Duke Ling of Qi

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Duke Ling of Qi
齊靈公
Ruler of Qi
Reign 581–554 BC
Predecessor Duke Qing of Qi
Successor Duke Zhuang II of Qi
Spouse Yan Yi Ji (main wife)
Sheng Ji
Zhong Zi
Rong Zi
daughter of Shusun Xuanbo
Issue Duke Zhuang II of Qi
Prince Ya
Duke Jing of Qi
Full name
Ancestral name: Jiang (姜)
Clan name: Lü (呂)
Given name: Huan (環)
House House of Jiang
Father Duke Qing of Qi
Died 554 BC

Duke Ling of Qi (Chinese: 齊靈公; pinyin: Qí Líng Gōng; died 554 BC) was from 581 to 554 BC ruler of the State of Qi, a major power during the Spring and Autumn Period of ancient China. His personal name was Lü Huan (呂環), ancestral name Jiang (), and Duke Ling was his posthumous title. Duke Ling succeeded his father Duke Qing of Qi, who died in 582 BC after 17 years of reign.[1][2]

Attack from Jin[edit]

In 572 BC, Duke Dao of the State of Jin attacked Qi. Duke Ling made peace with Jin by sending his son Prince Guang (later Duke Zhuang II of Qi) to Jin as a hostage. Nine years later Prince Guang was made the crown prince of Qi.[1][2]

Annexing the State of Lai[edit]

In 567 BC, the fifteenth year of Duke Ling's reign, the State of Lai attacked Qi but was decisively defeated. The Qi army counterattacked, killed the Lai ruler Duke Gong, and conquered the entire state.[2][3] Lai was a large Dongyi state to the east of Qi, and the state of Qi more than doubled the size of its territory after annexing Lai.[2]

Battle of Pingyin[edit]

In 555 BC, Duke Ling switched his alliance from Jin to its enemy State of Chu. To punish Qi, Duke Ping of Jin invaded and inflicted a crushing defeat on Qi. The Jin army, led by general Zhonghang Yan, occupied large swathes of Qi territory, besieged the Qi capital Linzi, and burned down the outer portion of the city. This was the worst defeat that Qi had suffered during the Spring and Autumn Period.[1][2][4]

Succession[edit]

Duke Ling's main wife was Yan Yi Ji, a princess of the State of Lu, who had no son. His original heir, Crown Prince Guang, was the son of Sheng Ji, niece of Yan Yi Ji. Duke Ling also had at least two other concubines, Zhong Zi and Rong Zi, who were both princesses of the State of Song. Zhong Zi bore a son named Ya, while Rong Zi had no son but took Prince Ya under her wing. Duke Ling favoured Rong Zi, who asked him to make Prince Ya the new crown prince. Although Zhong Zi objected, Duke Ling still deposed Prince Guang and made Prince Ya his heir.[1][2]

In 554 BC, the 28th year of his reign, Duke Ling fell ill and died in the fifth month. The powerful minister Cui Zhu installed Guang, the original crown prince, on the throne, to be known as Duke Zhuang II of Qi. Cui Zhu and Duke Zhuang killed Rong Zi, Prince Ya, and rival minister Gao Hou, who supported Prince Ya.[1][2]

Duke Ling also had another son named Chujiu, born to another of Duke Ling's concubines, who was the daughter of Shusun Xuanbo, leader of the Shusun clan of Lu. Cui Zhu would later kill Duke Zhuang and install Chujiu on the throne, to be known as Duke Jing of Qi.[1][2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Sima Qian. 齐太公世家 [House of Duke Tai of Qi]. Records of the Grand Historian (in Chinese). Guoxue.com. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Han Zhaoqi (韩兆琦) (2010). "House of Duke Tai of Qi". Shiji (史记) (in Chinese). Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company. pp. 2564–2568. ISBN 978-7-101-07272-3. 
  3. ^ Zuo Qiuming (translated by James Legge). "Book IX. Duke Xiang". Zuo Zhuan (in Chinese and English). University of Virginia. Retrieved 23 May 2012.  Chapter VI.
  4. ^ Han Zhaoqi (韩兆琦) (2010). "House of Jin". Shiji (史记) (in Chinese). Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company. pp. 3075–3080. ISBN 978-7-101-07272-3. 
Duke Ling of Qi
Died: 554 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Duke Qing of Qi
Duke of Qi
581–554 BC
Succeeded by
Duke Zhuang II of Qi