Education in Swaziland is neither free nor compulsory. The Ministry of Education pays teacher salaries, while student fees and money raised from the community pay for costs such as building upkeep and teacher housing. In 1996, the net primary school enrollment rate was 90.8 percent, with gender parity at the primary level. In 1998, 80.5 percent of children reached grade 5. Primary school attendance rates were unavailable for Swaziland as of 2001. In 1996, 91.3 percent of the teachers were certified to teach according to national standards, and the pupil to teacher ratio was 33:9. In 1963 Waterford school was founded as southern Africa's first multiracial school. In 1981 Waterford Kamhlaba joined the UWC movement as the first and only United World College in Africa.