Ciudad Bolívar

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Ciudad Bolívar
Ciudad Bolívar historical zone
Ciudad Bolívar historical zone
Flag of Ciudad Bolívar
Flag
Official seal of Ciudad Bolívar
Seal
Nickname(s): La puerta del sur de Venezuela
(English:"The gate to southern Venezuela")
Motto: No encontrarás otra de más variada riqueza
(English:"You won't find another with such a variety of wealth")
Heres Municipality in Bolívar State
Heres Municipality in Bolívar State
Coordinates: 8°07′19″N 63°33′00″W / 8.122°N 63.55°W / 8.122; -63.55Coordinates: 8°07′19″N 63°33′00″W / 8.122°N 63.55°W / 8.122; -63.55
Country Venezuela
State Bolívar
Municipality Heres
Founded 1764
Government
 • Mayor Victor Fuenmayor
Area
 • Total 591 km2 (228 sq mi)
Elevation 43 m (141 ft)
Population (2010)
 • Total 350,691
 • Density 593.39/km2 (1,536.9/sq mi)
 • Demonym Bolívarense
Time zone VST (UTC-4:30)
 • Summer (DST) not observed (UTC-4:30)
Postal code 8001
Area code(s) 0285
The area and population figures are for the municipality.

Ciudad Bolívar (Spanish pronunciation: [sjuˈðað βoˈliβar]) (English: Bolivar City) is the capital of Venezuela's southeastern Bolívar State. It was founded as Angostura in 1764 and renamed in 1846. The town's original name of Angostura was a contraction of its full descriptive name, Santo Tomé de Guayana de Angostura del Orinoco (Saint Thomas of Guiana of the narrows of the Orinoco). The town also gave its name to the Angostura tree (Cusparia febrifuga) which grows in the area. Angostura bitters were invented there in 1824, though the company which produced them later moved to Trinidad and Tobago.[1]

Ciudad Bolívar has a well-preserved historic center; a cathedral and other original colonial buildings surround the Plaza Bolívar. Ciudad Bolívar lies at a spot where the Orinoco River narrows to about 1 mile (1.6 km) in width, and is the site of the first bridge across the river. The city is a major riverport for the eastern regions of Venezuela. The city is home to the Jesús Soto Museum of Modern Art, designed by Venezuelan architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva and named after Jesús Rafael Soto, an artist native to the city. The museum opened in 1973.

Law and government[edit]

Ciudad Bolívar Cathedral and Paseo Orinoco at night

Ciudad Bolívar's municipal government is led by the mayor. Its local legislature is the Municipal Council, made up of seven councillors. A municipal comptroller oversees the public finances, and the Local Public Planning Council manages the municipality's development.[2][dead link]

Vegetation[edit]

Moriche palms and scrub oaks are found on the shores of the river. Species including the carob tree, the sarrapia, and the merecure are prevalent. Local fauna include capybaras, turtles, herons, parrots, limpets, and iguanas, and others. Fish in the area include Salminus and Palometa.

Climate[edit]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Ciudad Bolívar has a tropical savanna climate (Aw) with distinctive dry and wet seasons. The average temperature is 28.5 °C (83.3 °F) which remains fairly constant throughout the year, varying between 27.6 °C (81.7 °F) in January to 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) in October. The dry season, which runs from December to April has little precipitation during these months and temperatures tend to be cooler than the wet season but still hot, regularly reaching 32 °C (90 °F) during the day and dropping to 22 °C (72 °F) during the night. The wet season which runs from May to early November sees and increase in precipitation levels although days without any precipitation are common. Temperatures tend to be slightly warmer than the dry season. On average, Ciudad Bolívar receives 977 mm (38.5 in) of precipitation per year and there are 89.3 days with measureable rainfall. The city is fairly sunny, averaging almost 2900 hours of sunshine or an average of 7.9 hours of sunshine per day, ranging from a high of 260.4 hours in October (8.4 hours of sunshine per day) to a low of 201.0 hours in June (or 6.7 hours of sunshine per day).[3]

Climate data for Ciudad Bolívar Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.1
(98.8)
39.8
(103.6)
39.2
(102.6)
39.7
(103.5)
40.4
(104.7)
37.4
(99.3)
37.3
(99.1)
37.6
(99.7)
38.0
(100.4)
37.9
(100.2)
38.2
(100.8)
37.6
(99.7)
40.4
(104.7)
Average high °C (°F) 32.3
(90.1)
33.2
(91.8)
34.3
(93.7)
35.0
(95)
34.4
(93.9)
32.7
(90.9)
32.4
(90.3)
32.9
(91.2)
33.6
(92.5)
33.6
(92.5)
33.4
(92.1)
32.5
(90.5)
33.4
(92.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.6
(81.7)
28.0
(82.4)
28.9
(84)
29.5
(85.1)
29.4
(84.9)
28.2
(82.8)
27.9
(82.2)
28.4
(83.1)
28.8
(83.8)
28.9
(84)
28.8
(83.8)
28.0
(82.4)
28.5
(83.3)
Average low °C (°F) 22.8
(73)
22.7
(72.9)
23.5
(74.3)
24.0
(75.2)
24.3
(75.7)
23.7
(74.7)
23.4
(74.1)
23.8
(74.8)
24.0
(75.2)
24.1
(75.4)
24.1
(75.4)
23.4
(74.1)
23.7
(74.7)
Record low °C (°F) 17.9
(64.2)
18.1
(64.6)
20.0
(68)
18.6
(65.5)
17.7
(63.9)
18.2
(64.8)
18.2
(64.8)
17.8
(64)
18.0
(64.4)
18.5
(65.3)
19.2
(66.6)
18.0
(64.4)
17.7
(63.9)
Rainfall mm (inches) 21.7
(0.854)
13.3
(0.524)
8.9
(0.35)
26.8
(1.055)
102.3
(4.028)
165.1
(6.5)
183.2
(7.213)
160.1
(6.303)
95.7
(3.768)
97.3
(3.831)
61.7
(2.429)
40.9
(1.61)
977.0
(38.465)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 3.9 2.3 1.6 2.4 9.0 15.3 14.9 11.8 8.2 7.4 6.2 6.3 89.3
 % humidity 69.5 67.5 66.0 66.5 69.5 73.5 73.5 72.5 70.5 71.0 71.5 72.0 70.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 248.0 235.2 263.5 234.0 226.3 201.0 232.5 248.0 252.0 260.4 249.0 244.9 2,898.4
Source #1: Instituto Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología (INAMEH)[4][5]
Source #2: NOAA (extremes, sun, precipitation days only),[3] World Meteorological Organization (precipitation data)[6]

Economy[edit]

The Bolívar state economy is dominated by agriculture and animal husbandry, particularly cattle and pigs. Agricultural products of the area include maize, cassava, mango, yam, and watermelon. Tourism has become increasingly important to the area.

Local mass media include the television stations Bolívar Visión and TV Río, and newspapers El Bolivarense, El Expreso, El Progreso, and El Luchador.

Culture[edit]

A street in the city's historic district
Zamuro castle site

Ciudad Bolívar's historic district is a popular tourist attraction, featuring houses and buildings that date from the colonial period. The Jesús Soto Museum of Modern Art—named after the city's native sculptor and painter Jesús Soto—features a collection of modern works by Venezuelan and international artists. Ciudad Bolívar is also the birthplace of musicians Cheo Hurtado, Iván Pérez Rossi and Antonio Lauro, and the home of the musical group Serenata Guayanesa.

Traditional local cuisine includes desserts and preserves made of cashew nuts, eaten alone or roasted with salt. The cassava bread prepared in the area is well known, as well as several meals made of tortoise meat such as the Carapacho de Morrocoy Guayanés (baked tortoise in its shell). Locals also use the juice of cassava to create the spicy Catara sauce, an alleged aphrodisiac.

Education[edit]

Universities in the city include the Universidad de Oriente (a public university founded in 1962),[7][dead link] the Universidad Nacional Experimental de Guayana (a public university founded in 1982),[8] the Universidad Simón Rodríguez, the Universidad Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho, the Instituto Universitario Tecnologico del estado Bolívar, the Universidad Nacional Abierta, the Instituto Universitario Tecnológico Rodolfo Loero Arismendi, and the Bolivarian University of Venezuela.

Transportation[edit]

Angostura Bridge over the Orinoco river at Ciudad Bolívar

Buses are the main means of public transport in the city.

The José Tomás de Heres Airport is located in the center of the city.

The Angostura Bridge connects the city to the rest of Venezuela. The freeway that connects Ciudad Bolívar with Ciudad Guayana is a major regional road.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Loeb, Katie M. (2012). Shake, Stir, Pour: Fresh Homegrown Cocktails. Beverly, MA: Quarry Books. p. 146. ISBN 9781592537976. OCLC 806490659. 
  2. ^ Law and government
  3. ^ a b "Ciudad Bolivar Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 2, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Estadísticos Básicos Temperaturas y Humedades Relativas Máximas y Mínimas Medias" (pdf). INAMEH (in Spanish). Retrieved March 2, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Estadísticos Básicos Temperaturas y Humedades Relativas Medias" (pdf). INAMEH (in Spanish). Retrieved March 2, 2013. 
  6. ^ "World Weathr Information Service - Cd. Bolivar". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved March 2, 2013. 
  7. ^ Universidad de Oriente
  8. ^ Universidad Nacional Experimental de Guayana

External links[edit]