Salish Sea human foot discoveries

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Southern Gulf Islands (British Columbia) in the Strait of Georgia

Since August 20, 2007, several detached human feet have been discovered on the coasts of the Salish Sea in British Columbia (Canada) and Washington (United States). The feet belonged to five men, one woman, and three other people of unknown sex, the two left feet having been matched with two of the right feet. As of February 2012, only five feet of four people have been identified; it is not known to whom the rest of the feet belong. In addition, several hoax "feet" have been planted in the area.

Discoveries[edit]

As of May 6, 2014, ten or eleven feet have been found in Canada, and four in the US State of Washington.[1]

In July 2008 it was announced that one foot had been identified by Vancouver police, using DNA, as belonging to a man who was depressed and probably committed suicide.[2][3] His identity was withheld on request of his family.

Date Location Country Details Coordinates
August 20, 2007 Jedediah Island, British Columbia Canada The first foot was discovered on August 20, 2007, on Jedediah Island, by a girl visiting from Washington.[4] The girl found the foot when she picked up a shoe and opened the sock.[5] The foot was that of a man, and was found wearing a size 12 Adidas shoe and a sock. It is thought to have become disarticulated due to submerged decay.[4] This kind of shoe was produced in 2003 and distributed mainly in India.[6] A man's right foot; size 12 white-and-blue-mesh running shoe. The remains were identified as those of a missing and possibly depressed man from British Columbia.[citation needed]

49°29′55″N 124°12′15″W / 49.49861°N 124.20417°W / 49.49861; -124.20417 (August 20, 2007)

August 26, 2007 Gabriola Island, British Columbia Canada A man's right foot; size 12 white Reebok. The second foot was discovered by a couple on August 26 on Gabriola Island. It was also that of a man, and also became disarticulated due to decay.[4] It was waterlogged and appeared to have been taken ashore by an animal. It probably floated ashore from the south.[5] This type of shoe was produced in 2004 and sold worldwide, and the type has since been discontinued.[6] 49°09′00″N 123°43′59″W / 49.15°N 123.733°W / 49.15; -123.733 (August 26, 2007)
February 8, 2008 Valdes Island, British Columbia Canada A right foot in a size 11 Nike. The remains were identified as a 21-year-old Surrey man who died of natural causes.[citation needed] This type of shoe was sold in Canada or the United States between February 1, 2003, and June 30, 2003.[6] It has been confirmed that the right foot found February 8 on Valdes Island and left foot found on June 16 on Westham Island belonged to the same man.[6][7]

49°05′N 123°40′W / 49.083°N 123.667°W / 49.083; -123.667 (February 8, 2008)

May 22, 2008 Kirkland Island, British Columbia Canada A woman's right foot;[8] blue-and-white New Balance sneaker. The fourth foot was discovered on May 22 on Kirkland Island, an island in the Fraser Delta between Richmond and Delta, British Columbia. It was also wearing a sock and sneaker.[9] It is thought to have washed down the Fraser River, having nothing to do with the ones found in the Gulf Islands.[10] The shoe was a New Balance sneaker[11] manufactured in 1999.[6] In 2011, the fourth sneaker found in Kirkland Island was identified as being part of a pair of blue and white New Balance sneakers belonging to a woman who jumped from the Pattullo Bridge in New Westminster in April 2004.[12]

49°06′39″N 123°05′44″W / 49.110905°N 123.095627°W / 49.110905; -123.095627 (May 22, 2008)

June 16, 2008 Westham Island, British Columbia Canada A man's left foot. The fifth foot was found by two hikers on June 16, floating in water near Westham Island, part of Delta.[8][13] It has been confirmed that the left foot found on June 16 on Westham Island and the right foot found February 8 on Valdes Island belonged to the same man.[6][7]

49°05′N 123°09′W / 49.083°N 123.150°W / 49.083; -123.150 (June 16, 2008)

August 1, 2008 Near Pysht, Washington United States A right foot inside a man's black size 11 shoe. The sixth foot was discovered on August 1, 2008, by a camper on a beach near Pysht, Washington. It was covered in seaweed. The site of the discovery was less than 16 kilometers from the international border in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Testing confirmed that the right foot was human. Police say the large black-top, size 11 athletic shoe for a right foot contains bones and flesh. This was the first foot of the series to be found outside of British Columbia. The RCMP and Clallam County Sheriff's Department agreed on August 5 that the foot could have been carried south from Canadian waters.[14][15]

48°11′N 124°7′W / 48.183°N 124.117°W / 48.183; -124.117 (August 1, 2008)

November 11, 2008 Richmond, British Columbia Canada A known woman's left foot. A seventh foot was discovered on November 11, 2008, in Richmond.[2] The foot was in a shoe that was found floating in the Fraser River. The shoe was described as a small New Balance running shoe, possibly a woman's shoe.[11] A forensic DNA profiling analysis indicated that it was a genetic match to the foot discovered on May 22 on Kirkland Island.[16]

49°06′29″N 123°07′55″W / 49.108°N 123.132°W / 49.108; -123.132 (November 11, 2008) (approximate)

October 27, 2009 Richmond, British Columbia Canada A right foot in a size 8 1/2 Nike shoe. The remains were identified as a Vancouver-area man who was reported missing in January 2008 and died of natural causes. An eighth foot was found on October 27, 2009, inside a running shoe on a beach in Richmond.[17]

49°10′N 123°8′W / 49.167°N 123.133°W / 49.167; -123.133 (October 27, 2009) (approximate)

August 27, 2010 Whidbey Island, Washington United States A juvenile or female's right foot. A ninth foot was discovered on August 27, 2010, on Whidbey Island in the American state of Washington. This foot was determined to have been in the water for two months. The size suggested it belonged to either a juvenile or a female.[18] This foot was found without a shoe or sock. Detective Ed Wallace of the Island County Sheriff's Office released a statement saying the foot would be tested for DNA.[19]

48°05′N 122°34′W / 48.083°N 122.567°W / 48.083; -122.567 (August 27, 2010)

December 5, 2010 Tacoma, Washington United States A juvenile or a small adult's right foot inside a boy's size 6 Ozark Trail hiking boot. A tenth foot was found on December 5, 2010, on the tidal flats of Tacoma, Washington. "The right foot was still inside a boy's size 6 'Ozark Trail' hiking boot, and likely belonged to a juvenile or small adult," police spokesman Mark Fulghum said Tuesday in Tacoma, about 40 kilometers south of Seattle and 225 kilometers south of Vancouver.[20]

47°17′10″N 122°26′28″W / 47.286°N 122.441°W / 47.286; -122.441 (December 5, 2010) (approximate)

August 30, 2011 False Creek, British Columbia Canada Gender unknown. The foot was found in a man's white and blue size 9 runner. An eleventh foot was discovered in False Creek, Vancouver, on August 30, 2011. The foot was found in a shoe floating next to the Plaza of Nations marina, attached to the lower leg bones.[21] It had disarticulated naturally at the knee due to the water.[22]

49°16′30″N 123°06′36″W / 49.275°N 123.110°W / 49.275; -123.110 (August 30, 2011)

November 4, 2011 Sasamat Lake, British Columbia Canada A man's right foot inside a size 12 hiking boot. Both were identified as that of a local man who went missing in 1987. Foul play is not suspected. On November 4, 2011, a twelfth foot in a men's size 12 hiking boot was discovered by a group of campers in a pool of fresh water at Sasamat Lake near Port Moody.[23] In January 2012, this foot was identified by the B.C. Coroner's Service as that of Stefan Zahorujko,[24] a local fisherman who went missing in 1987. Police believe the foot separated naturally from the body and do not suspect foul play.[25]

49°19′23″N 122°53′20″W / 49.323°N 122.889°W / 49.323; -122.889 (November 4, 2011)

December 10, 2011 Lake Union, Seattle, Washington United States Human leg bone and foot in a black plastic bag under the Ship Canal Bridge.[26]

47°39′07″N 122°19′23″W / 47.652°N 122.323°W / 47.652; -122.323 (December 10, 2011)

January 26, 2012 Vancouver, British Columbia Canada Possible human remains found washed up in shoe.[27] On January 26, 2012, the remains of "what appears to be human bones inside a boot" were found in the sand along the water line at the dog park near the Maritime Museum at the foot of Arbutus Street, in Vancouver.[28]

49°16′41″N 123°09′04″W / 49.278°N 123.151°W / 49.278; -123.151 (January 26, 2012)

May 6, 2014 Seattle, Washington United States Human foot in white New Balance shoe found on the shore near the Pier 86 grain terminal.[29] A human foot was found in a shoe along the shoreline of Centennial Park near the Pier 86 grain terminal in Seattle on May 6, 2014. The New Balance model 622 athletic shoe was white with blue trim, size men's 10 1/2. This model of shoe was first available for sale in April 2008.[30][31][32] From an initial news photo, it appears to be a left foot.[33]

47°37′34″N 122°22′23″W / 47.626°N 122.373°W / 47.626; -122.373 (May 6, 2014)

Hoaxes[edit]

Another "foot", which was discovered on June 18, 2008, on Tyee Spit near Campbell River on Vancouver Island,[34] was a hoax.[35] The hoax was a "skeletonized animal paw" which was put in a sock and shoe and then stuffed with dried seaweed. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police have begun an investigation into the hoax, and an arrest could result in charges of public mischief.[34]

After the eleventh foot was found on August 31, 2011, several running shoes containing what police suspected was raw meat were found washed up on Oak Beach, British Columbia.[36]

Outside Salish Sea area[edit]

Date Location Country Details Coordinates
September 16, 2013 Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California United States Another foot was found September 16, 2013 on Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California. The green size 7.5 Puma shoe contains the human tissue and bones of a foot somewhat decayed as it is believed to have circled the seabed for some time. No explanation as of yet as to cause of the severed foot.[37][38]

Proposed explanations[edit]

The series of discoveries has been called "astounding" and "almost beyond explanation", as no other body parts have turned up.[39] The discoveries have caused speculation that the feet may be those of people who died in a boating accident or a plane crash in the ocean.[4] One explanation is that some of the feet are those of four men who died in a plane crash near Quadra Island in 2005 and whose bodies have not been recovered, though one of the feet has been determined to be from a female.[9] Foul play has also been suggested,[40] although none of the first four feet showed tool marks.[35] This does not rule out foul play, however; it is possible that the bodies could have been weighted down and disposed of, and the feet were separated due to natural decay.

Determining the origin of the feet is complicated because ocean currents may carry floating items long distances,[41] and because currents in the Strait of Georgia may be unpredictable.[40] A foot may float as far as 1,000 miles (1,600 km).[35] Also, human feet have a tendency to become adipocere (a soap-like substance formed from body fat), which makes it hard for forensic scientists to find clues.[42] Under optimal conditions, a human body may remain intact in water for as long as three decades, meaning that the feet may have been floating around for years.[43]

Another theory is that the feet belonged to people who died in the Asian Tsunami on December 26, 2004. Richmond, British Columbia-based writer Shane Lambert has advocated this position, pointing to the fact that many of the shoes found were manufactured and sold in 2004 or earlier. Lambert acknowledges that there could be other sources for the shoes or multiple sources. However, besides the dates when the shoes were manufactured, Lambert cites ocean currents and their ultimate northward tendencies up the Pacific Ocean from part of the region that was hit by the 2004 Tsunami.[44]

One foot has been identified as belonging to a man who was depressed and probably committed suicide[2][3] and two feet were identified as belonging to a woman who committed suicide by jumping from the Pattullo Bridge (49°12′27″N 122°53′41″W / 49.207575°N 122.894654°W / 49.207575; -122.894654 (Pattullo Bridge)Coordinates: 49°12′27″N 122°53′41″W / 49.207575°N 122.894654°W / 49.207575; -122.894654 (Pattullo Bridge)) in New Westminster in 2004.[45] This suggests that the feet belong to various people who have jumped from the bridge.

Level of rarity[edit]

Decomposition may separate the foot from the body because the ankle is relatively weak, and the buoyancy caused by air either inside or trapped within a shoe would allow it to float away.[5] According to SFU entomologist Gail Anderson, extremities such as the hands, feet, and head often detach as a body decomposes in the water, although they rarely float.[42]

However, finding feet and not the rest of the bodies has been deemed unusual. Finding two feet has been given a "million to one odds" and has thus been described as "an anomaly".[5] The finding of the third foot made it the first time three such discoveries had been made so close to each other.[42] The fourth discovery caused speculation about human interference and, statistically, was called "curious".[43]

Media reaction[edit]

After the fifth foot was discovered the story had begun to receive increased international media attention. With major headlines from newspapers such as the Melbourne Herald Sun, The Guardian, and the Cape Times in South Africa, the story elicited much speculation about the cause of the mystery, originating from "morbid fascination" with this type of subject, as stated by one scientist who identifies remains of victims.[46] David Letterman also questioned two of his audience members who were Canadian about the mystery during one of his shows.[47]

Jørn Lier Horst, a Norwegian police officer, wrote a novel inspired by the events, called Dregs (Sandstone Press 2011), in which an experienced investigator gives a new explanation for the findings.

The Salish Sea discoveries were the inspiration for a plot point in an episode of Bones season 6, "The Feet on the Beach", in which a group of feet were discovered on a beach on the American/Canadian border. In the episode, they were from cadavers that had been washed away by flooding at a body farm.

The severed foot discoveries are regularly referenced on the No Agenda show and were the inspiration for "The Foot on the Shore (A No Agenda Short Story)" by British author Scott McKenzie, which hints at a government conspiracy behind the phenomenon.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Tacoma police say human foot washed ashore". Seattle Times (TACOMA, Wash.). December 14, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c "Another severed foot washes up on B.C. shore". CTV News. November 11, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2008. 
  3. ^ a b "Canada coroner matches pair of mysterious feet". MSNBC. June 6, 2011. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Discovery of unattached human feet baffles B.C. police". CBC News. August 31, 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2008. 
  5. ^ a b c d Sunny Freeman (August 31, 2007). "Two large right feet found on Georgia Strait beaches; 'Finding one foot is like a million to one odds, but to find two is crazy' RCMP corporal's 'best guess is that they are from missing persons'". Vancouver Sun. p. A1. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f "No evidence 5 feet were severed, say B.C. RCMP". CBC News. July 10, 2008. Retrieved July 10, 2008. 
  7. ^ a b Petti Fong (July 10, 2008). "Two mystery feet from same person, B.C. police say". Toronto Star. Retrieved July 10, 2008. 
  8. ^ a b "5th foot found on B.C.'s south coast". CBC News. June 17, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008. 
  9. ^ a b "Fourth right foot washes up near Vancouver, RCMP confirm". CBC News. May 24, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008. 
  10. ^ Judith Lavoie (May 26, 2008). "Latest washed-up foot likely a woman's, says finder". Vancouver Sun. p. A7. 
  11. ^ a b "7th Human Foot Washes Ashore on Canadian Coast". Fox News. November 13, 2008. Retrieved November 13, 2008. 
  12. ^ http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2011/10/feet-that-washed-ashore-identified-as-missing-canadian-woman/
  13. ^ David Carrigg (June 17, 2008). "Fifth human foot -- with shoe -- found floating; Two most recent finds in Fraser delta, other three off Gulf Islands". Vancouver Province. p. A3. 
  14. ^ "Missing foot mystery deepens with latest find". CTV News British Columbia. August 3, 2008. Retrieved August 3, 2008. 
  15. ^ Paige Dickerson, Peninsula Daily News (August 6, 2008). "Foot found in U.S. may be from Canada". Vancouver Sun. p. a6. 
  16. ^ Ian Bailey (December 5, 2008). "DNA tests match feet washed ashore". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved December 6, 2008. 
  17. ^ "Human remains in shoe found near Vancouver". CBC.ca. October 28, 2009. Retrieved October 28, 2009. 
  18. ^ KOMO-TV Staff (August 27, 2010). "Human foot washes ashore on Whidbey Island". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved August 27, 2010. 
  19. ^ CBC News (August 27, 2010). "Human foot found on West Coast beach". 
  20. ^ "Tenth foot washes up, on beach near Tacoma". Vancouver Sun. December 16, 2010. Retrieved December 17, 2010. On Dec. 5, a man walking along the shore spotted the foot and called police. 
  21. ^ "Vancouver Foot Is Human: Autopsy Report". Huffington Post. August 31, 2011. Retrieved September 10, 2011. 
  22. ^ "Coroner investigates remains found in False Creek". Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General (BC Coroners Service, British Columbia). August 31, 2011. Retrieved September 10, 2011. 
  23. ^ McLaughlin, Michael (November 10, 2011). "Human Foot found in Sasamat Lake, Canada". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 19, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Foot found in B.C. lake identified after 25 years". CBC News. February 18, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2012. 
  25. ^ "Foot in lake not linked to foul play.". Retrieved November 19, 2011. 
  26. ^ http://lakeunionbeat.com/?p=1426
  27. ^ http://vpdreleases.icontext.com/2012/01/26/possible-human-remains-found-washed-up-in-shoe/
  28. ^ "Possible Human Remains Found Washed Up in Shoe". Retrieved February 18, 2012. 
  29. ^ q13fox.com/2014/05/06/foot-washes-ashore-on-seattle-waterfront/
  30. ^ [1]. KCPQ TV, May 7, 2014.
  31. ^ [2]. KCPQ TV, May 6, 2014.
  32. ^ Human Foot in Sneaker Found on Seattle Waterfront. Seattle Times, May 6, 2014.
  33. ^ [3]. CTV News, May 6, 2014.
  34. ^ a b "6th foot found on B.C. south coast". CBC News. June 18, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008. 
  35. ^ a b c "Latest floating 'foot' turns out to be a hoax". CNN. June 18, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008. 
  36. ^ "Latest Floating Feet Are a Hoax, Police Say". ABC News. September 6, 2011. Retrieved September 10, 2011. 
  37. ^ http://oceanbeachbulletin.com/2013/09/16/severed-human-foot-inside-shoe-washes-up-on-ocean-beach/
  38. ^ "Severed foot in Puma shoe is found on San Francisco beach". Los Angeles Times. September 16, 2013. 
  39. ^ Gary Bellett (May 24, 2008). "A fourth foot deepens the mystery; The severed-feet explanation is 'beyond imagination,' expert says after latest find". Vancouver Sun. p. B1.  Original article wrote five bodies, but two of the feet has since been confirmed that they belong to same person.
  40. ^ a b Cheryl Chan (May 23, 2008). "Fourth foot fuels flotsam frenzy; Still no clues after boater's discovery in Richmond". p. A4. 
  41. ^ "Mysterious feet may be linked to single accident: B.C. forensic expert". CBC News. June 17, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008. 
  42. ^ a b c "Human right foot found on Valdes; This is the third foot to wash up on a Gulf Island within a year;". Vancouver Province. February 15, 2008. p. A3. 
  43. ^ a b Carolyn Heiman (May 25, 2005). "Families of victims seek expert's help". Vancouver Province. p. A9. 
  44. ^ Shane Lambert, "Human Feet in the Pacific Northwest - A Better Theory?" Associated Content, December 16, 2010.
  45. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2011/10/19/bc-feet-mystery-coroner_n_1020772.html
  46. ^ Patrick White (June 20, 2008). "Fascinated by B.C.'s floating feet". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). Retrieved November 2, 2009. 
  47. ^ Vanessa Richmond (June 26, 2008). "Super, Horrific BC". The Tyee. Retrieved November 2, 2009. 

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