|Sam Houston 1849–1853 by artist Thomas Flintoff|
|7th Governor of Texas|
December 31, 1859 – March 28, 1861
|Preceded by||Hardin Richard Runnels|
|Succeeded by||Edward Clark|
|United States Senator
February 26, 1846 – March 5, 1859
|Succeeded by||John Hemphill|
|1st and 3rd President of Texas|
December 21, 1841 – December 9, 1844
|Vice President||Edward Burleson|
|Preceded by||Mirabeau B. Lamar|
|Succeeded by||Anson Jones|
October 22, 1836 – December 10, 1838
|Vice President||Mirabeau B. Lamar|
|Preceded by||David G. Burnet (ad interim)|
|Succeeded by||Mirabeau B. Lamar|
|6th Governor of Tennessee|
October 1, 1827 – April 16, 1829
|Preceded by||William Carroll|
|Succeeded by||William Hall|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's 7th district
March 4, 1823 – March 4, 1827
|Preceded by||None (district created)|
|Succeeded by||John Bell|
March 2, 1793
Rockbridge County, Virginia, U.S.
|Died||July 26, 1863
Huntsville, Texas, U.S.
(formerly Roman Catholic)
Samuel "Sam" Houston (March 2, 1793 – July 26, 1863) was an American politician and soldier, best known for his role in bringing Texas into the United States as a constituent state. His victory at the Battle of San Jacinto secured the independence of Texas from Mexico. The only American to be elected governor of two different States (as opposed to territories or indirect appointments), he was also the only Southern governor to oppose secession (which led to the outbreak of the American Civil War) and to refuse an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, a decision that led to his removal from office by the Texas secession convention.
Houston was born at Timber Ridge Plantation in Rockbridge County of Virginia, of Scots-Irish descent. After migrating to Tennessee from Virginia, he spent spent time with the Cherokee Nation (into which he later was adopted as a citizen and into which he married), military service in the War of 1812, and successful participation in Tennessee politics. In 1827, Houston was elected Governor of Tennessee as a Jacksonian. In 1829, he resigned as governor and relocated to Arkansas Territory. In 1832, Houston was involved in an altercation with a U.S. Congressman, followed by a high-profile trial.
Shortly afterwards, he relocated to Coahuila y Tejas, then a Mexican state, and became a leader of the Texas Revolution. After the war, Houston became a key figure in Texas and was elected as the first and third President of the Republic of Texas. He supported annexation by the United States and after annexation in 1845, he became a U.S. Senator and finally a governor of the Texas in 1859, whereby Houston became the only person to have become the governor of two different U.S. states through direct, popular election, as well as the only state governor to have been a foreign head of state.
As governor, he refused to swear loyalty to the Confederacy when Texas seceded from the Union in 1861 with the outbreak of the American Civil War, and was removed from office. To avoid bloodshed, he refused an offer of a Union army to put down the Confederate rebellion. Instead, he retired to Huntsville, Texas, where he died before the end of the Civil War.
The namesake of the city which, since the 1980s, has become the fourth largest city in the U.S., Houston's reputation was sufficiently large that he was honored in numerous ways after his death, among them: a memorial museum, four U.S. warships named USS Houston (AK-1, CA-30, CL-81, and SSN-713), a U.S. Army base, a national forest, a historical park, a university, and a prominent roadside statue outside of Huntsville.
- 1 Early life
- 2 War of 1812
- 3 Tennessee politics
- 4 Controversy and trial
- 5 Republic of Texas
- 6 U.S. Senator from Texas
- 7 Governor of Texas
- 8 Electoral history
- 9 Personal life and death
- 10 Honors
- 11 Notes
- 12 See also
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Sam Houston was the son of Major Samuel Houston and Elizabeth Paxton. Houston's paternal ancestry is often traced to his great-great grandfather Sir John Houston, who built a family estate in Scotland in the late seventeenth century. His second son, John Houston, emigrated to Ulster, Ireland, during the English plantation period. Under the system of primogeniture, he did not inherit the estate.
After several years in Ireland, John Houston immigrated in 1735 with his family to the North American colonies, where they first settled in Pennsylvania. As it filled with Lutheran German immigrants, Houston decided to migrate south with other Scots-Irish, who settled in the backcountry of lands in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. A historic plaque in Townland tells the story of the Houston family. It is located in Ballyboley Forest Park near the site of the original John Houston estate. It is dedicated to "One whose roots lay in these hills whose ancestor John Houston emigrated from this area."
The Shenandoah Valley attracted many Scots-Irish migrants. Newcomers included the Lyle family of the Raloo area, who helped found Timber Ridge Presbyterian Church. The Houston family settled nearby. Gradually, Houston developed his land and purchased slaves. Their son, Robert, inherited his father's land. The youngest of Robert's five sons was Samuel Houston.
Samuel Houston became a member of Morgan's Rifle Brigade and was commissioned a major during the American Revolutionary War. At the time, militia officers were expected to pay their own expenses. He had married Elizabeth Paxton and inherited his father's land, but he was not a good manager and got into debt, in part because of his militia service. Their children were born on his family's plantation near Timber Ridge Church, including Sam Houston on March 2, 1793, the fifth of nine children and the fifth son born. The senior Samuel and Elizabeth's children were Paxton 1783, Robert 1787, James 1788, John Paxton 1790 (first clerk of Izard County, Arkansas 1819–1838), Samuel 1793, William 1794, Isabella 1796, Mary Blair 1797, and Elizabeth Ann 1800. Today Timber Ridge Plantation has a log building which tradition claims was constructed from logs salvaged from the Sam Houston birthplace cabin.
Planning to move on and leave debts behind, the elder Samuel Houston patented land near relatives in Maryville, the county seat of Blount County, Tennessee. He died in 1807, before he could complete the move which Elizabeth, his five sons and three daughters undertook without him. Elizabeth took them to the eastern part of the new state, which had been admitted to the union in 1796. Having received only a basic education on the Virginia frontier, young Sam was 14 when his family moved to Maryville. In 1809, at age 16, Houston ran away from home, because he was dissatisfied working as a shop clerk in his older brothers' store.
He went southwest, where he lived for a few years with the Cherokee tribe led by Ahuludegi (also spelled Oolooteka) on Hiwassee Island, on the Hiwassee River above its confluence with the Tennessee. Ahuludegi had become hereditary chief after his brother moved west; the European Americans called him John Jolly. He became an adoptive father to Houston, giving him the Cherokee name of Colonneh, meaning "the Raven". Houston learned fluent Cherokee while living with the tribe. He visited his family in Maryville every several months. He returned to Maryville in 1812, and at age 19, Houston founded a one-room schoolhouse in Blount County between his town and Knoxville. This was the first school built in Tennessee.
War of 1812
In 1812 Houston reported to a training camp in Knoxville, Tennessee, and enlisted in the 39th Infantry Regiment to fight the British in the War of 1812. By December of that year, he had risen from private to third lieutenant. At the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in March 1814, he was wounded in the groin by a Creek arrow. His wound was bandaged, and he rejoined the fight. When Andrew Jackson called on volunteers to dislodge a group of Red Sticks from their breastwork, Houston volunteered, but during the assault he was struck by bullets in the shoulder and arm. He returned to Maryville as a disabled veteran, but later took the army's offer of free surgery and convalesced in a New Orleans, Louisiana hospital.
Houston became close to Jackson, who was impressed with him and acted as a mentor. In 1817 Jackson appointed him sub-agent in managing the business relating to Jackson's removal of the Cherokees from East Tennessee to a reservation in what is now Arkansas. He had differences with John C. Calhoun, then Secretary of War, who chided him for appearing dressed as a Cherokee at a meeting. More significantly, an inquiry was begun into charges related to Houston's administration of supplies for the Native Americans. Offended, he resigned in 1818.
Following six months of study at the office of Judge James Trimble, Houston passed the bar examination in Nashville, after which he opened a legal practice in Lebanon, Tennessee. In 1818 Houston was appointed as the local prosecutor in Nashville, and was also given a command in the state militia.
In 1822 Houston was elected to the US House of Representatives for Tennessee, where he was a staunch supporter of fellow Tennessean and Democrat Andrew Jackson. He was widely considered to be Jackson's political protégé, although their ideas about appropriate treatment of Native Americans differed greatly. Houston was a Congressman from 1823 to 1827, re-elected in 1824. In 1827 he declined to run for re-election to Congress.
He ran for, and won, the office of governor of Tennessee in 1827, defeating Congressman Newton Cannon and former governor Willie Blount. He planned to run for re-election in 1829, but resigned after his wife left him shortly after their marriage and made public statements embarrassing to him.
Controversy and trial
In 1830 and 1833 Houston visited Washington, DC, to expose the frauds which government agents committed against the Cherokee. While he was in Washington in April 1832, anti-Jacksonian Congressman William Stanbery of Ohio made accusations about Houston in a speech on the floor of Congress. Attacking Jackson through his protégé, Stanbery accused Houston of being in league with John Van Fossen and Congressman Robert S. Rose. The three men had bid on supplying rations to the various tribes of Native Americans who were being forcibly relocated west of the Mississippi as a result of Jackson's Indian Removal Act of 1830. After Stanbery refused to answer Houston's letters about the accusation, Houston confronted him on Pennsylvania Avenue and beat him with a hickory cane. Stanbery drew one of his pistols and pulled the trigger—the gun misfired.
On April 17 Congress ordered Houston's arrest. During his trial at the District of Columbia City Hall, he pleaded self-defense and hired Francis Scott Key as his lawyer. Houston was found guilty. Thanks to highly placed friends (among them James K. Polk), he was only lightly reprimanded. Stanbery filed charges against Houston in civil court. Judge William Cranch found Houston liable and assessed him $500 in damages. Houston left the United States for Mexico without paying the judgement.
Republic of Texas
Houston's political reputation suffered further due to the publicity related to the trial for his assault of Stanbery. He asked his second wife, Tiana Rodgers, a Cherokee, to go with him to Mexican Texas. She chose to stay at their cabin and trading post in present-day Kansas. She later married a man named John McGrady, and died of pneumonia in 1838. Houston married again after his divorce from Eliza Allen in 1837 and Tiana's death.
Houston left for Texas in December 1832 and was immediately swept up in the politics of what was still a territory of the Mexican state of Coahuila. Attending the Convention of 1833 as representative for Nacogdoches, Houston emerged as a supporter of William Harris Wharton and his brother, who promoted independence from Mexico. This was the more radical position of the American settlers and Tejanos in Texas. He also attended the Consultation of 1835. The Texas Army commissioned him as Major General in November 1835. He negotiated a peace settlement with the Cherokee of East Texas in February 1836 to allay their fears about independence. At the convention to declare Texan Independence in March 1836, Houston was selected as Commander-in-Chief.
On March 2, 1836, his 43rd birthday, Houston signed the Texas Declaration of Independence. Mexican soldiers killed all those at the Alamo Mission at the end of the siege on March 6. On March 11, Houston joined what constituted his army at Gonzales: 374 poorly equipped, trained, or supplied recruits. Word of the defeat at the Alamo reached Houston and, while he waited for confirmation, he organized the recruits as the 1st Regiment Volunteer Army of Texas.
On March 13, short on rations, Houston retreated before the superior forces of Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna. Heavy rain fell nearly every day, causing severe morale problems among the exposed troops struggling in mud. After four days' march, near present-day LaGrange, Houston received additional troops and continued east two days later with 600 men. At Goliad, Santa Anna ordered the execution of approximately 400 volunteer Texas militia led by James Fannin, who had surrendered his forces on March 20. Near present-day Columbus on March 26, Houston's forces were joined by 130 more men, and the next day learned of the Fannin disaster.
Houston continued his retreat eastward toward the Gulf coast, drawing criticism for his perceived lack of willingness to fight. On March 29, camped along the Brazos River, two companies refused to retreat further. Houston decided to use the opportunity for rudimentary training and discipline of his force. On April 2 he organized the 2nd Regiment, received a battalion of regulars, and on April 11 ordered all troops along the Brazos to join the main army, approximately 1,500 men in all. He began crossing the Brazos on April 12.
Finally, Santa Anna caught up with Houston's army, but had split his own army into three separate forces in an attempt to encircle the Texans. At the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836, Houston surprised Santa Anna and the Mexican forces during their afternoon "siesta." The Texans won a decisive victory in under 18 minutes, suffering few casualties. Houston's ankle was shattered by a stray bullet. Badly beaten, Santa Anna was forced to sign the Treaty of Velasco, granting Texas its independence. Although Houston stayed on briefly for negotiations, he returned to the United States for treatment of his ankle wound.
Houston was twice elected president of the Republic of Texas. In the 1836 election, he defeated Stephen F. Austin and Henry Smith with a landslide of over 79% of the vote. Houston served from October 22, 1836, to December 10, 1838, and again from December 12, 1841, to December 9, 1844.
While he initially sought annexation by the U.S., Houston dropped that goal during his first term. In his second term, he strove for fiscal prudence and worked to make peace with the various tribes of Native Americans in the Republic. He also struggled to avoid war with Mexico, whose forces invaded twice during 1842. In response to the Regulator-Moderator War of 1844, he sent in Republic militia to put down the feud.
Houston still believed that the U.S annexation of Texas was not a realistic goal and the U.S. senate would never pass it because of the delicate situation between the recently independent Texas and Mexico. However, Houston was a politician and as such he sought to preserve his career by endorsing the support of Annexation into the U.S. Without his endorsement, the Texas congress would have put the question to public election and upon its likely passing would have effectively destroyed Houston's career as a Texas politician. To help save his political reputation, Houston sent James Pinckney Henderson to Washington to help Van Zandt advocate the annexation of Texas.
Settlement of Houston
The European-American settlement of Houston was founded in August 1836 by brothers J.K. Allen and A.C. Allen. It was named in Houston's honor and served as capital. Gail Borden helped lay out Houston's streets.
In 1837, during Houston's first term as President of the Republic of Texas, he joined the masonic Holland Lodge No. 36. It was founded in Brazoria and was relocated in 1837 to what is now Houston. On December 20, 1837, Houston presided over the convention of Freemasons that formed the Grand Lodge of the Republic of Texas, now the Grand Lodge of Texas.
The city of Houston served as the capital of the republic until President Mirabeau Lamar signed a measure that moved the capital to Austin on January 14, 1839. Between his presidential terms (the constitution did not allow a president to serve consecutive terms), Houston was elected as a representative from San Augustine in the Texas House of Representatives. He was a major critic of President Mirabeau Lamar, who advocated continuing independence of Texas, annihilation of American Indians, and the extension of Texas's boundaries to the Pacific Ocean.
U.S. Senator from Texas
After the annexation of Texas by the United States in 1845, Houston was elected to the U.S. Senate by the Texas state legislature, along with Thomas Jefferson Rusk. Houston served from February 21, 1846, until March 4, 1859. He was a Senator during the Mexican-American War, when the U.S. defeated Mexico and acquired vast expanses of new territory in the Southwest as part of the concluding treaty.
Throughout his term in the Senate, Houston spoke out against the growing sectionalism of the country. He blamed the extremists of both the North and South, saying:
"Whatever is calculated to weaken or impair the strength of [the] Union,—whether originating at the North or the South,—whether arising from the incendiary violence of abolitionists, or from the coalition of nullifiers, will never meet with my unqualified approval."
Houston supported the Oregon Bill in 1848, which was opposed by many Southerners. In his passionate speech in support of the Compromise of 1850, echoing Matthew 12:25, Houston said "A nation divided against itself cannot stand." Eight years later, Abraham Lincoln would express the same sentiment.
Houston opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, and correctly predicted that it would cause a sectional rift in the country that would eventually lead to war, saying: " ... what fields of blood, what scenes of horror, what mighty cities in smoke and ruins—it is brother murdering brother ... I see my beloved South go down in the unequal contest, in a sea of blood and smoking ruin." He was one of only two Southern senators (the other was John Bell of Tennessee) to vote against the act. At the time, he was considered a potential candidate for President of the United States. But, his strong Unionism and opposition to the extension of slavery alienated the Texas legislature and other southern States.
As a former President of Texas, he was the last foreign head of state to serve in the US Congress.
Governor of Texas
Houston ran twice for governor of Texas as a Unionist, unsuccessfully in 1857, and successfully against Hardin R. Runnels in 1859. Upon election, he became the only person elected to serve as governor of two U.S. states, Texas and Tennessee, by popular vote. (Whereas Thomas McKean and John Dickinson had each served as chief executives of Delaware and then of Pennsylvania in the late 18th century, and other state governors had also served as governors of American territory, they achieved at least one of their positions by indirect election or appointment.)
Although Houston was a slave owner and opposed abolition, he opposed the secession of Texas from the Union. An elected convention voted to secede from the United States on February 1, 1861, and Texas joined the Confederate States of America on March 2, 1861. Houston refused to recognize its legality, but the Texas legislature upheld the legitimacy of secession. The political forces that brought about Texas's secession were powerful enough to replace the state's Unionist governor. Houston chose not to resist, stating, "I love Texas too well to bring civil strife and bloodshed upon her. To avert this calamity, I shall make no endeavor to maintain my authority as Chief Executive of this State, except by the peaceful exercise of my functions ... " He was evicted from his office on March 16, 1861, for refusing to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy, writing,
Fellow-Citizens, in the name of your rights and liberties, which I believe have been trampled upon, I refuse to take this oath. In the name of the nationality of Texas, which has been betrayed by the Convention, I refuse to take this oath. In the name of the Constitution of Texas, I refuse to take this oath. In the name of my own conscience and manhood, which this Convention would degrade by dragging me before it, to pander to the malice of my enemies, I refuse to take this oath. I deny the power of this Convention to speak for Texas....I protest....against all the acts and doings of this convention and I declare them null and void.
The Texas secession convention replaced Houston with Lieutenant Governor Edward Clark. To avoid more bloodshed in Texas, Houston turned down U.S. Col. Frederick W. Lander's offer from President Lincoln of 50,000 troops to prevent Texas's secession. He said, "Allow me to most respectfully decline any such assistance of the United States Government."
After leaving the Governor's mansion, Houston traveled to Galveston. Along the way, many people demanded an explanation for his refusal to support the Confederacy. On April 19, 1861 from a hotel window he told a crowd:
Let me tell you what is coming. After the sacrifice of countless millions of treasure and hundreds of thousands of lives, you may win Southern independence if God be not against you, but I doubt it. I tell you that, while I believe with you in the doctrine of states rights, the North is determined to preserve this Union. They are not a fiery, impulsive people as you are, for they live in colder climates. But when they begin to move in a given direction, they move with the steady momentum and perseverance of a mighty avalanche; and what I fear is, they will overwhelm the South.
|This section requires expansion with:
|Republic of Texas presidential election, 1836|
|Independent||Stephen F. Austin||587||9.1%|
|Texas gubernatorial election, 1859|
Personal life and death
On January 22, 1829, at the age of 35, Houston married 19-year-old Eliza Allen, the daughter of the well-connected planter Colonel John Allen (1776–1833) of Gallatin, Tennessee. He was a friend of politician Andrew Jackson, soon to take office as President of the United States. Houston was then governor of Tennessee. Eliza left Houston shortly after their marriage. She publicly said that he had sustained the "dreadful injury" of emasculation in the Creek War of 1814. Subsequent to their separation and her statement, Houston resigned the governorship. Neither Houston nor Eliza ever discussed the reasons for their separation; speculation and gossip credited their split to Eliza's being in love with another man. The aforementioned public statement and Houston's resignation suggest other reasons. Houston seems to have cared for his wife's reputation and wrote to her father.
In April 1829, in part due to the scandal of his well-known separation, Houston resigned as governor of Tennessee. He went west with the Cherokee in Indian Removal to exile in Arkansas Territory. That year he was adopted by Chief John Jolly and thus made a member of the Cherokee. Houston married Tiana Rogers (d. 1838), daughter of Chief John Headman Hellfire Rogers (1740–1833) and Jennie Due (1764–1806), a sister of Chief John Jolly, in a ceremony according to Cherokee customs. Tiana was in her mid-30s, of mixed-race, and the widow of David Gentry, Jr. She had two children from her previous marriage: Gabriel, born 1819, and Joanna, born 1822. She and Houston lived together for several years. Under civil law, he was still legally married to Eliza Allen Houston. Tiana and Houston had one known child: Margaret Lewis Head Houston, born 1830. After declining to accompany Houston to Texas in 1832, Tiana later married John McGrady. In 1838 she died of pneumonia and is buried at Fort Gibson National Cemetery.
Houston officially divorced Eliza Allen Houston in 1837. (She remarried in 1840 to Dr. Elmore Douglass, becoming a stepmother to his ten children. She had four children with him and died in 1861.)
In 1833, Houston was baptized into the Catholic faith in order to qualify under the existing Mexican law for property ownership in Coahuila y Tejas. The sacrament was held in the living room of the Adolphus Sterne House in Nacogdoches.
On May 9, 1840, Houston, aged 47, married for a third time. His bride was 21-year-old Margaret Moffette Lea of Marion, Alabama, the daughter of planters. They had eight children born between Houston's 51st and 68th years. Margaret acted as a tempering influence on her much older husband and convinced him to stop drinking. Although the Houstons had numerous houses, they kept only one continuously: Cedar Point (1840–1863) on Trinity Bay.
By 1854, Margaret had spent 14 years trying to convert Houston to the Baptist church. With the assistance of George Washington Baines, she convinced Houston to convert; he agreed to adult baptism. Spectators from neighboring communities came to Independence, Texas to witness the event. On November 19, 1854, Houston was baptized by Rev. Rufus C. Burleson by immersion in Little Rocky Creek, two miles southeast of Independence. The baptismal site is marked by the Texas Historical Commission as located on Farm to Market Road 150 at Sam Houston Road.
In 1862, Houston returned to Huntsville, Texas, and rented the Steamboat House; the hills in Huntsville reminded him of his boyhood home in Tennessee. Houston was active in the Masonic Lodge, transferring his membership to Forrest Lodge #19. His health deteriorated in 1863 due to a persistent cough. In mid-July, Houston developed pneumonia. He died on July 26, 1863 at Steamboat House, with his wife Margaret by his side.
The inscription on his tomb reads:
A Brave Soldier. A Fearless Statesman.
A Great Orator—A Pure Patriot.
A Faithful Friend, A Loyal Citizen.
A Devoted Husband and Father.
A Consistent Christian—An Honest Man.
Sam Houston was buried in Huntsville, where he had lived in retirement. After her death, Margaret was buried in Independence at her family's cemetery.
Houston family tree
- Huntsville, Texas, is the home of the Sam Houston Memorial Museum and A Tribute to Courage (a 67 ft (20 m) statue), Sam Houston State University, and Houston's gravesite.
- A bronze equestrian sculpture of Houston is located in Hermann Park in Houston, Texas.
- The Sam Houston Wayside near Lexington, Virginia, is a 38,000-pound piece of Texas pink granite commemorating Houston's birthplace.
- The Sam Houston Schoolhouse in Maryville, Tennessee, is Tennessee's oldest schoolhouse. A museum is on the grounds.
- USS Sam Houston, an Ethan Allen class submarine, was named after him.
- The Sam Houston National Forest, one of four national forests in Texas, was named after him.
- The Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center, located outside of Liberty, Texas has the largest known collection of photographs and illustrations of Houston.
- Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio, Texas, is named after him.
- Many cities in the U.S. have a street, school, or park named after Houston; however, New York City's Houston Street was named for William Houstoun, and is pronounced HOW-stin.
- The State of Texas has placed a statue of Houston inside Statuary Hall in the United States Capitol.
- The Sam Houston Coliseum (now demolished) in Houston was named for him.
- A mural on a gas tank depicts Houston; it is located near State Hwy 225 in Houston.
- Sam Houston High School, in Moss Bluff, Louisiana and Arlington, Texas 
- Sam Houston Middle School, in the cities of Irving and Garland, Texas
- Sam Houston Elementary School in Lebanon and Maryville, Tennessee; Eagle Pass, Huntsville, Conroe, Weatherford, and Bryan, Texas, and Houston, Texas 
- A bust of Houston is located inside the Virginia State Capitol Building in Richmond, Virginia
- Bust by Elisabet Ney created for the Chicago World's Fair in 1893.
- The eponymous cities in Texas, Mississippi, and Minnesota are named after Houston
- A road encircling the city of Houston is named the Sam Houston Tollway.
- The song "SayHo" by Scott Miller is about Sam Houston.
- Counties in Minnesota, Tennessee and Texas are named for Houston.
- The county seat of Texas County, Missouri is named for him.
- Williams, John H. (1994), Sam Houston: Life and Times of Liberator of Texas an Authentic American Hero, New York, NY: Touchstone, p. 316, ISBN 0-671-88071-3
- "But when he refused to take the oath of loyalty to the newly formed Confederate States of America, the Texas convention removed him from office on March 16 and replaced him with Lieutenant Governor Edward Clark two days later." Houston, Samuel in the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- William Seale (April 1992). Sam Houston's Wife: A Biography of Margaret Lea Houston. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-0-8061-2436-0.
- Ben R. Guttery (1 October 2007). Representing Texas. Ben Guttery. pp. 83–. ISBN 978-1-4196-7884-4.
- Sue Flanagan (28 June 2010). Sam Houston's Texas. University of Texas Press. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-0-292-78921-0.
- Bill Harvey (1 February 2003). Texas Cemeteries: The Resting Places of Famous, Infamous, and Just Plain Interesting Texans. University of Texas Press. pp. 158–. ISBN 978-0-292-73466-1.
- Erik A. Bruun; Jay Crosby (1999). Our Nation's Archive: The History of the United States in Documents. Black Dog & Leventhal. pp. 268–. ISBN 978-1-57912-067-2.
- Boy Scouts of America, Inc. (April 1963). Magazine article, The Biggest Texan: A Profile of Sam Houston. Boy Scouts of America, Inc. pp. 70–. ISSN 0006-8608.
- James L. Haley, Sam Houston, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004
- Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission Staff (May 1978). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Church Hill". Virginia Department of Historic Resources.
- Neely, Jack. Knoxville's Secret History, Scruffy City Publishing, 1995.
- Samuel Houston from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Neely, Jack, Knoxville's Secret History, Scruffy City Publishing, 1995
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Houston, Sam". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- "Lebanon, Tennessee: A Tour of Our City" (PDF). Lebanon/Wilson County Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved February 5, 2007.[dead link]
- Office History, Nashville District Attorney General
- Helen Burleson Kelso, "BURLESON, EDWARD," Handbook of Texas Online , accessed March 07, 2012.
- Thomas H. Kreneck, "HOUSTON, SAMUEL," Handbook of Texas Online , accessed March 07, 2012.
- "Hard Road to Texas, Texas Annexation 1836-1845, Part 4: A Treaty of Annexation". The Texas State Library and Archives. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- "Holland Masonic Lodge – History". HollandLodge.org. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Sam Houston Biography – Today @ Sam – Sam Houston State University". Shsu.edu. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
- Burleson, Mrs. Georgia J. (1901). "Part IV. Addresses and Articles of Dr. Burleson: General Sam Houston: Address Delivered Before The Texas Legislature, March 2, 1893, At the Memorial Services of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of Gen. Sam Houston, and the Fifty-Seventh of Texas Independence". The Life and Writings of Rufus C. Burleson, D.D., LL.D. p. 579. at Google Books
- James l. Haley. Sam Houston. University of Oklahoma Press, 2004, pp. 390–91.
- James l. Haley, Sam Houston, University of Oklahoma Press, 2004, p. 397
- Empires, Nations, and Families, p. 51
- "Eliza Allen". WNPT.org. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- Ramos, Mary G; Reavis, Dick; Vandivier, Kevin (2004). Compass American Guides: Texas. Compass America Guides. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-676-90502-1.
- Haley (2004) pp. 104,105
- Augustin, Byron; Pitts, William L. "Independence, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
- Seale (1992) 167–171
- "THC-Houston baptismal site". Texas Historical Commission. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- "Sam Houston National Forest". US Forest Service. Archived from the original on 2010-12-06. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Sam Houston mural". Flickr.com. 2008-03-03. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Sam Houston High / Homepage". Samhouston.cpsb.org. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
- "Sam Houston High School". Aisd.net. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Garland ISD: Sam Houston Middle School". Garlandisdschools.net. 2011-09-19. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Houston Elementary School, Bryan, Texas". Bryanisd.org. 2005-06-22. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- http://www.galenaparkisd.com/campuspages/sam/index.htm[dead link]
- Walton, Andrea (2005). Women and Philanthropy in Education. Indiana University Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-253-34466-3.
- Fisher, James D. "Elisabet Ney Museum". Handbook of Texas online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 161.
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- Life of General Houston, 1793–1863 published 1891, hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
- Sam Houston ; David Crockett. published 1901, hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
- Samuel Houston from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Sam Houston Memorial Museum
- Sam Houston Memorial Museum Antiquities Collection From Texas Tides
- Sam Houston's Obituary – The Tri Weekly Telegraph, Houston, Texas July 29, 1863 – TexasBob.com
- Sam Houston Historic Schoolhouse in Maryville, TN USA
- Documentary film on life of Sam Houston. Massive web site with many pictures, links, and educational tools.
- Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture entry
- Tennessee State Library & Archives, Papers of Governor Sam Houston, 1827–1829
- Sam Houston Rode a Gray Horse
- Houston Family Papers, 1836–1869 and undated, in the Southwest Collection/Special Collections Library at Texas Tech University
- Booknotes interview with Marshall DeBruhl on Sword of San Jacinto: The Life of Sam Houston, May 2, 1993.