In enzymology, a D-alanine—D-alanine ligase (EC 18.104.22.168) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
- ATP + 2 D-alanine ADP + phosphate + D-alanyl-D-alanine
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and D-alanine, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and D-alanyl-D-alanine.
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-amino-acid ligases (peptide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-alanine:D-alanine ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include alanine:alanine ligase (ADP-forming), and alanylalanine synthetase. This enzyme participates in d-alanine metabolism and peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Phosphinate and D-cycloserine are known to inhibit this enzyme.
The N-terminal region of the D-alanine—D-alanine ligase is thought to be involved in substrate binding, while the C-terminus is thought to be a catalytic domain.
As of late 2007, 8 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1EHI, 1IOV, 1IOW, 2DLN, 2FB9, 2I80, 2I87, and 2I8C.
- Ito, E and Strominger JL (1962). "Enzymatic synthesis of the peptide in bacterial uridine nucleotides II. Enzymatic synthesis and addition of D-alanyl-D-alanine". J. Biol. Chem. 237: 2696–2703.
- Neuhaus FC (1962). "Kinetic studies on D-Ala-D-Ala synthetase". Fed. Proc. 21: 229.
- van Heijenoort J (2001). "Recent advances in the formation of the bacterial peptidoglycan monomer unit". Nat. Prod. Rep. 18 (5): 503–19. doi:10.1039/a804532a. PMID 11699883.
This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR011127