Ecchymosis

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For the Colombian band, see Ekhymosis.
Ecchymoses
Classification and external resources
ICD-9 459.89, 782.7
MeSH D004438

An ecchymosis (/ˌɛkɨˈmsɪs/; Ancient Greek: ἐκχύμωσις, from ἐκ "out" and χέω "I pour") (noun) \e-ki-ˈmō-səs\ is a subcutaneous purpura (extravasation of blood) larger than 1 centimeter or a hematoma, commonly, but erroneously, called a bruise.[1] That is, bruises are caused by trauma whereas ecchymoses, a type of purpura, are not necessarily caused by trauma.[2]

A broader definition of ecchymosis[3][4] is the escape of blood into the tissues from ruptured blood vessels. The term also applies to the subcutaneous discoloration resulting from seepage of blood within the contused tissue.

Etymology[edit]

First used in English in the 1541 translation of Galen's Terapentyke; via New Latin from Greek ekchymōsis, from ekchymousthai "to extravasate blood", from ex- and chymos "juice"; cf. enchyma, "tissue infused with organic juice"; elaboration from chyme, the formative juice of tissues.[citation needed]

Etiology[edit]

There are many causes of subcutaneous hematomas including ecchymoses. Coagulopathies such as Hemophilia A may cause ecchymosis formation in children.[5]

Presentation[edit]

Hematomas can be subdivided by size. By definition, ecchymoses are 1 centimeter in size or larger, and are therefore larger than petechiae ( less than 2 millimeters in diameter) or purpura (2 millimeters to 1 centimeter in diameter).[6] Hematomas also have a more diffuse border than other purpura.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "UCSF Purpura Module". 
  2. ^ "Easy Bruising Symptoms". 
  3. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ecchymosis; accessed 1/2/2012
  4. ^ Gould, George M. "The Practitioner's Medical Dictionary," P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1916 et seq.; p. 311
  5. ^ Lee, AC (June 2008). "Bruises, blood coagulation tests and the battered child syndrome". Singapore Medical Journal 49 (6): 445–449. PMID 18581014. 
  6. ^ Leung, AKC; Chan, KW (August 2001). "Evaluating the Child with Purpura". American Family Physician 64 (3): 419–429. 
  7. ^ "Case Based Pediatrics Chapter". Retrieved 2009-01-08.