Cymbalaria muralis

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Cymbalaria muralis
Cymbalaria muralis close up.jpg
Flowers
Ivy-leaved Toadflax.JPG
Habitus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Cymbalaria
Species: C. muralis
Binomial name
Cymbalaria muralis
G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Scherb.
Synonyms
  • Antirrhinum cymbalaria L.
  • Linaria cymbalaria (L.) Mill.

Cymbalaria muralis (ivy-leaved toadflax or Kenilworth ivy) is a flowering plant native to Mediterranean Europe and widely naturalised elsewhere.

Description and Habitat[edit]

It spreads quickly, growing up to 5 cm (2.0 in) tall – it commonly grows in rock and wall crevices, and along footpaths. The leaves are evergreen, rounded to heart-shaped, 2.5 to 5 cm (1.0 to 2.0 in) long and wide, 3–7-lobed, alternating on thin stems. The flowers are very small, similar in shape to snapdragon flowers.[1] Flowers from May to September.[2]

Reproduction[edit]

This plant has an unusual method of propagation. The flower stalk is initially positively phototropic and moves towards the light – after fertilisation, it becomes negatively phototropic and moves away from the light. This results in seed being pushed into dark crevices of rock walls, where it is more likely to germinate and where it prefers to grow.[3]

Distribution[edit]

Cymbalaria muralis is native to south and southwest Europe, the southern Alps, eastern Yugoslavia, southern Italy and Sicily.[4][5] It has spread throughout the world as an invasive plant, including the United States[6] and the British Isles.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ David S. MacKenzie (2002). Perennial Ground Covers. Timber Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-88192-557-9. 
  2. ^ Webb, D.A., Parnell, J. and Doogue, D. 1996. An Irish Flora. Dundalgan Press (W. Tempest) Ltd. Dundalk/. ISBN 0-85221-131-7
  3. ^ James Watnell Hart (1990). Plant Tropisms and other Growth Movements. Springer. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-412-53080-7. 
  4. ^ Mariola Truchan & Zbigniew Sobisz (2006). "Distribution of Cymbalaria muralis P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherz. in the central part of Polish Pomerania" (PDF). Biodiversity Research and Conservation 1–2: 98–101. 
  5. ^ Ewa Szczęśniak & Krzysztof Świerkosz (2003). "Cymbalaria muralis P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Schreb. and Cymbalarietum muralis Görs 1966 in Lower Silesia – expansion or regression?". In A. Zając, M. Zając & B. Zemanek. Phytogeographical Problems of Synanthropic Plants. Jagiellonian University. pp. 185–193. ISBN 8391516148. 
  6. ^ "Cymbalaria muralis". USDA Plants Profile. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  7. ^ A. R. Clapham, T. G. Tutin & E. F. Warburg (1968). Excursion Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-04656-4. 

External links[edit]