Coke R. Stevenson
|Coke R. Stevenson|
|35th Governor of Texas|
August 4, 1941 – January 21, 1947
John L. Smith
|Preceded by||W. Lee O'Daniel|
|Succeeded by||Beauford H. Jester|
|31st Lieutenant Governor of Texas|
January 17, 1939 – August 4, 1941
|Governor||W. Lee O'Daniel|
|Preceded by||Walter Frank Woodul, Sr|
|Succeeded by||John Lee Smith|
March 20, 1888|
Mason County, Texas, U.S.
|Died||June 28, 1975
San Angelo, Texas, U.S.
|Resting place||Stevenson Family Ranch Cemetery
Coke Robert Stevenson (March 20, 1888 – June 28, 1975) was the 35th Governor of Texas from 1941 to 1947. He was the only 20th century Texan politician to serve as Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives, as Lieutenant Governor, and then as governor. In 1966, Recorded Texas Historic Landmark marker number 5118, honoring Stevenson, was placed on the Kimble County Courthouse grounds in Junction, Texas.
He was born near the geographic center of Texas in Mason County to Robert Milton and Virginia Hurley Stevenson. His parents named him for Governor Richard Coke. As a teenager, he went into the business of hauling freight with a six-horse wagon. While hauling freight he studied bookkeeping by the light of his nighttime campfires as part of a plan to begin a business or banking career. Offered a position as a janitor for the Junction State Bank, he accepted and sold his freight hauling business. He was soon promoted to bookkeeper, and he became the bank's cashier when he was twenty.
Stevenson studied law at night in the office of attorney and judge Marvin Ellis Blackburn while working at the bank, and attained admission to the bar in 1913.
In 1913, Stevenson organized and became president of the First National Bank in Junction, the seat of Kimble County. He also became active in several other business ventures, including a warehouse, movie theater, hardware store, automobile dealership, newspaper, drug store, and hotel. He was Kimble County Attorney from 1914 to 1918 and Kimble County Judge, the county's chief administrative and executive position, from 1919 to 1921.
In 1928 he was elected to the Texas House of Representatives as a Democrat, and served there from 1929 until 1939. In 1933, he was elected Speaker of the House; he was re-elected in 1935, becoming the first person in Texas history to serve two consecutive terms as Speaker. After five terms in the House, he was elected Lieutenant Governor in 1938, serving under Governor W. Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel.
Stevenson succeeded to the governorship on August 4, 1941, when O'Daniel resigned to take a seat in the U.S. Senate, which he won in a special election. In dramatic contrast to the flamboyant and unpredictable O'Daniel, Stevenson's approach was so conservative and taciturn that his critics accused him of doing nothing. Stevenson was elected to a full term in 1942, winning the Democratic primary with 69% of the vote and being unopposed in the general election. He was elected to a second term in 1944, effectively unopposed. When he left the governorship in January 1947, he was the longest-serving governor in the history of Texas and had presided over a broad and deep economic recovery during the years of World War II.
In 1948, Stevenson filed his candidacy for the U.S. Senate. He led the Democratic primary with 39.7% to 33.7% against U.S. Representative Lyndon B. Johnson of Austin. A third candidate was George Peddy of Houston, originally from Shelby County in East Texas, who had been an Independent write-in candidate for the Senate in 1922 but was defeated by Democratic nominee Earle Bradford Mayfield. As the lowest finisher in the primary, Peddy was eliminated from the runoff election.
In the hotly contested runoff between Stevenson and Johnson, Johnson won by only 87 votes out of 988,295 cast - one of the closest results in a senatorial election in U.S. history. (As there was only a weak Republican Party in Texas at the time, winning the Democratic primary was tantamount to victory.) Stevenson challenged the result on grounds of ballot stuffing, a charge widely acknowledged as accurate today on the basis of evidence presented by Johnson biographer Robert Caro, such as the testimony of Luis Salas, the Texas election judge who certified the disputed ballots. However, the Democratic State Central Committee sustained Johnson's victory by a 29–28 vote. The tie-breaking vote was cast by publisher Frank W. Mayborn of Temple, who rushed back to Texas from a business trip in Nashville, Tennessee, at the urging of Johnson's campaign manager, John B. Connally. Stevenson was granted an injunction by the federal district court, barring Johnson from the general election ballot. However, Supreme Court Associate Justice Hugo Black, sitting as a circuit justice, ruled that the federal district court lacked jurisdiction, and that the question was for the Central Committee to decide. He ordered the injunction stayed, and his ruling was upheld by the Supreme Court.
After the loss to Johnson, Stevenson retired to Junction. Disenchanted with the Democratic Party, he supported Republicans for the rest of his life, including John G. Tower for the Senate and Richard M. Nixon and Barry Goldwater for the presidency.
In 1964, he met at his ranch with the Republican gubernatorial nominee Jack Crichton of Dallas. He did not specifically endorse Crichton over John B. Connally, who had worked for Johnson against Stevenson in the disputed 1948 vote, but meeting with Crichton was seen as a sign of Stevenson's support.
Personal life and death
On December 24, 1912, Stevenson married Fay Wright. The couple had one son, Coke Stevenson Jr. Fay died on January 3, 1942, and is buried at the Junction Cemetery.
On January 16, 1954, Stevenson married the widow Marguerite King Heap. Marguerite had one son Dennis from her marriage to Gordon Marshall Heap, who died in action during World War II. Coke and Marguerite had one daughter, Jane Stevenson. Marguerite died March 24, 2010 in Ozona, Texas.
Stevenson's character became a subject of historical discussion after the publication of Means of Ascent, the second volume of Robert Caro's best-selling biography of Lyndon Johnson, which covers the disputed 1948 election. Caro portrayed Stevenson as an honorable statesman and reluctant office-seeker, in contrast to the venal and intensely ambitious Johnson.
Caro's editor, Robert Gottlieb, argued that Caro idealized Stevenson because of distaste for Johnson. As an example of Stevenson's place as a traditional, conservative Texas Democratic politician of the early to mid-1900s, when a black man was lynched in Texarkana, Texas in 1943, Stevenson did little in response. In private he is alleged to have said, "Well, you know these negroes sometimes do those kinds of things that provoke whites to such action." 
In the April 26, 1990 issue of the New York Review of Books, Pulitzer Prize-winning author Garry Wills criticized Caro's characterization of the former Texas Governor as anti-corrupt and pointed out that in his gubernatorial campaigns, Stevenson had also likely forged a significant number of votes in the very same corrupt counties which aided Johnson in 1948. In one Texas Gubernatorial primary, Stevenson obtained 3,310 votes in the notorious Duval County while five of his rivals split the remaining 17 votes that were tallied. In another such primary, an opponent of Stevenson won a south Texas county by a vote of 3000 to five, and then lost to Stevenson by exactly the same margin in the ensuing runoff because of a dispute with the county's political boss.
Caro answered these criticisms in an essay in the New York Times Book Review of February 2, 1991. This essay also appeared as an afterword to the paperback edition of Means of Ascent. Caro asserted that Stevenson, while very much a man of his day, was also the throwback western original portrayed in Caro's book.
- "Coke Stevenson Recorded Texas Historic Landmark". Texas Historical Commission. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- Robert A. Caro: The Years of Lyndon Johnson: Means of Ascent, p. 146. New York 1991, Vintage. ISBN 978-0-679-73371-3
- Robert Dallek, Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1908-1960, Volume 1, 1991, page 315
- Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections. Congressional Quarterly. 1985. pp. 529, 1087.
- "George Edwin Bailey Peddy". tshaonline.org. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections. Congressional Quarterly. 1985. p. 1101.
- Christopher Lehmann-Haupt (March 8, 1990). "Books of The Times; The Making of a Senator In the Stealing of an Election". The New York Times. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- Martin Tolchin (February 11, 1990). "How Johnson Won Election He'd Lost". The New York Times. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- Harvard Law Review, Vol. 62, No. 2 (Dec., 1948), pp. 311-313
- Fay Wright Stevenson at Find a Grave
- "Marguerite K. Stevenson obituary". The Ozona Stockman. 26 May 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- Branda, Eldon S. "Coke Robert Stevenson". Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 16 February 2011.Texas State Historical Association
- Coke Robert Stevenson at Find a Grave
- Caro, Robert A. (1990). "The Story of Coke Stevenson". Means of Ascent. The Years of Lyndon Johnson. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. pp. 145–178. ISBN 0-394-52835-2.
- Charles McGrath (April 12, 2012). "Robert Caro’s Big Dig". The New York Times.
- "LBJ, The American Experience". PBS. 2008-10-20.
- Garry Willis (April 26, 1990 issue). Monstre Désacré. New York Review of Books. Retrieved February 20, 2014. Check date values in:
- Caro, Robert A. (February 3, 1991). "My Search for Coke Stevenson". The New York Times Book Review. Archived from the original on 2009-04-18. Retrieved 2013-04-10.
- Caro, Robert A. (February 3, 1991). "My Search for Coke Stevenson". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-04-10. "magazines and newspapers made statements about Coke Stevenson, Lyndon Johnson's opponent in the 1948 United States Senate campaign, for which I believe there is no factual basis. Some of these articles, no doubt inadvertently, repeated allegations and rumors circulated in 1948 by Johnson and his followers in their effort to undermine Stevenson's reputation -- allegations and rumors I also believe to be without factual basis."
- Tex. Legis. Council, Presiding Officers of the Texas Legislature: 1846-1995 77, 185 (1995)
- Coke Robert Stevenson from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Historic photographs of Coke R. Stevenson, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
- Coke R. Stevenson at Find a Grave
|Texas House of Representatives|
|Member of the Texas House of Representatives
from District 86 (Junction)
Claud Henry Gilmer
Fred Hawthorne Minor
|Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives
Robert Emmett Morse
Walter Frank Woodul, Sr
|Lieutenant Governor of Texas
January 17, 1939 – August 4, 1941
John Lee Smith
W. Lee O'Daniel
|Governor of Texas
August 4, 1941 – January 21, 1947
Beauford H. Jester