H. J. Kania
|Honourable Justice Sir
Harilal Jekisundas Kania
|Justice Harilal Jekisundas Kania in 1951|
|1st Chief Justice of India|
26 January 1950 – 06 November 1951
|Appointed by||Rajendra Prasad,
President of India
|Succeeded by||M. Patanjali Sastri|
|Born||3 November 1890
Surat , British India Now in Surat, Gujarat , India
|Died||6 November 1951|
|Alma mater||Government Law College, Mumbai , Government Law College, Chennai|
Sir Harilal Jekisundas Kania (3 November 1890 - 6 November 1951) was the first Chief Justice of India, dying in office in 1951.
Kania was born to a middle-class family at Surat. His grandfather had been a revenue officer in Gujarat with the British Government, and his father Jekisundas was a Sanskrit professor and later principal of Samaldas College in the princely state of Bhavnagar. His elder brother Hiralal Jekisundas was also a barrister whose son Madhukar Hiralal Kania became a Supreme Court judge in 1987, and subsequently Chief Justice. Kania took his BA from Samaldas College in 1910, followed by an LLB from Government Law College, Bombay in 1912 and an LLM from the same institution in 1913. He began to practise as a barrister at the Bombay High Court in 1915, subsequently marrying the daughter of Sir Chunilal Mehta, sometime member of the executive council of the Governor of Bombay.
For a time, Kania served as acting editor of the Indian Law Reports. Briefly serving as an acting judge on the Bombay High Court in 1930, he was appointed an additional judge on the same court in June 1931, serving until March 1933. Kania then returned to the bar for three months until he was promoted to associate judge in June. In 1943, Kania was knighted in that year's Birthday Honours list. By then the most senior associate judge at the High Court, he was intended to succeed Chief Justice Sir John Beaumont upon the latter's retirement; however, as Beaumont was biased against Indians, he passed Kania over in favour of the next in line, Sir John Stone. While Stone was personally against Kania being passed over, he accepted Beaumont's nomination. However, Kania served as acting chief justice from May–September 1944 and from June–October 1945. He was promoted to associate judge of the Federal Court, then headed by Sir Patrick Spens (later Lord Spens) on 20 June 1946. Spens retired on 14 August 1947, and Kania succeeded him as Chief Justice. After India became a republic on 26 January 1950, Kania was appointed the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India. He died in office of a sudden heart attack on 6 November 1951, aged 61. 
- London Gazette, 28 May 1943
- Gardbois Jr., George H. (2011). Judges of the Supreme Court of India 1950-1989. Oxford University Press. pp. 13–20. ISBN 978-0-19-807061-0.
- "Biography of H. J. Kania". www.supremecourtofindia.nic.in. Retrieved 2008-06-11.
- "H.J. Kania Memorial Library at The Government Law College, Mumbai". Retrieved 2008-06-11.
- H. Gadbois Jr., George (February 1969). "Indian Supreme Court Judges: A Portrait". Law & Society Review (Blackwell Publishing) 3 (2/3): 317–336. JSTOR 3053006.
|Chief Justice of the Federal Court of India||Succeeded by
himself as Chief Justice of India
Chief Justice of the Federal Court of India
|Chief Justice of India
15 August 1947–6 November 1951
M. Patanjali Sastri