# Diagonal Method

Diagonal Method

The Diagonal Method (DM) is a rule of thumb in photography, painting and drawing. Dutch photographer and lecturer Edwin Westhoff discovered the method when, after having long taught the rule of thirds in photography courses, he conducted visual experiments to investigate why this rule of thirds only loosely prescribes that points of interest should be placed more or less near the intersection of lines, rather than being rigid and demanding placement to be precisely on these intersections. Having studied many photographs, paintings and etchings, he discovered that details of interest were often placed precisely on the diagonals of a square, instead of any "strong points" that the rule of thirds or the photographic adaptation of the Golden ratio prescribes. As such, this method is entirely unique. A photograph is usually a rectangular shape with a ratio of 4:3 or 3:2, in which case one should look at the bisection of each corner. Manually placing certain elements of interest on these lines results in a more pleasing photograph.[1]

## Theory

According to the DM, details that are of interest (to the artist and the viewer) are placed on one or more diagonals of 45 degrees from the four corners of the image. Contrary to other rules of thumb involving composition, such as the rule of thirds and the golden ratio, the DM is not ascribing value to the intersections of its lines. Rather, a detail of interest can be located on any point of the four bisections, to which the viewer’s attention will be drawn.[2] However, the DM is very strict about placing details exactly on the bisection, allowing for a maximum deviation of one millimeter on an A4-sized picture. Another difference with other rules of thumb is that the DM is not being used for improving a composition.

## Application

The DM was derived from an analysis of how artists intuitively locate details within a composition, and can be used for such analyses. Westhoff discovered that by drawing lines with an angle of 45 degrees from the corners of an image, one can find out which details the artist (deliberately or unconsciously) intended to emphasize. Artists and photographers intuitively place areas of interest within a composition. The DM can assist in determining, which details the artist has wanted to highlight. Research by Westhoff has resulted in the finding that important details on paintings and on etchings of Rembrandt, such as eyes, hands or utilities, were placed exactly on the diagonals.

It is very difficult to consciously place points of attention precisely on the diagonals during the making of photos or artworks, yet it is possible to do this in post-production using guidelines.[3] For instance, the DM can be applied to move the subject of a picture further into a corner.[4] To this end, Photoshop Lightroom has, since 2007, contained a tool for cropping photographs that uses overlays of the most important rules of thumb, amongst which the DM is featured..[5] The Golden Crop tool for Photoshop CS2 and up also incorporates the DM.[6] In 2009, scripts have become available for Paint Shop Pro, GIMP, and Picture Window Pro, and in 2010 also for Inkscape. As of GIMP 2.8, the DM will be part of the suite.[7]

The DM can only be applied on images where certain details are supposed to be emphasized or exaggerated, such as a portrait in which a specific body part deserves extra attention by the viewer, or a photograph for advertising a product. Photographs of landscapes and architecture usually rely on the composition as a whole, or have lines other than the bisections to determine the composition, such as the horizon.[8] Only if the picture includes details such as persons, (standalone) trees, or buildings is the DM applicable.

## Evidence

Diagonals, the middle perpendiculars, the center and the corners of a square are known to comprise the force lines in a square, and are regarded as more powerful than other parts in a square.[9] To what extent these findings can be applied on rectangles, such as photographs in ratios of 4:3 and 3:2, has not yet been researched. Apart from visual experiments that support the theory of the DM, there are no known scientific sources that can theoretically confirm the DM.

## References

1. ^ Hartel, M. (2008). Urban expression. Digital Photographer, 74(September), 30-42.
2. ^ Westhoff, E. (2009). De diagonaal-methode. (The Diagonal Method.) Zoom.nl Digitale Fotografie & Video, 2009(10), 82-87.
3. ^ Westhoff, E. (2007). De Diagonaal Methode. (The Diagonal Method.) FocusXtra 2007(Februari), 18-19.
4. ^ Elzenga, J. W. (2009). Digitale fotografie natuur: Tips en technieken voor het fotograferen van landschap en dieren. (Digital photography in nature: Tips and techniques for photographing landscapes and animals.) Amsterdam: Pearson Education. Pp. 47-49.
5. ^ Evening, M. (2009). The Adobe Photoshop Lightroom 2 book: The complete guide for photographers. Berkely, CA: Adobe Press.
6. ^ SourceForge (2010). Golden Crop: The ultimate Photoshop cropping solution. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
7. ^ GNOME Bugzilla (2009, January 3). Bug 566443: Diagonal Method guidelines for crop tool.
8. ^ Elzenga, J. W. (2009). Digitale fotografie natuur: Tips en technieken voor het fotograferen van landschap en dieren. (Digital photography in nature: Tips and techniques for photographing landscapes and animals.) Amsterdam: Pearson Education. P. 49.
9. ^ Arnheim, R. (1954). Art and visual perception: A psychology of the creative eye. Los Angeles: University of California Press.