Green Line (Minneapolis-Saint Paul)

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     METRO Green Line
Green Line train on University of Minnesota east bank.jpg
The Green Line train between Kenneth H. Keller Hall and Malcolm Moos Health Sciences Tower on the University of Minnesota campus near East Bank station
Overview
Type Light rail
System Metro Transit Light Rail
Status Under construction and planned
Locale

Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan:

Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota
Termini Target Field Station (West)
Saint Paul Union Depot (East)
Stations 40 planned (18 new stations on the corridor to St Paul, 17 on the Southwest Corridor, 5 shared with existing Blue Line)
Daily ridership 42,170 est. (2030)[1]
Operation
Opening June 14, 2014 (planned)[2]
Operator(s) Metro Transit
Character Surface
Technical
Line length 26.8-mile (43.1 km)
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Electrification Overhead lines 750 V DC
Route map
Bottineau Transitway (proposed)
Southwest Corridor (proposed)
Target Fieldto Northstar Line
and proposed Duluth and Red Rock lines
Interstate 394
Warehouse District / Hennepin
Nicollet Mall
Government Plaza
Downtown East / Metrodome
Minneapolis downtown fare zone
METRO Blue Line
Interstate 35W
West Bank
Mississippi River
East Bank
Stadium Village
Prospect Park
Minneapolis/ St. Paul border
Westgate
Minnesota State Highway 280
Raymond Avenue
Amtrak Empire Builder
Fairview Avenue
Snelling Avenue
Hamline Avenue
Lexington Parkway
Victoria Street
Dale Street
Western Avenue
St. Paul downtown fare zone
Capitol/Rice Street
Robert Street
Interstate 94
10th Street
Central
Saint Paul Union Depot
proposed Red Rock Corridor

The METRO Green Line (formerly called the Central Corridor) is a light rail line under construction and in planning stages that will cover the 26.8-mile (43.1 km) distance between, and connect the downtowns of, Minneapolis and Saint Paul in Minnesota as well as St. Louis Park, Hopkins, Minnetonka, and Eden Prairie in the Southwest. The line will follow the path of current Metro Transit bus routes 16 and 50 along University Avenue and Washington Avenue (which runs from downtown Minneapolis through the University of Minnesota main campus). It will be the second light-rail line in the region, after the Blue Line, which opened in 2004 and connects Minneapolis with the southern suburb of Bloomington. Construction on the Green Line began in late 2010,[3] and is nearly complete. It is projected to open to the public on June 14, 2014.[4]

History[edit]

Former streetcar line[edit]

The Green Line's opening will mark the return of rail to the University Avenue corridor. The original street car line was built in 1890. It was paved over in 1953. The old tracks remained beneath the center median pavement until 2012, when they were excavated and removed for the new line.

Proposals[edit]

In 1972, the Regional Fixed Guideway Study for the Metropolitan Transit Commission (the forerunner of today's Metro Transit) proposed a $1.3 billion 37- or 57-mile (sources differ) heavy-rail rapid transit system, but the then-separate Metropolitan Council disagreed with that idea – refusing to even look at the plan – and continuing political battles meant that it was never implemented. The Met Council had its own plans for bus rapid transit in the metropolitan region. Another system using smaller people movers was proposed in the 1975 Small Vehicle Fixed Guideway Study and gained the most traction with the Saint Paul city council, but was eventually dropped in 1980.

In the 1980s, light rail was proposed as an alternative, and several possible corridors were identified, including the Central Corridor line which had a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) drawn up in 1982.[5][6][7] It took another two decades before the Blue Line light rail line began operation. It began operations on June 26, 2004, just over 50 years since the last regular-service streetcar ran on June 19, 1954.

Funding[edit]

A 2003 study commissioned by the Central Corridor Coordinating Committee placed the cost at US$840 million. Current estimates place the cost of the light rail line at about US$957 million, with the increase primarily due to inflation over the following decade.[1]

On June 6, 2006, the light rail option was endorsed by the Central Corridor Coordinating Committee.[8] The Metropolitan Council gave final approval to this decision on June 28, 2006.[9]

The existing Blue Line has exceeded ridership predictions, as is the case with many other light rail lines constructed in the U.S. during the last decade.[10][11] This led to some delays for the Central Corridor project because local transit officials were forced to retool ridership models before submitting projections to the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). The Metropolitan Council, which operates Metro Transit, submitted numbers showing that a light rail line would carry 43,000 passengers daily by the year 2030. The FTA agreed that the line would be cost-effective at this level, a key requirement for obtaining federal funding.[12]

In April 2008, Governor Tim Pawlenty initially vetoed $70 million in funding for the Central Corridor project, along with other items, from the state budget. The funding was part of a state-local package of $227 million necessary to get federal transportation funds, and the future of the project was in doubt[13] until May 18, 2008, when a revised bonding bill including the $70 million for the Central Corridor was passed in the Legislature and signed into law by the governor.[14]

In August 2009 the Central Corridor project received a Record of Decision from the Federal Transit Administration. The FTA found the project to have fully and accurately completed its environmental documentation with the publication of the Final Environmental Impact statement earlier in the summer, thus clearing the project for final design.[15]

Construction[edit]

The first construction began in late 2010, including work in downtown St. Paul and near the University of Minnesota campus.[3] By November 2011, construction was about 32% complete, including most heavy construction such as the installation of track segments, a new bridge, partial completion of stations, a rebuilt skyway in St. Paul and the construction of Green Line facilities at St. Paul Union Station.[16]

Due to scope of project, a venture was created by C.S. McCrossan and Ames to complete an area known as The Civil West Project. This area extended from the west side of the 35W abutment, over the Mississippi River, through the UofM campus, and ending at Bedford St. From Bedford to Saint Paul, Walsh Construction served as the general contractor.

In July 2011, the Metropolitan Council officially named the Central Corridor as the Green Line.[17]

As of August 2013, construction was completed and test trains began running over the St Paul line. Official opening of the line is scheduled for June 14, 2014.[4]

An interesting component of the Green Line project was the complexities in design layout. Land surveyors worked directly with over twelve subcontractors to complete the work. A particular area required exclusive attention and support, that being outside the University of Minnesota's biology department. Between Pleasant and Harvard streets there was 1/8" of tolerance between design and as-builds. Control factors used in the biology labs would be impacted by the electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nearby light rail. The 1/8" tolerance is said to cancel out any EMR that the light rail may produce.

Opposition[edit]

Many businesses along the line were opposed to its development because of reduced access for automobiles.[18][19][20] Under current plans, 87% of on-street parking will disappear along University Avenue between Raymond Avenue and Rice Street. At least one restaurant has cited light rail construction as a reason for closing.[21]

The corridor contains working-class residents and immigrant populations from Laos and Vietnam. Although the Green Line construction is mostly on an existing roadway and no land will be condemned, the disruption to existing transit and pedestrian ways has been a concern to some groups. There is also concern that stops for light rail will be placed too far apart and, along with reductions in bus service, transportation options for people will be reduced. Others are concerned about gentrification, where rising property values and taxes could force out lower-income residents.[22]

Others have opposed using Washington Avenue for a pedestrian transit mall, and have opposed using the Washington Avenue bridge, citing traffic concerns, along with the age of the bridge, when other bridges upriver could be used to cross the Mississippi River: the 10th Avenue Bridge, the new I-35W bridge, or the Northern Pacific Bridge Number 9. This last option was preferred by the University of Minnesota, which feared traffic disruption and vibration at some of their research facilities from use of the Washington Avenue route.[23] In late summer 2008, preliminary engineering reports showed that mitigation work could negate the effects of vibrations on university laboratory equipment. The University of Minnesota renewed its objections over vibration concerns along Washington Avenue in late 2009. Negotiations between the Metropolitan Council and the university continued into early 2010. A compromise was reached between the University and the Metropolitan Council and the Washington Avenue bridge was selected for use. As of Summer 2011, work has begun on the Washington Avenue bridge.

In January 2009, Minnesota Public Radio (MPR) raised concerns over the effects of the light-rail trains on their recording studios on Cedar Street in downtown St. Paul. MPR presented the results of an engineering study which they sponsored that conflicted with that performed by the Metropolitan Council. A settlement between MPR and other involved parties will keep the light rail trains on Cedar Street, and will also compensate MPR for the addition of sound-proof upgrades to their studios.[citation needed]

Line color[edit]

In July 2011, the Metropolitan Council officially announced that the Central Corridor will be known as the Green Line. Corresponding transit lines will include the Blue Line (existing Hiawatha LRT), the Orange Line (under-construction I-35W BRT) and the Red Line (existing Cedar Avenue BRT).[17]

Extension[edit]

The line is to be extended to Mitchell Road Station in Eden Prairie, Minnesota along the Green Line Extension (Southwest Transitway). The extension will add 17 additional stations and 12 miles of trackage to the line.[citation needed]

Additional stations[edit]

Some in favor of the line have expressed concern with the number of stations.[19] The neighborhoods along University have demanded that the line have stations every half-mile, from Snelling to Rice Street, which would mean stations at Hamline Avenue, Victoria Street, and Western Avenue. In February 2008, the Central Corridor Management Committee passed a resolution to include below-ground infrastructure for the Hamline, Victoria and Western stations "with the understanding that, if the CEI increases or other dollars are made available by mid-summer 2008, the first claim on those dollars would be one of the infill stations."[24] The Metropolitan Council has included this infrastructure work in their Draft Environmental Impact Statement and has also committed to building one station if any funds become available.

As of 2009, the Federal Transit Administration has increased the Cost Effectiveness Index such that buildout of one station is now feasible.[25] On January 25, 2010, the FTA announced that the three "infill" stations will be built.[26] By December 2012, all three stations were almost complete.

Transit links[edit]

The Northstar Line commuter rail line connects downtown Minneapolis with northwestern suburbs, with a station at the north/western terminus of the Blue and Green Lines. The two light rail lines would share trackage in downtown between the Northstar station and the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome. A short westward extension to the Blue Line was completed connecting it to Target Field and making it easier to directly transfer from Northstar to either of the light rail corridors.

The temporary eastern terminus of the Green Line will be a street level station in front of the Saint Paul Union Depot, considered one of the great architectural achievements in the city and formerly one of the main points of departure for area train riders up until passenger rail service in the United States was restructured in the 1960s and 1970s. Future plans call for extending the line down to the concourse level, and provisions have been made including building the maintenance shops on adjacent land. The concourse of the Union Depot would become a transfer point for people coming into St. Paul along the proposed Red Rock and Rush Line commuter rail lines. As of March 2014, Union Depot is a transit center for Metro Transit and Jefferson Lines buses, and later in the spring will begin hosting Amtrak's Empire Builder.

Vehicles[edit]

Siemens Industry Incorporated will build 31 S70 Light Rail Vehicles for the Green Line,[27] and another 10 for the Blue Line's three-car train expansion project, at a per-LRV cost of $3,297,714 and a total contract value of $153,211,516.[28] The 41 LRVs will be built in Florin, California. The first vehicle was delivered on October 10, 2012.[29][30]

The Blue Line's original first-generation fleet of 27 Flexity Swift LRVs was built by Bombardier; the Siemens "type II" LRVs will be mechanically, but not electronically, compatible with the current fleet of 27 "type I" vehicles, so while the two generations will be able to run on the tracks at the same time and either type would be able to push a malfunctioning unit of the other type, multiple-unit trains may only be assembled of one type.[31]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Central Corridor LRT: Frequently asked questions". Metropolitan Council. June 27, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  2. ^ "June 14, 2014: Grand opening for METRO Green Line" (Press release). Metropolitan Council. January 22, 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  3. ^ a b "Central Corridor Light Rail Transit (LRT)". Metropolitan Council. 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-30. 
  4. ^ a b Nelson, Tim (January 22, 2014). "Green Line light rail service to start June 14". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  5. ^ "A bold experiment: the Metropolitan Council at 40". Metropolitan Council. Retrieved December 16, 2009. 
  6. ^ Jeff Severns Guntzel (May 19, 2008). "A train linking Minneapolis and St. Paul? We had that scoop in 1984". City Pages. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  7. ^ "ALL ABOARD: For the Transit Study that Never Ends". City Pages. September 5, 1984. 
  8. ^ Blake, Laurie (June 6, 2006). "Trains, not Buses on Central Corridor". Minneapolis Star-Tribune. Archived from the original on January 2, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  9. ^ "Metropolitan Council approves light rail along Central Corridor". Metropolitan Council. June 28, 2006. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  10. ^ "Hiawatha Light Rail Transit facts". Metropolitan Council. Retrieved 2008-04-09. 
  11. ^ "10.3 Billion Trips Taken on Public Transportation Ridership in 2007 – The Highest Level in 50 Years; Ridership Increased as Gas Prices Remained High". American Public Transport Association. Retrieved 2008-04-09. [dead link]
  12. ^ Salisbury, Bill (March 22, 2006). "Central Corridor light rail wins key OK". St. Paul Pioneer Press. Retrieved 2006-04-05. 
  13. ^ Salisbury, Bill; Dave Orrick (April 9, 2008). "Central Corridor dead – or alive?". St. Paul Pioneer Press. 
  14. ^ Scheck, Tom (May 18, 2008). "Deal reached at Capitol with little time to spare". Minnesota Public Radio. 
  15. ^ "Central Corridor Project Record of Decision". Metropolitan Council. August 19, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  16. ^ "Heavy construction wrapping up on Central Corridor light-rail project". Progressive Railroading. November 3, 2011. Archived from the original on November 4, 2011. Retrieved November 5, 2011. 
  17. ^ a b "Met Council approves line color names for region's developing transitway system". Metropolitan Council. July 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  18. ^ Havens, Chris (July 29, 2008). "Giving up parking spots on University, but for what?". Minneapolis Star-Tribune. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  19. ^ a b Foti, Jim (February 25, 2008). "Central Corridor: Cost concerns put Plan B in driver's seat". Minneapolis Star-Tribune. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  20. ^ Yuen, Laura (August 11, 2008). "University Avenue business owners step up opposition to LRT". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  21. ^ Slavik, Rachel (March 31, 2011). "Porky's in St. Paul To Close Doors Sunday". CBS Minnesota. Retrieved 2012-01-25. 
  22. ^ Yuen, Laura (April 9, 2006). "Rondo haunting light-rail debate". St. Paul Pioneer Press. Retrieved 2006-04-09. 
  23. ^ Foti, Jim (May 28, 2008). "Volume rises as U, Met Council debate Central Corridor route". Minneapolis Star-Tribune. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  24. ^ "Meeting of the Central Corridor Management Committee February 27, 2008". Central Corridor Management Committee. February 27, 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  25. ^ "FY 2009 New Starts and Small Starts Evaluation and Rating Process". Federal Transit Administration. 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  26. ^ "New rail line to get 3 added St. Paul stations". StarTribune. January 25, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-25. [dead link]
  27. ^ http://www.metrotransit.org/new-light-rail-vehicles-begin-service
  28. ^ "Transportation Committee Business Item 2010-275". Metropolitan Council. July 30, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-06. 
  29. ^ Kevin Giles (August 25, 2010). "Central Corridor contracts awarded". Star Tribune. Retrieved 2010-08-28. 
  30. ^ "First Central Corridor light rail vehicle, rebranded Hiawatha LRV meet the press". Metro Council. October 10, 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-21. 
  31. ^ "Transportation Committee Meeting July 26, 2010". Metropolitan Council. July 26, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-06. 

External links[edit]