Coke R. Stevenson

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Coke R. Stevenson
Coke R Stevenson.jpg
35th Governor of Texas
In office
August 4, 1941 – January 21, 1947
Lieutenant John Lee Smith (1943–1947)
Preceded by W. Lee O'Daniel
Succeeded by Beauford H. Jester
31st Lieutenant Governor of Texas
In office
January 17, 1939 – August 4, 1941
Governor W. Lee O'Daniel
Preceded by Walter Frank Woodul, Sr
Succeeded by John Lee Smith
Personal details
Born (1888-03-20)March 20, 1888
Mason County, Texas, U.S.
Died June 28, 1975(1975-06-28) (aged 87)
San Angelo, Texas, U.S.
Resting place Stevenson Family Ranch Cemetery
Telegraph, Texas
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s)
  • Fay Wright (1912–1942; her death)
  • Marguerite King-Heap (1954–1975; his death)
Children
  • Coke Jr.
  • Jane
Profession Rancher
Religion Methodist
Coke R. Stevenson Memorial Center meeting hall is located off Interstate 10 in Junction, Texas.

Coke Robert Stevenson (March 20, 1888 – June 28, 1975) was the 35th Governor of Texas from 1941 to 1947. He was the only 20th century Texan politician to serve as Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives, as Lieutenant Governor, and then as governor. In 1966, Recorded Texas Historic Landmark marker number 5118, honoring Stevenson, was placed on the Kimble County Courthouse grounds in Junction, Texas.[1]

Early life[edit]

He was born near the geographic center of Texas in Mason County to Robert Milton and Virginia Hurley Stevenson. His parents named him for Governor Richard Coke.[2] As a teenager, he went into the business of hauling freight with a six-horse wagon. Stevenson studied law while working as a bank janitor and cashier, and attained admission to the bar in 1913.[3]

Early career[edit]

In 1913, Coke Stevenson became president of the First National Bank in Junction, the seat of Kimble County. He was Kimble County Attorney from 1914 to 1918 and Kimble county judge, the chief county administrator with some judicial duties, from 1919 to 1921.

Public service[edit]

In 1928 he was elected to the Texas House of Representatives as a Democrat, and served there from 1929 until 1939. In 1933, he was elected Speaker of the House; he was re-elected in 1935, becoming the first person in Texas history to serve two consecutive terms as Speaker. After five terms in the House, he was elected Lieutenant Governor in 1938, serving under Governor W. Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel.

Stevenson succeeded to the governorship on August 4, 1941, when O'Daniel resigned to take a seat in the U.S. Senate, which he won in a special election. In dramatic contrast to the flamboyant and unpredictable O'Daniel, Stevenson's approach was so conservative and taciturn that his critics accused him of doing nothing. Stevenson was elected to a full term in 1942, winning the Democratic primary with 69% of the vote and being unopposed in the general election. He was elected to a second term in 1944, effectively unopposed.[4] When he left the governorship in January 1947, he was the longest-serving governor in the history of Texas and had presided over a broad and deep economic recovery during the years of World War II.

In 1948, Stevenson filed his candidacy for the U.S. Senate. He led the Democratic primary with 39.7% to 33.7% against U.S. Representative Lyndon B. Johnson of Austin. A third candidate was George Peddy of Houston, originally from Shelby County in East Texas, who had been an Independent write-in candidate for the Senate in 1922 but was defeated by Democratic nominee Earle Bradford Mayfield.[5] As the lowest finisher in the primary, Peddy was eliminated from the runoff election.

In the hotly contested runoff between Stevenson and Johnson, Johnson won by only 87 votes out of 988,295 cast - one of the closest results in a senatorial election in U.S. history.[6] (As there was only a weak Republican Party in Texas at the time, winning the Democratic primary was tantamount to victory.) Stevenson challenged the result on grounds of voter fraud, a charge widely acknowledged as accurate today on the basis of evidence presented by Johnson biographer Robert Caro, such as the testimony of Luis Salas, the Texas election judge who certified the disputed ballots.[7] However, the Democratic State Central Committee sustained Johnson's victory by a 29–28 vote. The tie-breaking vote was cast by publisher Frank W. Mayborn of Temple, who rushed back to Texas from a business trip in Nashville, Tennessee, at the urging of Johnson's campaign manager, John B. Connally. Stevenson was granted an injunction by the federal district court, barring Johnson from the general election ballot. However, Supreme Court Associate Justice Hugo Black, sitting as a circuit justice, ruled that the federal district court lacked jurisdiction, and that the question was for the Central Committee to decide.[8] He ordered the injunction stayed, and his ruling was upheld by the Supreme Court.[9]

After the loss to Johnson, Stevenson retired to Junction. Disenchanted with the Democratic Party, he supported Republicans for the rest of his life, including John G. Tower for the Senate and Richard M. Nixon and Barry Goldwater for the presidency.

In 1964, he met at his ranch with the Republican gubernatorial nominee Jack Crichton of Dallas. He did not specifically endorse Crichton over John B. Connally, who had worked for Johnson against Stevenson in the disputed 1948 vote, but meeting with Crichton was seen as a sign of Stevenson's support.

Personal life and death[edit]

On December 24, 1912, Stevenson married Fay Wright. The couple had one son, Coke Stevenson Jr. Fay died on January 3, 1942, and is buried at the Junction Cemetery.[10]

On January 16, 1954, Stevenson married the widow Marguerite King Heap. Marguerite had one son Dennis from her marriage to Gordon Marshall Heap, who died in action during World War II. Coke and Marguerite had one daughter, Jane Stevenson. Marguerite died March 24, 2010 in Ozona, Texas.[11][12]

Stevenson died on June 28, 1975, at Shannon Memorial Hospital in San Angelo, Texas, and is buried at the Stevenson Family Ranch Cemetery.[13]

Historiography[edit]

Stevenson's character became a subject of historical discussion after the publication of Means of Ascent, the second volume of Robert Caro's best-selling biography of Lyndon Johnson, which covers the disputed 1948 election. Caro portrayed Stevenson as an honorable statesman and reluctant office-seeker, in contrast to the venal and intensely ambitious Johnson.[14]

His editor, Robert Gottlieb, complained Caro idealized Stevenson because of distaste for Johnson.[15] Stevenson was a traditional Texas Democratic politician. When a black man was lynched in Texarkana, Texas in 1943, Stevenson did little in response. In private he is alleged to have said, "Well, you know these negroes sometimes do those kinds of things that provoke whites to such action." [16]

In the April 26, 1990 issue of the New York Review of Books, Pulitzer Prize-winning author Garry Wills criticized Caro's characterization of the former Texas Governor as anti-corrupt and pointed out that Stevenson had also likely forged a significant number of votes in the very same corrupt counties which aided Johnson in 1948 whenever he ran for Governor.[17] In one Texas Gubernatorial primary, Stevenson obtained 3,310 votes in the notorious Duval County while five of his rivals split the remaining 17 votes that were tallied.[17] In another such primary, an opponent of Stevenson won a south Texas county by a total of 3000-5 votes and then lost the county to Stevenson by exactly the same margin after a dispute with the county boss resulted in a runoff.[17]

Caro answered these criticisms in an essay in the New York Times Book Review of February 2, 1991.[18][19] This essay also appeared as an afterword to the paperback edition of Means of Ascent. Caro asserted that Stevenson, while very much a man of his day, was also the throwback western original portrayed in Caro's book.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Coke Stevenson Recorded Texas Historic Landmark". Texas Historical Commission. Retrieved 16 February 2011. 
  2. ^ Robert A. Caro: The Years of Lyndon Johnson: Means of Ascent, p. 146. New York 1991, Vintage. ISBN 978-0-679-73371-3
  3. ^ Robert Dallek, Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1908-1960, Volume 1, 1991, page 315
  4. ^ Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections. Congressional Quarterly. 1985. pp. 529, 1087. 
  5. ^ "George Edwin Bailey Peddy". tshaonline.org. Retrieved June 18, 2013. 
  6. ^ Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections. Congressional Quarterly. 1985. p. 1101. 
  7. ^ Christopher Lehmann-Haupt (March 8, 1990). "Books of The Times; The Making of a Senator In the Stealing of an Election". The New York Times. Retrieved April 12, 2012. 
  8. ^ Martin Tolchin (February 11, 1990). "How Johnson Won Election He'd Lost". The New York Times. Retrieved April 12, 2012. 
  9. ^ Harvard Law Review, Vol. 62, No. 2 (Dec., 1948), pp. 311-313
  10. ^ Fay Wright Stevenson at Find a Grave
  11. ^ "Marguerite K. Stevenson obituary". The Ozona Stockman. 26 May 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2011. 
  12. ^ Branda, Eldon S. "Coke Robert Stevenson". Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 16 February 2011. Texas State Historical Association
  13. ^ Coke Robert Stevenson at Find a Grave
  14. ^ Caro, Robert A. (1990). "The Story of Coke Stevenson". Means of Ascent. The Years of Lyndon Johnson. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. pp. 145–178. ISBN 0-394-52835-2. 
  15. ^ Charles McGrath (April 12, 2012). "Robert Caro’s Big Dig". The New York Times. 
  16. ^ "LBJ, The American Experience". PBS. 2008-10-20. 
  17. ^ a b c Garry Willis (April 26, 1990 issue). Monstre Désacré. New York Review of Books. Retrieved February 20, 2014. 
  18. ^ Caro, Robert A. (February 3, 1991). "My Search for Coke Stevenson". The New York Times Book Review. Archived from the original on 2009-04-18. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  19. ^ Caro, Robert A. (February 3, 1991). "My Search for Coke Stevenson". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-04-10. "magazines and newspapers made statements about Coke Stevenson, Lyndon Johnson's opponent in the 1948 United States Senate campaign, for which I believe there is no factual basis. Some of these articles, no doubt inadvertently, repeated allegations and rumors circulated in 1948 by Johnson and his followers in their effort to undermine Stevenson's reputation -- allegations and rumors I also believe to be without factual basis." 
  • Tex. Legis. Council, Presiding Officers of the Texas Legislature: 1846-1995 77, 185 (1995)

External links[edit]

Texas House of Representatives
Preceded by
Roscoe Runge
Member of the Texas House of Representatives
from District 86 (Junction)

1929–1939
Succeeded by
Claud Henry Gilmer
Political offices
Preceded by
Fred Hawthorne Minor
Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives
1933–1937
Succeeded by
Robert Emmett Morse
Preceded by
Walter Frank Woodul, Sr
Lieutenant Governor of Texas
January 17, 1939 – August 4, 1941
Succeeded by
John Lee Smith
Preceded by
W. Lee O'Daniel
Governor of Texas
August 4, 1941 – January 21, 1947
Succeeded by
Beauford H. Jester