Harold Shipman

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Harold Shipman
Harold Shipman mug shot.jpg
Shipman in about 2000
Born Harold Frederick Shipman
(1946-01-14)14 January 1946
Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England
Died 13 January 2004(2004-01-13) (aged 57)
HM Prison Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England
Cause of death
Suicide by hanging
Other names "Dr. Death",
"The Angel Of Death"[1]
Criminal penalty
Life imprisonment (Whole life tariff) plus 4 years for forgery
Killings
Victims 250+
Span of killings
1975–1998
Country England, United Kingdom
Date apprehended
7 September 1998

Harold Frederick Shipman[2] (14 January 1946 – 13 January 2004) was a British doctor and one of the most prolific serial killers in recorded history.

On 31 January 2000, a jury found Shipman guilty of 15 murders. He was sentenced to life imprisonment and the judge recommended that he never be released.

After his trial, The Shipman Inquiry, chaired by Dame Janet Smith, began on 1 September 2000. Lasting almost two years, it was an investigation into all deaths certified by Shipman. About 80% of his victims were women. His youngest victim was a 41-year-old man.[3] Much of Britain's legal structure concerning health care and medicine was reviewed and modified as a direct and indirect result of Shipman's crimes. Shipman is the only British doctor who has been found guilty of murdering his patients.[4]

Shipman died on 13 January 2004, after hanging himself in his cell at Wakefield Prison in West Yorkshire. His suicide occurred one day before his 58th birthday.

Early life and career[edit]

Harold Frederick Shipman was born on the Bestwood council estate[5] in Nottingham, England, the second of the four children of Vera and Harold Shipman, a lorry driver.[6][7] His working class parents were devout Methodists.[6][7] Shipman was particularly close to his mother, who died of lung cancer[8] when he was 17.[7][9] Her death came in a manner similar to what later became Shipman's own modus operandi: in the later stages of her disease, she had morphine administered at home by a doctor. Shipman witnessed his mother's pain subside despite her terminal condition, up until her death on 21 June 1963.[10]

Shipman studied medicine at Leeds School of Medicine and graduated in 1970.[11] He started work at Pontefract General Infirmary in Pontefract, West Riding of Yorkshire, and in 1974 took his first position as a general practitioner (GP) at the Abraham Ormerod Medical Centre in Todmorden, West Yorkshire. In 1975 he was caught forging prescriptions of pethidine for his own use. He was fined £600, and briefly attended a drug rehabilitation clinic in York. He became a GP at the Donneybrook Medical Centre in Hyde near Manchester, in 1977.[11][12]

Shipman continued working as a GP in Hyde throughout the 1980s and founded his own surgery at 21 Market Street in 1993, becoming a respected member of the community. In 1983, he was interviewed on the Granada television documentary World in Action on how the mentally ill should be treated in the community.[13] A year after his conviction, the interview was rebroadcast on Tonight with Trevor McDonald.[14]

Detection[edit]

In March 1998, Dr Linda Reynolds of the Brooke Surgery in Hyde, prompted by Deborah Massey from Frank Massey and Son's funeral parlour, expressed concerns to John Pollard, the coroner for the South Manchester District, about the high death rate among Shipman's patients. In particular, she was concerned about the large number of cremation forms for elderly women that he had needed countersigned. The matter was brought to the attention of the police, who were unable to find sufficient evidence to bring charges; The Shipman Inquiry later blamed the police for assigning inexperienced officers to the case. Between 17 April 1998, when the police abandoned the investigation, and Shipman's eventual arrest, he killed three more people.[15][16] His last victim was Kathleen Grundy who was found dead at her home on 24 June 1998. Shipman was the last person to see her alive, and later signed her death certificate, recording "old age" as the cause of death.

Grundy's daughter, lawyer Angela Woodruff, became concerned when solicitor Brian Burgess informed her that a will had been made, apparently by her mother. There were doubts about its authenticity. The will excluded her and her children, but left £386,000 (equivalent to £590,000 in 2014)[17] to Shipman. Burgess told Woodruff to report it, and went to the police, who began an investigation. Grundy's body was exhumed, and when examined was found to contain traces of diamorphine, often used for pain control in terminal cancer patients. Shipman was arrested on 7 September 1998, and was found to own a typewriter of the kind used to make the forged will.[18]

The police then investigated other deaths Shipman had certified, and created a list of 15 specimen cases to investigate. They discovered a pattern of his administering lethal doses of diamorphine, signing patients' death certificates, and then falsifying medical records to indicate that they had been in poor health.[19]

Prescription For Murder, a book by journalists Brian Whittle and Jean Ritchie, reports two theories on why Shipman forged the will: one is that he wanted to be caught because his life was out of control; the other theory put forward is that he planned to retire at age 55 and then leave the United Kingdom.

Trial and imprisonment[edit]

Shipman's trial, presided over by Mr Justice Forbes, began on 5 October 1999. Shipman was charged with the murders of Marie West, Irene Turner, Lizzie Adams, Jean Lilley, Ivy Lomas, Muriel Grimshaw, Marie Quinn, Kathleen Wagstaff, Bianka Pomfret, Norah Nuttall, Pamela Hillier, Maureen Ward, Winifred Mellor, Joan Melia and Kathleen Grundy, all of whom had died between 1995 and 1998.

On 31 January 2000, after six days of deliberation, the jury found Shipman guilty of killing 15 patients by lethal injections of diamorphine, and forging the will of Kathleen Grundy. The trial judge sentenced him to 15 consecutive life sentences and recommended that he never be released. Shipman also received four years for forging the will. Two years later, Home Secretary David Blunkett confirmed the judge's whole life tariff, just months before British government ministers lost their power to set minimum terms for prisoners.

On 11 February 2000, ten days after his conviction, the General Medical Council formally struck Shipman off its register.[20][21]

Shipman consistently denied his guilt, disputing the scientific evidence against him. He never made any statements about his actions. His defence tried, but failed, to have the count of murder of Mrs Grundy, where a clear motive was alleged, tried separately from the others, where no obvious motive was apparent. His wife, Primrose, was apparently in denial about his crimes as well.[22]

Although many other cases could have been brought to court, the authorities concluded it would be hard to have a fair trial, in view of the enormous publicity surrounding the original trial. Also, given the sentences from the first trial, a further trial was unnecessary. The Shipman Inquiry concluded Shipman was probably responsible for about 250 deaths.[23] The Shipman Inquiry also suggested that he liked to use drugs recreationally.[24]

Despite the prosecutions of Dr John Bodkin Adams in 1957, Dr Leonard Arthur in 1981, and Dr Thomas Lodwig in 1990 amongst others,[25] Shipman is the only doctor in British legal history to be found guilty of killing patients.[26] According to historian Pamela Cullen, Adams had also been a serial killer—potentially killing up to 165 of his patients between 1946 and 1956—but as he was found not guilty, flaws in the system had not been subject to scrutiny.[27] H. G. Kinnell, writing in the British Medical Journal, also speculates that Adams "possibly provided the role model for Shipman".[28]

Death[edit]

Harold Shipman committed suicide by hanging in his cell at Wakefield Prison at 06:20 on 13 January 2004, on the eve of his 58th birthday, and was pronounced dead at 08:10. A Prison Service statement indicated that Shipman had hanged himself from the window bars of his cell using bed sheets.[29] Some British tabloids expressed joy at his suicide and encouraged other serial killers to follow his example; The Sun ran a celebratory front page headline, "Ship Ship hooray!"[30]

Some of the victims' families said they felt cheated,[31] as his suicide meant they would never have the satisfaction of Shipman's confession, and answers as to why he committed his crimes. The Home Secretary David Blunkett noted that celebration was tempting, saying: "You wake up and you receive a call telling you Shipman has topped himself and you think, is it too early to open a bottle? And then you discover that everybody's very upset that he's done it."[32]

Despite The Sun's celebration of Shipman's suicide, his death divided national newspapers, with the Daily Mirror branding him a "cold coward" and condemning the Prison Service for allowing his suicide to happen. The Independent, on the other hand, called for the inquiry into Shipman's suicide to look more widely at the state of Britain's prisons as well as the welfare of inmates.[33] In The Guardian, an article by Sir David Ramsbotham (former Chief Inspector of Prisons) suggested that whole life sentencing be replaced by indefinite sentencing as these would at least give prisoners the hope of eventual release and reduce the risk of their committing suicide as well as making their management easier for prison officials.[33]

Shipman's motive for suicide was never established, although he had reportedly told his probation officer that he was considering suicide so that his widow could receive a National Health Service (NHS) pension and lump sum, even though he had been stripped of his own pension.[34] His wife received a full NHS pension, which she would not have been entitled to if he had died after the age of 60.[35] Shipman had been encouraged to take part in courses which would have had him confess his guilt. After refusing, privileges — including the opportunity to telephone his wife— were removed.[35] Privileges had been returned the week before the suicide.[36] Additionally, Primrose, who had consistently believed that Shipman was innocent, might have begun to suspect his guilt. According to Shipman's ex-cellmate Tony Fleming, Primrose had recently written a letter to her husband, exhorting him to "tell me everything, no matter what".[22]

Aftermath[edit]

In January 2001, Chris Gregg, a senior West Yorkshire detective, was selected to lead an investigation into 22 of the West Yorkshire deaths.[37] Following this, The Shipman Inquiry into Shipman's activities submitted in July 2002 concluded that he had killed at least 215 of his patients between 1975 and 1998, during which time he practised in Todmorden, West Yorkshire (1974–1975), and Hyde, Greater Manchester (1977–1998). Dame Janet Smith, the judge who submitted the report, admitted that many more suspicious deaths could not be definitively ascribed to him. Most of his victims were elderly women in good health.

In her sixth and final report, issued on 24 January 2005, Smith reported that she believed that Shipman had killed three patients, and she had serious suspicions about four further deaths, including that of a four-year-old girl, during the early stage of his medical career at Pontefract General Infirmary in Pontefract, West Riding of Yorkshire. Smith concluded the probable number of Shipman's victims between 1971 and 1998 was 250. In total, 459 people died while under his care, but it is uncertain how many of those were Shipman's victims, as he was often the only doctor to certify a death.[38]

The Shipman Inquiry also recommended changes to the structure of the General Medical Council.[39]

The General Medical Council charged six doctors, who signed cremation forms for Shipman's victims, with misconduct, claiming they should have noticed the pattern between Shipman's home visits and his patients' deaths. All these doctors were found not guilty. Shipman's widow, Primrose Shipman, was called to give evidence about two of the deaths during the inquiry. She maintained her husband's innocence both before and after the prosecution.

In October 2005, a similar hearing was held against two doctors who worked at Tameside General Hospital in 1994, who failed to detect that Shipman had deliberately administered a "grossly excessive" dose of morphine.[40][41]

A 2005 inquiry into Shipman's suicide found that it "could not have been predicted or prevented," but that procedures should nonetheless be re-examined.[35]

In 2005, it came to light that Shipman might have stolen jewellery from his victims. Over £10,000 worth of jewellery had been found stashed in his garage in 1998, and in March 2005, with Primrose Shipman pressing for it to be returned to them, police wrote to the families of Shipman's victims asking them to identify the jewellery.[42][43]

Unidentified items were handed to the Assets Recovery Agency in May.[44] In August the investigation ended: 66 pieces were returned to Primrose Shipman and 33 pieces, which she confirmed were not hers, were auctioned. The proceeds of the auction went to Tameside Victim Support.[45][46] The only piece returned to a murdered patient's family was a platinum-diamond ring, for which the family were able to provide a photograph as proof of ownership.

A memorial garden to Shipman's victims, called the Garden of Tranquillity, opened in Hyde Park (Hyde) on 30 July 2005.[47]

As of early 2009, families of the victims of Shipman were still seeking compensation for the loss of their relatives.[48] In September 2009, it was announced that letters written by Shipman during his prison sentence were to be sold at auction,[49] but following complaints from victims' relatives and the media, the letters were removed from sale.[50]

'The Shipman Effect'[edit]

Following the prominent coverage and conviction of Harold Shipman there followed the 'Shipman Inquiry' which gave a number of formal recommendations, paired with a cultural change within medicine which can be referred to as 'the Shipman effect'. Some doctor's stated that they changed their dispensing practices, others stated that they would not risk over prescribing pain relief and may under prescribe and death certification practices were altered.[51] Perhaps the largest change was the movement from single GP practices to multi GP practices, this was not a direct recommendation but rather because the report stated that there was not enough safeguarding and monitoring of doctor's decisions.[52][53]

In media[edit]

Harold and Fred (They Make Ladies Dead) was a 2001 strip cartoon in Viz, also featuring serial killer Fred West. Some relatives of Shipman's victims voiced anger at the cartoon.[54][55]

Shipman, a television dramatisation of the case, was made in 2002 and starred James Bolam in the title role.[56] The case was also referenced in an episode of the 2003 television series Diagnosis: Unknown called "Deadly Medicine" (Season 2, Episode 17, 2003).[57] Shipman's activities also inspired "D.A.W.", an episode of the American TV series Law & Order: Criminal Intent. In it, the police investigate a physician who they discover has killed 200 of his patients.[58]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Shipman known as 'angel of death'". BBC News (BBC). 9 July 2001. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  2. ^ "Harold Shipman: The killer doctor". BBC News. 13 January 2004. Retrieved 30 November 2014. 
  3. ^ "The Shipman Inquiry". The Shipman Inquiry. Retrieved 4 June 2010. [dead link]
  4. ^ Stovold, James. "The Case of Dr. John Bodkin Adams". Strangerinblood.co.uk. Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  5. ^ Oliver, Mark (13 January 2004). "Portrait of a necrophiliac". The Guardian. 
  6. ^ a b Swan, Norman (29 July 2002). "Why Some Doctors Kill". The Health Report. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c Kaplan, Robert M. (2009). Medical Murder: Disturbing Cases of Doctors Who Kill. Allen & Unwin. pp. 59–60. ISBN 1-74175-610-3. 
  8. ^ Born To Kill?, Channel 5, 2 August 2012
  9. ^ Herbert, Ian (14 January 2004). "How a humble GP perverted his medical skill to become Britain's most prolific mass killer". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2 September 2009. 
  10. ^ [1] The Early Life of Harold Shipman
  11. ^ a b "Harold Shipman: Timeline". BBC News. 18 July 2002. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  12. ^ Bunyan, Nigel (16 June 2001). "The Killing Fields of Harold Shipman". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  13. ^ [2][dead link]
  14. ^ "HEALTH | Shipman interview rebroadcast". BBC News. 8 February 2001. Retrieved 24 March 2014. 
  15. ^ Second Report — The Police Investigation of March 1998 (Cm 5853). The Shipman Inquiry. 14 July 2003. 
  16. ^ "Shipman inquiry criticises police". BBC News. 14 July 2003. 
  17. ^ UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2014), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  18. ^ "The Shipman tapes I". BBC News. 31 January 2000. Retrieved 27 September 2008. 
  19. ^ "UK Doctor 'forged victim's medical history'". BBC News. 8 November 1999. Retrieved 27 September 2008. 
  20. ^ Frith, Maxine (11 February 2000). "GMC strikes Shipman off medical register". The Independent (London). Retrieved 20 September 2010. 
  21. ^ "Shipman struck off". BBC News. 11 February 2000. Retrieved 20 September 2010. 
  22. ^ a b Sweet, Corinne (16 January 2004). "He could do no wrong". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  23. ^ The Shipman Inquiry — Sixth Report — Conclusions
  24. ^ "Shipman's 'reckless' experiments". BBC News. 27 January 2005. 
  25. ^ "Killing the Willing ... And Others! Legal Aspects of Euthanasia and Related Topics". Actrtla.org.au. Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  26. ^ Strangerinblood.co.uk Dr Nigel Cox was convicted of attempted murder in 1992, in the death of Lillian Boyes.
  27. ^ Stovold, James. "Strangerinblood.co.uk". Strangerinblood.co.uk. Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  28. ^ Kinnell, HG (2000). "Serial homicide by doctors: Shipman in perspective". BMJ 321 (7276): 1594–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7276.1594. PMC 1119267. PMID 11124192. 
  29. ^ "Harold Shipman found dead in cell". BBC. 13 January 2004. 
  30. ^ Cardy, Philip (14 January 2004). "Ship Ship hooray!". London: The Sun. [dead link]
  31. ^ "No mourning from Shipman families". BBC News. 13 January 2004. 
  32. ^ "Blunkett admits Shipman error". BBC News. 16 January 2004. 
  33. ^ a b "Shipman's death divides papers". BBC News. 14 January 2004. Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  34. ^ "Shipman leaves his wife £24,000". BBC News. 8 April 2004. 
  35. ^ a b c "Shipman suicide 'not preventable'". BBC News. 25 August 2005. Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  36. ^ "Harold Shipman found dead in cell". BBC News. 13 January 2004. Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  37. ^ "How many more did Shipman kill?". The Independent (London). 9 October 2001. Retrieved 19 September 2009. 
  38. ^ "Shipman 'killed early in career'". BBC News. 27 January 2005. 
  39. ^ "Shipman report demands GMC reform". BBC News. 9 December 2004. 
  40. ^ "Shipman doctors deny misconduct". BBC News. 3 October 2005. 
  41. ^ "Shipman doctor 'not good enough'". BBC News. 11 October 2005. 
  42. ^ "Theft fears over 'Shipman gems'". BBC News. 17 March 2005. 
  43. ^ "Twenty make Shipman jewels claims". BBC News. 15 April 2005. 
  44. ^ "Shipman jewels not going to widow". BBC News. 24 May 2005. 
  45. ^ "Shipman stole victim's jewellery". BBC News. 31 August 2005. 
  46. ^ "Shipman's stolen gems found in his wife's jewellery box". London: The Guardian. 31 August 2005. Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  47. ^ "Garden tribute to Shipman victims". BBC News. 30 July 2005. 
  48. ^ "Alexander Harris, the law firm who represented families of victims of Allitt and Shipman". Alexander Harris. 25 August 2006. 
  49. ^ "Shipman prison letters to be sold". BBC News (BBC). 27 September 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2009. 
  50. ^ "Shipman letters removed from sale". BBC News (BBC). 7 October 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2011. 
  51. ^ "Consultation Paper on Death Certification, Burial and Cremation". Scottish Government. Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  52. ^ "'The Shipman Effect'". BBC. BBC. Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  53. ^ "The Shipman Effect and changes in assisted suicide". BBC. Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  54. ^ Garrett, Jade (1 February 2001). "'Viz' pushes taste to its limits with Shipman cartoon — Media, News — The Independent". The Independent. Retrieved 6 March 2009. [dead link]
  55. ^ "Anger at Shipman Cartoon". BBC News. 1 February 2001. Retrieved 6 March 2009. 
  56. ^ Roger Bamford (Director) (2002). Shipman (Television drama). 
  57. ^ Greg Francis (Director) (2003). Diagnosis: Unknown: Deadly Medicine (Television series). 
  58. ^ Law & Order: Criminal Intent: D.A.W. episode (Season 3, Episode 20), TV.com. Retrieved 19 September 2009.

External links[edit]