de Lacy (Laci, Lacie, Lascy, Lacey) is the surname of an old Norman noble family which originated from Lassy, Calvados. The family took part in the Norman conquest of England and the later Norman invasion of Ireland. The name is first recorded for Hugh de Lacy (1020–1085). His sons, Walter and Ilbert, left Normandy and travelled to England with William the Conqueror. The awards of land by the Conqueror to the de Lacy sons led to two distinct branches of the family: the northern branch, centred on Blackburnshire and west Yorkshire was held by Ilbert's descendants; the southern branch of Marcher Lords, centred on Herefordshire and Shropshire, was held by Walter's descendants.
Until 1399, the northern branch of the family held the great Lordship of Bowland before it passed through marriage to the Duchy of Lancaster, as well as being Barons of Pontefract and later Earls of Lincoln.
The southern branch of the family became substantial landholders in the Lordship of Ireland and was linked to the Scottish royal family; Elizabeth de Burgh, whose great grandfather was Walter de Lacy, married Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland.
Lords of Pontefract, Bowland and Clitheroe
The sons of Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Lassy (c.1020 – 27 March 1085), Ilbert and Walter jointly held the Norman lands that were held of the Bishop of Bayeux. They participated in the Norman conquest of England. While there is evidence that Ilbert fought at William's side at Hastings, there is no record of Walter fighting at Hastings. Ilbert was a major participant in the Harrying of the North (1069–70) which effectively ended the quasi-independence of the region through large-scale destruction that resulted in the relative "pacification" of the local population and the replacement of local Anglo-Danish lords with Normans. In return, he received vast grants of land in West Yorkshire, where he built Pontefract Castle.
The Honour of Pontefract, which included the manor of Stanbury, was maintained by Ilbert's direct male descendants for the next three generations until 1192. It continued in the female line until 1348.
Some of the English holdings lost by Roger the Poitevin due to his rebellion were awarded to Robert de Lacy, the grandson of Ilbert de Lacy. In 1102, King Henry I of England granted the fee of the ancient wapentake of Blackburnshire and further holdings in Hornby, and the vills of Chipping, Aighton and Dutton in Amounderness to de Lacy while confirming his possession of the Lordship of Bowland. These lands formed the basis of what became known as the Honour of Clitheroe.
Notable family members
Hugh de Lacy (c.1020, lord of Lassy (Normandy) – 27 March 1085, Hereford)
- Ilbert de Lacy, 1st Baron of Pontract (1045, Lassy – 1093, Pontefract), son of Hugh de Lacy, who received lands in Pontefract.
- Ilbert de Lacy, 3rd Baron of Pontefract, 3rd Lord of Bowland, the eldest second son of Robert de Lacy.
- Henry de Lacy, 4th Baron of Pontefract (1070, Halton, – 1123), 4th Lord of Bowland, the second son of Robert de Lacy. He built Kirkstall Abbey.
- Robert de Lacy, 5th Baron of Pontefract (died 1193), 5th Lord of Bowland, son of Henry.
- Roger de Lacy (1170–1211), 6th Baron of Pontefract, 7th Baron of Halton, 7th Lord of Bowland, was the son of John FitzRichard and the grandson of Albreda de Lacy. He adopted surname de Lacy. In addition to inheriting his grandmother's vast holdings, Robert also inherited his father's titles of hereditary Constable of Chester and the Barony of Halton.
Lords of Woebley and Ludlow
Walter de Lacy, the son of Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Lassy, was granted the lordship of Weobley in Herefordshire after the Conquest. He is already attested in the Welsh Marches by 1069. By the time of Walter's death, he held blocks of land in Herefordshire (including Holme Lacy) along the border with Wales with another group of lands centered on Ludlow in Shropshire. These groupings allowed Walter to help defend the England–Wales border against Welsh raids. He also had smaller holdings in Berkshire, Gloucestershire, Worcestershire and Oxfordshire. Walter was second in the region only to William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford and his son, Roger de Breteuil although he was not subordinate to them. After the latter's rebellion against the king in 1075 [which Walter de Lacy helped to ensure failed] Walter became the leading baron in the region.
Notable family members
- Walter de Lacy (died 1085), son of Hugh de Lacy, who received lands in Herefordshire and Shropshire
- Roger de Lacy (died after 1106), eldest son of Walter, who built Ludlow Castle. Following his banishment from England, his English estates were confiscated.
- Hugh de Lacy (died before 1115), younger son of Walter, who received the English lands upon his brother's banishment. The de Lacy lands then passed to Pain fitzJohn (a relation by marriage) and others.
- Walter de Lacy, Abbot of Gloucester Abbey, son of Walter
Lordship of Meath
In addition to his substantial land holdings in Herefordshire and Shropshire, England as 4th Baron de Lacy, Hugh de Lacy was also a substantial land holder in Ireland. Following his participation in the Norman Invasion of Ireland, he was granted the lands of a Gaelic medieval kingdom by the Anglo-Norman King Henry II of England in 1172 by the service of fifty knights. The Lordship of Meath was an extensive seigniorial liberty in medieval Ireland with almost royal authority. The Lordship was roughly co-extensive with the Kingdom of Meath. At its greatest extent, it included all of the modern counties of Fingal, Meath (which takes its name from the kingdom), Westmeath as well as parts of counties Cavan, Kildare, Longford, Louth and Offaly. The Lordship's caput was Trim Castle. With an area of 30,000 m², it is the largest castle in Ireland. The design of the central three-story keep (also known as a donjon or great tower) is unique for a Norman keep being of cruciform shape, with twenty corners.
These lords were reliant on their own aggression for laying claim to their lands and for securing them. Castles, by virtue of their defensive and offensive capabilities as well as their symbolic status, were indispensable for dominating the area of the lordship. Known as a great builder of castles, by c. 1200, de Lacy had settlements all over the lordship, either in his own hands or the hands of his barons. With his son Walter (1180 – 1240) he built Trim Castle and Kilkea Castle. Some time after 1196, Walter granted "the whole land of Rathtowth" to his younger brother, Hugh. This sub-division, named the Barony of Ratoath, was perhaps the first instance of the use of the term barony in Ireland for a division of a county. By letters patent from John, King of England, the prescriptive barony was granted to Walter de Lacy and his heirs in perpetuity in 1208.
Notable family members
- Walter (before 1170 to 24 February 1240/41), 2nd Lord of Meath, 5th Baron de Lacy of Longtown, Weobley and Ludlow, eldest son of Hugh who married Margaret de Braose
- Egidia de Lacy, Lady of Connacht, daughter of 2nd Lord who married Richard Mór de Burgh, 1st Baron of Connaught and Strathearn. Her descendants include the Earls of Ulster (of the second creation) and Lady Elizabeth de Burgh, the wife of Robert the Bruce.
- Gilbert de Lacy, son of Water who married Isabel Bigod, daughter of Sir Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk. He predeceased his father before 25 December 1230.
- Walter de Lacy (c. 1172 – 1238/1241), son of Gilbert, who married Rohese le Botiller but had no issue.
- Margery (Margaret) de Lacy, daughter of Gilbert, who married Sir John de Verdun, the son of Theobald le Botiller, 2nd Chief Butler of Ireland and Rohese de Verdun. As co-heir with her sister to her grandfather's estates, she received Westmeath as her inheritance.
- Maud de Lacy, daughter of Gilbert, who married Lord Geoffrey de Geneville, Justiciar of Ireland, the son of Simon de Joinville, Seneschal of Champagne, and Beatrix of Burgundy. As co-heir with her sister to her grandfather's estates, she received the eastern part of the Lordship as her inheritance.
- Geoffrey de Geneville (died 1283), son of Maud.
- Joan de Geneville, daughter of Maud, who married Gerald FitzMaurice FitzGerald (died 1287).
- Sir Piers de Geneville (1256- shortly before June 1292), son of Maud, who married in 1283 Jeanne of Lusignan
- Hugh de Lacy, 1st Earl of Ulster (before 1179 – after 26 December 1242), younger son of Hugh de Lacy, who was created Earl of Ulster in 1205. He died without issue.
Other notable members of the family
- Peter Lacy (Note: his relationship to the family is unclear)
- Franz Moritz von Lacy, son of Peter
- Charles de Lacy - Marine Artist (Note: his relationship to the family is unclear)
Note: the Lacy baronets of Ampton Hall is an unrelated family.
- Lewis "Lacy, Walter de (d. 1085)" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
- Adalae Comitissae (To Countess Adela), by Baudri, abbot of Bourgeuil, who suggests that Ilbert led the feint that led to the death of King Harold).
- VCH Lancaster 6 pp.230-234
- Farrer and Brownbill (1911). The Victoria History of the County of Lancaster Vol 6. Full text at archive.org. pp. 57,273,280.
- "The Medieval Borough of Hornby (Lancashire)", pp 187-92, Alan G Crosby, ed., Of Names and Places: Selected Writings of Mary Higham (English Place-Name Society 2007)
- VCH Lancaster 1 p.282
- Keats-Rohan Domesday People p. 452
- Nickson 1887, p. 144.
- Green Aristocracy of Norman England p. 44.
- Roger of Lacy, Lassy. Alternative spellings: Roger de Laci, Roger de Lacie, Roger de Lascy.
- The Irish Story - Joanna Pierce, "The Castle in the Lordship of Ireland, 1177-1310".
- John, previously Prince, Lord of Ireland and Earl of Mortain, was crowned King of England in 1199: "Rex Angliae, Dominus Hiberniae, Dux Normanniae et Aquitanniae, et Comes Andegaviae, coronatus fuit in festo ascensionis Dominicae, A.D. 1199"
- Richardson, D. & Everingham, K.G., Magna Carta ancestry: a study in colonial and medieval families
- Farrer and Brownbill (1911). The Victoria History of the County of Lancaster Vol 6. London: Victoria County History - Constable & Co. Retrieved 2011-05-16.
- Remfry, P.M., Longtown Castle, 1048 to 1241 (ISBN 1-899376-29-1)
- Remfry, P.M., The Castles of Ewias Lacy, 1048 to 1403 (ISBN 1-899376-37-2)
Barons of Halton -additional reading
- Starkey, H. F. Old Runcorn, Halton Borough Council, 1990.
- Whimperley, Arthur. Halton Castle: An Introduction & Visitors' Handbook, 1981.
- Whimperley, Arthur. The Barons of Halton, MailBook Publishing, Widnes, 1986.