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Lamiales is an order in the asterid group of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It includes approximately 24,000 species divided into about 20 families. Well-known or economically important members of this order include lavender, lilac, olive, jasmine, the ash tree, teak, snapdragon, sesame, psyllium, garden sage, and a number of table herbs such as mint, basil, and rosemary.
Species in this order typically have the following characteristics, although there are exceptions to all of them:
- superior ovary composed of two fused carpels
- five petals fused into a tube
- bilaterally symmetrical, often bilabiate corollas
- four (or fewer) fertile stamens
Lamiales previously had a restricted circumscription (e.g., by Arthur Cronquist) that included the major families Lamiaceae (Labiatae), Verbenaceae, and Boraginaceae plus a few smaller families. Recent phylogenetic work has shown that Lamiales is polyphyletic with respect to order Scrophulariales and the two groups are now usually combined in a single order that also includes the former orders Hippuridales and Plantaginales. Lamiales has become the preferred name for this much larger combined group. The placement of Boraginaceae is unclear but phylogenetic work shows that this family does not belong in Lamiales.
Also, the circumscription of family Scrophulariaceae, formerly a paraphyletic group defined primarily by plesiomorphic characters and from within which numerous other families of the Lamiales were derived, has been radically altered to create a number of smaller, better-defined and putatively monophyletic families.
- Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
- A parsimony analysis of the Asteridae sensu lato based on rbcL sequences
- Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae (deals with relationships throughout Lamiales)
- L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval. http://delta-intkey.com
- http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/vascular/acanth.htm 2002-09-06
- http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/d52/52e.htm 2002-09-06
- http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/d52/52efam.htm 2002-09-06
- http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/web.dbs/genlist.html 2002-09-06
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