Edsel Ford

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This article is about the automobile executive. For other uses, see Edsel Ford (disambiguation).
Edsel Ford
Edsel Bryant Ford.jpg
Edsel Ford,1921
Chief Executive Officer of the Ford Motor Company
In office
1919–1943[1]
Preceded by Henry Ford
Succeeded by Henry Ford
Personal details
Born Edsel Bryant Ford
(1893-11-06)November 6, 1893
Detroit, Michigan
Died May 26, 1943(1943-05-26) (aged 49)
Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan
Spouse(s) Eleanor Lowthian Clay
Relations Henry Ford (father)
Clara Jane Bryant (mother)
Edsel Ford II (grandson)
William Clay Ford, Jr. (Grandson)
Children Henry Ford II
Benson Ford
Josephine Ford
William Clay Ford, Sr.
Occupation President and CEO of the Ford Motor Company

Edsel Bryant Ford (November 6, 1893 – May 26, 1943), the son of Henry Ford, was born in Detroit, Michigan, US. He was president of Ford Motor Company from 1919 to his death in 1943.[2][3]

Life and career[edit]

As the only child of Clara and Henry Ford, he was named after Edsel Ruddiman, one of Henry Ford's closest childhood friends. Edsel was groomed to take over the family automobile business and grew up tinkering on cars with his father. He became secretary of Ford in 1915 and married Eleanor Lowthian Clay (1896–1976), the niece of department store owner J. L. Hudson, on November 1, 1916.[4][5] Together they had four children: Henry Ford II (1917–1987), Benson Ford (1919–1978), Josephine Clay Ford (1923–2005),[6][7] and William Clay Ford (1925-2014).[8][9] They made their home at 2171 Iroquois St, in the Indian Village neighborhood of Detroit.[10]

Ford went to The Hotchkiss School, in Lakeville, Connecticut, and the Detroit University School. His family donated to both institutions. The school library at Hotchkiss is named the Edsel Ford Memorial Library.

The younger Ford showed more interest than his father in flashier styling for automobiles. He indulged this proclivity in part with the purchase of the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922. His affinity for sports cars was demonstrated in his personal vehicles: Edsel bought the first MG motorcar imported to the US. In 1932 he had an aluminum, boat-tailed speedster automobile custom designed by Ford's first designer, E.T. (Bob) Gregorie. This car had several features not available on any other car. Most of the design features appeared in many Ford models throughout history. The car had Ford's brand-new V8, the first low-cost eight-cylinder engine. Many car collectors around the world have tried to locate the 32' and acquire it for their personal collection but have been unsuccessful thus far. The one of a kind was the first collective creation by designer E.T. "Bob" Gregorie and Edsel Ford. The car was the prototype that never went into production. The car is considered one of the most valuable and the world's first "Hot Rod" by many car experts and historians. Two years later Edsel had another car designed, this one a low-riding aluminum-bodied speedster. The latter two cars he kept for the remainder of his life and along with the Lincoln Zephyr inspired the design of the Lincoln Continental.

After becoming the president of Ford, Edsel long advocated the introduction of a more modern automobile to replace the Model T but was repeatedly overruled by his father. Dwindling market share finally made introduction of a new model inevitable: the Model A.

During the design of the Model A in 1927, Henry Ford assured mechanical quality and reliability, allowing his son to develop the body, with the help of designer József Galamb. Edsel also prevailed upon his father to allow the inclusion of four-wheel mechanical brakes and a sliding-gear transmission on this model. The resulting Model A was a commercial success, selling over four million during four years of production.

As president, Edsel Ford often disagreed with his father on major decisions and was occasionally humiliated in public by the older man.[11] The relationship between the father and son was always close but always fraught with unhealthy aspects.[12] Edsel managed to introduce many lasting changes. He founded and named the Mercury division. He was responsible for the Lincoln Zephyr and Lincoln Continental. He significantly strengthened Ford Motors' overseas production, and modernized the company's cars, such as by introducing hydraulic brakes.

Death and legacy[edit]

Edsel Ford developed metastatic stomach cancer and undulant fever.[13] Surgery for the cancer was unsuccessful due to the metastasis. Ford died in 1943 at Gaukler Point, his lakeside home in Grosse Pointe Shores, at the age of 49.[2][14] His father resumed the presidency of the company. All of Edsel Ford's nonvoting stock was donated through a codicil in his will to the Ford Foundation, which he had founded with his father seven years earlier. He was buried at Woodlawn Cemetery in Detroit, Michigan.

Each of Edsel Ford's children inherited many shares in the Ford Motor Company, and the three sons all worked in the family business. Henry Ford II succeeded his grandfather as president of Ford on September 21, 1945.[15] He was credited with rescuing the company during and after WWII via a wide-reaching regime change (removing Harry Bennett from operational control of the company and allowing the Whiz Kids to bring operations research to Ford's operations management).

Edsel Ford was one of the most significant art benefactors in Detroit history. As president of the Detroit Arts Commission, he commissioned the famous Diego Rivera Detroit Industry mural in the Detroit Institute of Arts (DIA).[16] He was an early collector of African art and his contributions became part of the core of the original DIA African art collection. After his death, his family continued to make significant contributions.

Edsel helped finance exploratory expeditions, including the historic flight of Admiral Richard Byrd over the North Pole in 1926. Byrd, in his Antarctic expeditions, also financed by Edsel, named the Edsel Ford Range of mountains after him. Other Antarctic homages include Ford Massif, Ford Nunataks, and Ford Peak.

Two of the three high schools in Dearborn are named after Edsel Ford: Edsel Ford High School and Fordson High School; Fordson was the brand name of a line of tractors and was originally started as a separate company, Henry Ford & Son, later absorbed into the Ford Motor Company. Interstate 94 in the Detroit Metropolitan Area is named the Edsel Ford Freeway.

In September 1957, Ford Motor Company unveiled a new division of cars called Edsel. The Edsel division included the Citation, Corsair, Pacer, Ranger, Bermuda, Villager, and Roundup models. The Edsel division is remembered as a significant commercial failure. The cars sold moderately well in their first year, but the Edsel division was discontinued soon after the 1960 models were introduced.

Edsel and Eleanor Ford House[edit]

Edsel and Eleanor Ford, 1924

In 1929, the Ford family moved into 'Gaukler Point', their new home designed by Albert Kahn in 1929, on shores of Lake St. Clair in Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan. The estate's gardens were designed by landscape architect Jens Jensen with his traditional 'long view' giving visitors a glimpse of the residence down the long meadow before revealing the entire house at drive's end.[17]

He also designed the gardens for Edsel and Eleanor's summer estate 'Skylands' in Seal Harbor on Mount Desert Island in Maine. (1922).[18][19] Jensen designed work for their two other Michigan residences, one being 'Haven Hill,' between 1922 and 1935.[20] 'Haven Hill', now within the Highland Recreation Area near White Lake Township in southeastern Michigan, is designated as both a Michigan State Historical Landmark and State Natural Preserve. Jensen's landscape elements, with the diversity of tree, plant and animal life, combine aesthetics, history and nature.[21][22]

Edsel Ford died at 'Gaukler Point', the Grosse Pointe Shores house, in 1943. His wife Eleanor continued living there until her death in 1976. It was her wish that the property be used for "the benefit of the public." The Edsel and Eleanor Ford House is now open to the public.[23] Located on 87 ac (35 ha), the house has an excellent collection of the Fords' original antiques and art, and the historical landscape grounds on the lakefront. The museum currently hosts tours, classes, lectures, and special events. The property is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[24]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • A&E with Richard Guy Wilson, Ph.D.,(2000). America's Castles: The Auto Baron Estates, A&E Television Network.
  • Bak, Richard (2003). Henry and Edsel: The Creation of the Ford Empire. Wiley ISBN 0-471-23487-7
  • Bridenstine, James (1989). Edsel and Eleanor Ford House. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2161-5. 
Business positions
Preceded by
Henry Ford
Chief Executive Officer of the Ford Motor Company
1919–1943[1]
Succeeded by
Henry Ford

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Henry Ford". Retrieved 2007-02-14. "The years between the world wars were a period of hectic expansion. In 1917, Ford Motor Company began producing trucks and tractors. In 1919 a conflict with stockholders over the millions to be spent building the giant Rouge manufacturing complex in Dearborn, Michigan led to the company becoming wholly owned by Henry Ford and his son, Edsel, who then succeeded his father as president. After Edsel Ford passed away in 1943, a saddened Henry Ford resumed the presidency. Henry Ford resigned for the second time at the end of World War II. His eldest grandson, Henry Ford II, became president on Sept. 21, 1945. Even as Henry Ford II drove the industry's first postwar car off the assembly line, he was making plans to reorganize and decentralize the company to resume its prewar position as a major force in a fiercely competitive auto industry. Henry Ford II provided strong leadership for Ford Motor Company from the postwar era into the 1980s. He was president from 1945 until 1960 and chief executive officer from 1945 until 1979. He was chairman of the board of directors from 1960 until 1980, and remained as chairman of the finance committee from 1980 until his death in 1987." 
  2. ^ a b "Edsel Ford Dies in Detroit at 49. Motor Company President, the Only Son of Its Founder, Had Long Been Ill". Associated Press. May 26, 1943. "Edsel Ford, 49-year-old president of the Ford Motor Company, died this morning at his home at Grosse Pointe Shores following an illness of six weeks." 
  3. ^ "Edsel Agonistes". Time (magazine). September 7, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-21. "Edsel was a first name before it was ever a car name. But it was never a very popular thing to call a child: according to the Social Security Administration—which has time for this sort of thing—the name Edsel has ranked only as high as 400th on the top 1,000 names for boys, and that was in 1927. More popular names that year included the soaring Kermit, Buford and Elvin." 
  4. ^ "Henry Ford Estate: The Ford Family". HenryFordEstate.org. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  5. ^ "Henry Ford's Only Son Marries.". The New York Times. 1916-11-02. 
  6. ^ "Josephine Clay Ford, 81, a Philanthropist, Dies". Associated Press. 2005-06-03. "Josephine Clay Ford, a philanthropist who was the sole granddaughter of the automotive pioneer Henry Ford, died on Wednesday. She was 81 and lived in suburban Grosse Pointe Farms. Her death was announced in an e-mail message to Ford Motor Company employees by the company chairman, Bill Ford Jr., a nephew. The message did not give a place or cause of death. Mrs. Ford, known as Dody, established a foundation with her husband that donated millions of dollars. Mrs. Ford was born in 1923, the third of Edsel and Eleanor Ford's four children. Edsel was Henry Ford's only son. Grosse Pointe Farms." 
  7. ^ "Josephine C. Ford is Wed in Michigan. Granddaughter of Founder of Motor Company Is Married to Walter B. Ford 2d, U.S.N.R.". The New York Times. 1943-01-03. 
  8. ^ 1930 United States Census for Detroit, Michigan.
  9. ^ "Martha Parke Ford Makes Debut". The New York Times. 1967-06-17. "Martha Parke Ford, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William Clay Ford, made her debut tonight at a reception at the Ford home on Lake Shore Road in nearby Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan" 
  10. ^ Simmons, Zena. "Detroit's historic Indian Village". Detroit News. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  11. ^ Edsel B. Ford
  12. ^ Sorensen, Charles E.; with Williamson, Samuel T. (1956), My Forty Years with Ford, New York, New York, USA: Norton, LCCN 56010854 . Various republications, including ISBN 9780814332795., pp. 301–333.
  13. ^ Time, Volume 41, Part 2 (1943)
  14. ^ David L. Lewis (1976). The Public Image Of Henry Ford. ISBN 978-0-8143-1892-8. Retrieved 2010-10-09. 
  15. ^ "Henry Ford & Family". Ford Motor Company. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  16. ^ http://www.dia.org/
  17. ^ Grese, Robert E., Jens Jensen, Maker of Natural Parks and Gardens. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8018-4287-5. pp. 102, 160.
  18. ^ Grese, Robert E., Jens Jensen, Maker of Natural Parks and Gardens. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8018-4287-5. pp. 102, 184
  19. ^ "From My Home to Yours". Martha Stewart Living. June 2007. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  20. ^ Grese, Robert E., Jens Jensen, Maker of Natural Parks and Gardens. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8018-4287-5. pp. 102
  21. ^ http://www.havenhillproject.org/Haven%20Hill%20Pictures.html
  22. ^ http://www.havenhillproject.org/
  23. ^ http://www.fordhouse.org
  24. ^ "Edsel and Eleanor Ford House". National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-06-11. 

External links[edit]