centuries. These fraternities, organized along ethnic lines to allow preaching in the slaves' native languages, provided a legitimate cover for slave reunions, and ultimately may have aided the establishment of Candomblé.
The following list is a rough classification of the major nations and sub-nations, and their sacred languages:
- Ketu or Queto – Yoruba language (Iorubá or Nagô in Portuguese)
- Bantu or Angola – mix of Bantu (Kikongo and Kimbundo) languages
- Jeje – Ewe, Fon, and Gen languages (Jeje)
- the orishas of Yoruba mythology (Ketu nation), spelled Orixás in Portuguese;
- the voduns of the Ewe and Fon (Jeje nation); and
- the nkisis (minkisi) of the Bantu (Angola nation and Congo).
These deities were created by a supreme God, Olodumare (Zambi for the Bantu people, and Nana Buluku for the Fon people). They are ancestors who have been deified, and can be from recent history, perhaps only one hundred years old, or they may be over a thousand years old. They form a link between the spiritual world and the world of humans.
Candomblé practitioners believe that every person has their own individual deity which controls his or her destiny and acts as a protector. Each deity represents a certain force in nature and is associated with certain foods, colours, animals and days of the week. A person's character or personality is strongly linked to their deity. Collectively, deities are called Baba Egum in Brazil. During important ceremonies, priests and priestesses will masquerade as Baba Egum and specially choreographed dances will be performed in order to become possessed of each ancestor spirit.
Deities from one nation may be acculturated as "guests" in houses and ceremonies of another nation, besides those of the latter. Some nations assign new names to guest spirits, while some retain the names used in the nation of origin.
Concepts of good or bad
There is no concept of good or bad in Candomblé. Each person is only required to fulfil his or her destiny to the fullest, regardless of what that is. This is not a free ticket to do whatever the practitioner wants though. Candomblé teaches that any evil you cause to people will return to you eventually.
The Baba Egum are important in regulating the moral code of Candomblécists. It is their responsibility to make sure that moral standards of the past are continued in the present. This is regulated during worship ceremonies. When a person becomes possessed of their ancestor spirit during the ceremony, they may act out scenes from the community to highlight both good and bad actions in a sort of public tribunal.
There is also an Islamic-linked sect within Candomblé which was more common during the slave days in Brazil. Slaves coming from West Africa had been acculturated with Muslim traditions. These Malês set aside Fridays as the day to worship deities as do the Muslims for prayer and meditation. Malês were the instigators of many slave revolts in Brazil leading in all white with amulets and skull caps as in traditional Islam.
In this regard, it is worth noting that some Candomblé rites have also incorporated local Native American gods — which, to the Church, were just as pagan as the Orishás — because they were seen as the "Orishas of the land". Finally, one should keep in mind that many (if not most) practitioners of Candomblé through the times had not only African roots but European ones as well.
Although syncretism still seems to be prevalent, in recent years the lessening of religious and racial prejudices has given rise to a "traditionalist" movement in Candomblé, that rejects the Christian elements and seeks to recreate a "pure" cult based exclusively in Africa.
The Candomblé ritual has two parts: the "preparation", attended only by priests and initiates, which may start a week in advance; and a festive public "mass" and banquet that starts in the late evening and ends around midnight.
In the first part, initiates and aides wash and iron the costumes for the ceremony, and decorate the house with paper flags and festoons, in the colors favored by the Orixas that are to be honored on that occasion. They also prepare food for the banquet. Some domestic animals are slaughtered; some parts reserved for sacrifice, the rest is prepared for the banquet. On the day of the ceremony, starting in the early morning, cowrie-shell divinations (jogo de búzios) are performed, and sacrifices are offered to the desired Orixás, and to the messenger spirit (Exú in Ketu).
In the public part of the ceremony, "saint-children" invoke and "incorporate" Orixás, falling into a trance-like state. After having fallen into trance, the priest-spirits perform dances symbolic of the Orixá's attributes, while the babalorixá or father of saint (leading male priest) leads songs that celebrate the spirit's deeds. The ceremony ends with a banquet.
Candomblé music, an essential part of the ritual, derives from African music and has had a strong influence in other popular (non-religious) Brazilian music styles. The word batuque, for instance, has entered the Brazilian vernacular as a synonym of "rhythmic percussion music".
Temples and priesthood
Candomblé temples are called houses (casas), plantations (roças), or yards (terreiros). Most Candomblé houses are small, independently owned and managed by the respective higher priests (female mãe-de-santo or male pai-de-santo). A few of the older and larger houses have a more institutional character and more formal hierarchy. There is no central administration. Inside the place of worship are the altars to the Orixás, or Pejis.
Candomblé priesthood is organized into symbolic families, whose members are not necessarily relatives in the common sense. Each family owns and manages one house. In most Candomblé houses, especially the larger ones, the head of the family is always a woman, the mãe-de-santo or ialorixá (mother-of-saint), seconded by the pai-de-santo or babalorixá (father-of-saint). The priests and priestesses may also be known as babalaos (interpreters of búzios), babas, babaloshas and candomblezeiros. Some houses have a more flexible hierarchy which allows the male pai-de-santo to be the head priest. Often during the slave period, the women became the diviners and healers which was not part of African tradition; however, the male slaves were constantly working and did not have the time to take care of daily instances. Or, nursing the children, the women were in the capacity of teaching the knowledge of their old religions to the newer generations.
Admission to the priesthood and progression in the hierarchy is conditioned to approval by the Orixás, possession of the necessary qualities, learning the necessary knowledge, and performance of lengthy initiation rites, which last seven years or more. There are generally two types of priesthood in the different nations of Candomble, and they are made up of those who fall in trance by the Orixá (iyawo) and those who do not (Oga – male/Ekeji – female). It is important not to confuse the meaning and usage of the Yoruba term iyawò (bride in Yoruba) with other African derived religions that use the same term with different meanings.
The seclusion period for the initiation of an iyawo lasts generally 21 days in the Ketu nation and varies depending on the nation. The iyawo's role in the religion is assigned by a divination made by her/his babalorixá/ialorixá; one function that an iyawo can be assigned for is to take care of neophytes as they in their initiatic seclusion period, becoming an expert in all the Orisa foods, becoming an iya or babalorisa themselves, or knowing all ritual songs, etc... The iyawos follow a 7 years period of apprenticeship within which they offer periodical sacrifices in order to reinforce their initiatic links in the form of the so-called obligations of 1, 3 and 7 years. At the 7th year, the iyawos earn their title and can get an honorific title or religious post (oye in Yoruba). Once the iyawo has accomplished their 7th year cycle obligation, they become elders (egbon in Yoruba, egbomi in Brazil, which means my elder) within their religious family.
The other priesthood is reserved for those who do not fall in trance. Ogas and Ekejis do not endure the same path to eldership as do iyawos; they are regarded as elders immediately after their initiation. Their role is to help the baba/ialorixá in different specific ritual tasks like drumming, singing, cooking, taking care of the orixá shrines and when he/she comes down in possession trance, etc... Ogas and Ekejis usually do not go on to become baba/ialorixá, nor do they open their own temples or have filhos de santo (they do not initiate others).
Some well-known temples in Salvador, Bahia
- Ketu, Efon and Nago nations
- Nago/Yoruba tradition
- Ilé Axé Iyá Nassô Oká (Casa Branca do Engenho Velho)
- Ilé Iyá Omi Axé Iyamassê (Terreiro do Gantois)
- Ilé Axé Opô Afonjá
- Ilé Maroialaji (also known as Alaketu)
- Ilé Axé Oxumarê (male or female leadership)
- Terreiro do Cobre
- Asé Yangba Oloroke ti Efon (male or female leadership)
- Casa de Nago (in São Luís, state of Maranhão)
- Ilé Axé Obá Ogunté (Sítio do Pai Adão – in Recife, state of Pernambuco)
- Jeje nation
- Ewe-Fon tradition
- Zoogodô Bogum Male Rundó (Terreiro do Bogum)
- Casa das Minas (in São Luís, state of Maranhão)
- Kwe Ceja Unde (Roça do Ventura – City of Cachoeira, state of Bahia)
- Rumpame Runtoloji (City of Cachoeira, state of Bahia)
Kwé Jidan Vodun Jo
- Mejito Dan Maria de Fatima S. Oliveira (fundadora) 2000
- Ifá only initiation Babalawos, do not come into trance.
- Egungun only initiation Babaojés, do not come into trance.
- Candomblé Ketu initiation Iyawos, come into trance with Orixá.
- Candomblé Jeje initiation Vodunsis, come into trance with Vodun.
- Candomblé Bantu initiation Muzenzas, come into trance with Nkisi.
The Candomblée priesthood is divided into:
- Iyalorixá or Mãe-de-santo (female), and Babalorixá or Pai-de-santo (male) - Orixás' priests
- Doté or Doné – Voduns' priests
- Tateto or Mameto – Nkisis' priests
- Babalawo – Orunmila-Ifas' priests, Worship of Ifá
- Bokonon – Vodun Fas' priests
- BabalOsanyin – Osanyins' priests
- Babaojé – Egunguns' priests
- "Religions - Candomblé: Candomblé at glance". BBC. 15 September 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- Candomble. ReligionFacts. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
- "History of Candomblé". BBC. 15 September 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- Table of correspondences of Orishas, Voduns and Nkisis in Portuguese Wikipedia: Tabela Orixas-Voduns-Nkisis.
- "Candomblé: Beliefs". BBC. 2 February 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- Bastide, Roger. Le candomblé de Bahia . 2001, Paris, Plon.
- Bramley, Serge. Macumba. 1994 – City Lights Books.
- Brown, Diana. Umbanda: Religion and Politics in Urban Brazil. 1994 – Columbia University Press.
- Capone, Stefania. Searching for Africa in Brazil. Power and Tradition in Candomblé . Duke University Press, 2010.
- Carneiro, Edison. "The Structure of African Cults in Bahia" Civilzacao Brasileira, Rio de Janeiro. 1936–37.
- Gordon, Jacob U. " Yoruba Cosmology And Culture in Brazil: A Study of African Survivals in the New World." Journal of Black Studies, Vol.10, No 2. (December 1979): P. 231- 244
- Herkovits, Melville J. "The Social Organization of the Afrobrazilian Candomble." Proceedings of the Congress São Paulo, 1955.
- Johnson, Paul Christopher. "Secrets, Gossip, and Gods The Transformation of Brazilian Candomblé". 2002 – Oxford University Press.
- King, Charles Spencer. " Nature's Ancient Religion: Orisha worship & IFA." 2008 CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1-4404-1733-7
- King, Charles Spencer. "IFA Y Los Orishas: La Religion Antigua De LA Naturaleza" 2011 CreateSpace.ISBN 1-4610-2898-1
- Landes, Ruth. The City of Women. 1994 – University of New Mexico Press.
- Matory, J. Lorand. Black Atlantic Religion: Tradition, Transnationalism, and Matriarchy in the Afro-Brazilian Candomblé . 2005 – Princeton University Press.
- Matory, J. Lorand. "Gendered Agendas: The Secrets Scholars Keep about Yoruba-Atlantic Religion." Gender & History 15, no. 3 (November 2003): p. 409–439."
- Omari-Tunkara, Mikelle S. "Manipulating the Sacred: Yoruba Art, Ritual, and Resistance in Brazilian Candomble". 2005 – Wayne State University Press.
- Reis, João José. "Candomblé in Nineteenth-Century Bahia: Priests, Followers, Clients" in Rethinking the African Diaspora:The Making of a Black Atlantic World in the Bight of Benin and Brazil Mann, Kristina and Bay, Edna G. Ed. Geu Heuman and James Walvin. 2001-Frank Cass
- Reis, João José. Slave Rebellion in Brazil:The Muslim Uprising of 1835 in Bahia (Baltimore and London:The Johns Hopkins University Press,1995).
- Souty, Jérôme. Pierre Fatumbi Verger: Du Regard Détaché à la Connaissance Initiatique, Paris, Maisonneuve & Larose, 2007.
- Voeks, Robert A. "Sacred Leaves of Candomble: African Magic, Medicine, and Religion in Brazil." Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1997.
- Verger, Pierre Fatumbi. "Dieux D'Afrique. Paul Hartmann, Paris (1st edition, 1954; 2nd edition, 1995). 400pp, 160 b/w photos, ISBN 2-909571-13-0.
- McGowan, Chris and Pessanha, Ricardo. "The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova and the Popular Music of Brazil." 1998. 2nd edition. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-545-3
- Wafer, Jim. Taste of Blood: Spirit Possession in Brazilian Candomble. 1991 – University of Pennsylvania Press.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Candomblé.|
- Candomblé music Webcast explores the influence of African culture on Brazilian music
- (English) (French) (Dutch) discovering Candomblé in Bahia
- Ilé Axé Opô Afonjá, a major house
- Ama, A Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade
- Unesco 2004: Slavery Abolition Year
- Religious Rhythms - The Afro-Brazilian Music of Candomblé
- Quimbanda Web page – Brazilian Tradition related to Candomble
- (English) (French) (Dutch) Candomblé experiences in Bahia, Salvador and Cachoeira
- Baba Alawoye.com Baba'Awo Awoyinfa Ifaloju, using web media 2.0 (blogs, podcasting, video & photocasting)