An engineering technologist is a specialist dedicated to the development and implementation of existing technology within a field of engineering. Engineering technology education is more applied than the more theoretical science-based engineering degree education. Technologists often work with engineers on a wide variety of projects by applying basic engineering principles and technical skills. Engineering technologists also may assume senior management positions in industry or become entrepreneurs.
The work of technologists is usually focused on the portion of the technological spectrum closest to product improvement, manufacturing, construction, and engineering operational functions. Engineering technology deals with the same topics as engineering, but the knowledge is more applied, as opposed to purely theoretical knowledge. The mathematics and basic sciences, as well as the technical courses, in technology programs are taught with more applications and less theory than related engineering courses. Engineering courses also typically require a higher level of knowledge of mathematics, as well as natural and engineering sciences, and prepare a student to continue studies and perform research at the graduate level. Engineering technology courses generally have labs associated with the courses that require applied or hands-on applications of the topics being studied.
Internationally, the Sydney Accord is an agreement signed in 2001 acknowledging the academic equivalence of accredited engineering technology programs in the signatory nations. In some countries, only those individuals who have graduated from an accredited curriculum in engineering technology and have a significant amount of work experience in their field may become registered technologists. A technologist's recognition may be in the form of a certification or a professional registration.
- 1 Nature of work
- 2 Education and accreditation
- 3 Certification
- 4 See also
- 5 References and notes
- 6 External links
Nature of work
Technologists are employed in a large and wide array of industries, including manufacturing, construction, industrial, maintenance, and management. They may be hired as managers of technology, depending on the technologist's educational emphasis on management preparation. Entry-level positions (such as product design, testing, product development, systems development, field engineering, technical operations, and quality control) are all common positions for engineering technology graduates.
In general, the work of engineering technologists focuses on the applied and practical application of engineering principles, whereas the work of engineers emphasizes the theoretical aspects of mathematical, scientific and engineering principles. The National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) describes the difference between engineering and engineering technology:
- "The distinction between engineering and engineering technology emanates primarily from differences in their educational programs. Engineering programs are geared toward development of conceptual skills, and consist of a sequence of engineering fundamentals and design courses, built on a foundation of complex mathematics and science courses. Engineering technology programs are oriented toward application, and provide their students introductory mathematics and science courses, and only a qualitative introduction to engineering fundamentals. Thus, engineering programs provide their graduates a breadth and depth of knowledge that allows them to function as designers. Engineering technology programs prepare their graduates to apply others' designs."
The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) describes the difference between engineering and engineering technology: "Engineering and technology are separate, but intimately related professions. Here are some of the ways they differ:
- Engineering undergraduate programs include more mathematics work and higher-level mathematics than technology programs.
- Engineering undergraduate programs often focus on theory, while technology programs usually focus on application.
- Once they enter the workforce, engineering graduates typically spend their time planning, while engineering technology graduates spend their time making plans work.
- At ABET, engineering and engineering technology programs are evaluated and accredited by two separate accreditation commissions using two separate sets of accreditation criteria.
- Graduates from engineering programs are called "engineers," while graduates of technology programs are called "technologists."
- Some U.S. state boards of professional engineering licensure will allow only graduates of engineering programs—not engineering technology programs—to become licensed engineers."
Education and accreditation
Beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, some post-secondary institutions in the U.S. and Canada began offering degrees in engineering technology, focusing on applied study rather than the more theoretical engineering science degrees. The focus on applied study addressed a need within the scientific, manufacturing, and engineering communities, as well as other industries, for professionals with hands-on and applications-based engineering knowledge. Depending on the institution, associate's and/or bachelor's degrees are offered, with some institutions also offering advanced degrees in technology.
In general, an engineering technologist receives a broad range of applied science and applied mathematics training, as well as the fundamentals of engineering in the student's area of focus. Engineering technology programs typically include instruction in various engineering support functions for research, production, and operations, and applications to specific engineering specialties. Information technology is primarily involved with the management, operation, and maintenance of computer systems and networks, along with an application of technology in diverse fields such as architecture, engineering, graphic design, telecommunications, computer science and network security. A technologist is also expected to have had some coursework in ethics.
International technology organizations from eight nations have signed a mutual recognition agreement called the Sydney Accord, which represents an understanding that the academic awards of technologists can be recognized in all signatory states. The recognition of the Sydney Accord for technologists can be compared to the Washington Accord for engineers and the Dublin Accord for engineering technicians. The Engineering Technologist Mobility Forum is an international forum held by signatories of the Sydney Accord to explore mutual recognition for experienced engineering technologists and to remove artificial barriers to the free movement and practice of engineering technologists amongst their countries.
Graduates acquiring an associate's degree or lower typically find careers as engineering technicians. According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics: "Many four-year colleges offer bachelor’s degrees in engineering technology, but graduates of these programs often are hired to work as technologists or applied engineers, not technicians." Technicians typically hold a two-year associate's degree, while technologists usually hold bachelor's degrees.
In Canada, the new occupational category of "technologist" was established in the 1960s in conjunction with an emerging system of community colleges and technical institutes. It was designed to effectively bridge the gap between the increasingly theoretical nature of engineering science degrees and the predominately practical approach of technician and trades programs. Provincial associations may certify individuals as a Professional Technologist (P.Tech), Certified Engineering Technologist (C.E.T.), Registered Engineering Technologist (R.E.T.), Applied Science Technologist (AScT) or Technologue Professionel [T.P.]. These provincial associations are constituent members of the Canadian Council of Technicians and Technologists (CCTT), which nationally accredits technology programs across Canada through its Canadian Technology Accreditation Board (CTAB). Nationally accredited engineering technology programs range from two to three years in length, depending on province, with two-year programs leading to a C.Tech. certification and three-year programs usually leading to an AScT, CET or RET certification.
In the United States, the hierarchy of educational structure and acknowledgement start at the U.S. Department of Education or the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). The U.S. Department of Education acknowledges regional and national accreditations, and CHEA recognizes specialty accreditations. Two technology accreditations are currently recognized by CHEA: The Association of Technology, Management, and Applied Engineering (ATMAE) and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Specifically, CHEA recognizes ABET internationally and in the U.S. for accrediting engineering technology programs at the associate and baccalaureate level. CHEA also recognizes ATMAE for accrediting associate, baccalaureate, and master’s degree programs in industrial technology, applied technology, and technology management (2011).
ABET has been accrediting engineering technology programs in the United States since 1946, with a total of over 600 programs at more than 230 institutions. In response to heavy demand, ABET began accrediting engineering technology programs internationally in 2007. Depending on the institution, associate's and/or bachelor's degrees are offered, with a few institutions also offering advanced degrees. The type, length, and quality of education offered can vary greatly depending on the educational institution and the specialty pursued within engineering technology. ATMAE-accredited programs in industrial technology require a management core.
The Engineering Technology Accreditation Commission (ETAC) of Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology was admitted as a provisional member of International Technology Accords in 2007, and it signed the Sydney Accord in 2009.
Other U.S. Secretary of Education and CHEA-recognized accrediting agencies in the U.S.—(such as the Distance Education and Training Council (DETC) Accrediting Council and the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools (ACICS)—accredit colleges and universities with programs leading to bachelor's and master's degrees in engineering and engineering technologies. Graduates of the nationally accredited programs are accepted into government, civil services and military sectors. Some U.S. employers recognize nationally-accredited Engineering and Engineering Technology degrees, but many do not.
Professional certification is the registration of engineering technologists to assure their qualification within their countries or territories. The Sydney Accord and the Engineering Technologist Mobility Forum (ETMF) are two international efforts to improve cross-border recognition for technologists.
A certified engineering technologist is usually required to apprentice for a term before being able to apply for certification through a local governing body. In that time, the technologist must have completed tasks which directly apply to his or her area of study.
In Canada, the regulated title for technologists is Certified Engineering Technologist. Technology program accreditation is administered through the Canadian Technology Accreditation Board (CTAB), often in conjunction with provincial associations affiliated with the Canadian Council of Technicians and Technologists. Graduated technologists are certified by their provincial bodies.
In the United States, technologist certification requires a bachelor's degree in an engineering technology program accredited by the Engineering Technology Accreditation Commission of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ETAC/ABET). One may also obtain a degree from an institution accredited through The Association of Technology, Management, and Applied Engineering (formerly known as the National Association of Industrial Technology). Technologist registration in the United States is conducted by many independent societies and organizations. A government-sponsored registration is opposed by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) and NSPE. As a result, the profession is often not seen as an independent field separate from design engineering.
The National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies (NICET) awards certification at two levels depending on work experience: the Associate Engineering Technologist (AT) and the Certified Engineering Technologist (CT). The Association of Technology, Management, and Applied Engineering (ATMAE) awards two levels of certification in technology management: Certified Technology Manager (CTM) and Certified Senior Technology Manager (CSTM). ATMAE also awards two levels of certification in manufacturing specialist: Certified Manufacturing Specialist (CMS) and Certified Senior Manufacturing Specialist (CSMS). While the CTM and CMS certification are obtained through examination, the CSTM and CSMS require industry experience and continuous improvement via the obtainment of professional development units (PDUs).
American Society of Certified Engineering Technicians (ASCET) is a membership organization that issues Certified Member certifications to engineering technicians and engineering technologists. Professional engineers are issued Registered Member certification.
The United Kingdom has a decades-long tradition of producing engineering technologists via the apprenticeship system of learning. U.K. engineering technologists have always been loosely designated as "engineers". The modern term for an engineering technologist is "incorporated engineer" (IEng), although since 2000 the normal route to achieving IEng is with a Bachelors or Honours Degree in engineering. Apprenticeships would normally lead to the EngTech professional qualification. The title "incorporated engineer" is protected by civil law. Prior to the title "incorporated engineer," U.K. technologists were known as "technician engineers".
In the United Kingdom, an incorporated engineer is accepted as a "professional engineer," registered by the Engineering Council, although the term "professional engineer" has no legal meaning in the U.K., and there are no restrictions on practice. In fact, anyone in the U.K. can call themselves an "engineer" or "professional engineer" without any qualifications or proven competencies, and most U.K. skilled trades are sometimes referred to as "professional" or "accredited" engineers.
Incorporated engineers are recognized internationally through the Sydney Accord academic agreement as engineering technologists. One of the professional titles for engineers in the United Kingdom, recognized in the Washington Accord is the chartered engineer. The incorporated engineer is a professional engineer as declared by the Engineering Council of the United Kingdom, and the European definition as demonstrated by the prescribed title under 2005/36/EC as an "engineer." The incorporated engineer operates autonomously and directs activities independently. They do not need the support of chartered engineers because they are acknowledged as full engineers in the U.K. (but not in Canada or the U.S.). The United Kingdom incorporated engineer may also contribute to the design of new products and systems.
The chartered engineer and incorporated engineer are recognized as comparable in stature, but with separate functions. As a result, the chartered and incorporated engineer are placed under the same directive, 2005/36/EC. The incorporated engineer can practice autonomously without the oversight of a chartered engineer.
Incorporated engineers currently require an IEng accredited bachelors or honours degree in engineering (prior to 1997 the B.Sc. and B.Eng. degrees satisfied the academic requirements for "chartered engineer" registration), a Higher National Certificate or diploma, or a Foundation Degree in engineering, plus appropriate further learning to degree level or an NVQ4 or SVQ4 approved for the purpose by a licensed engineering institution.
The academic requirements must be accompanied by the appropriate experience in employment. In addition to the experience and academic requirements, the engineering candidate must have three referees (themselves CEng or IEng) that vouch for the performance of the individual being considered for professional recognition. There are a number of alternative ways to achieve IEng status for those that do not have the necessary qualifications for applicants, that can clearly show they have achieved the same level as those with qualifications, including:
- writing a technical report, based upon their experience, and demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of engineering principles;
- taking Engineering Council examinations through the City and Guilds of London Institute (until 2011);
- following a work-based learning programme; or
- taking an academic programme specified by the institution to which they are applying.
Germany - European Union
The state-certified engineer is a European Union qualification for professional engineering technologist (not to be confused with engineering technician). It is granted to engineering technologists upon successful completion of a technical college, and it is also granted by an international organization with headquarters in Germany, the Bundesverband höherer Berufe der Technik, Wirtschaft und Gestaltung e.V. ("Association of Higher Professions for Teconomy and Design") or BVT.
A member of the BVT is entitled to use the initials BVT after his name and the title "state-certified engineer BVT". To reach this qualification, candidates must complete a supervised apprenticeship program of three-and-a-half years, complete a minimum of a 2,400-hour engineering or technology program at a technical college; complete two years of relevant experience; and successfully pass the state examinations.
As of Jan 31, 2012, the state certified engineer is a "level 6 on EQF," the equivalent of "bachelor" on the European Qualification Framework (EQF). A bachelors (Hon) degree in engineering or engineering technology from an accredited university is also equated to level 6 on EQF, on the same level as a bachelors degree. A candidate may continue to study to a masters degree with the SCE qualification. The academic requirements for qualification are similar to incorporated engineer qualification/registration by E.C. U.K. State certified engineers now assist master's and diploma engineers, and they also hold full engineering positions for systems engineers, integration engineers, test engineers and QA engineers.
State-certified technicians/engineers in the EU directives
As of January 31, 2012, state certified engineers, state certified business managers, and state certified designers are at level 6-Bachelor on the DQF and EQF. The qualifications more than a decade ago were entered into EU Directives as recognized regulated professions in Germany and the EU. Annexes C and D were added to Council Directive 92/51/EEC on a second general system for the recognition of professional education and training to supplement Directive 89/48/EEC.
Top institutions involved included the federal government (the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology), EU Standing Conference and Economic Ministerial Meeting of Countries, the German Confederation of Hand-plant, the Confederation of German Employers' Associations, German Chambers of Industry and Commerce, Confederation of German Trade Unions, and Federal Institute for Vocational Application. These government institutions agreed on a common position on the implementation of the EQF and a German qualifications framework (DQR).
European Union law and other documents considered to be public include:
- Annexes C and D to Council Directive 92/51/EEC on a second general system for the recognition of professional education and training to supplement Directive 89/48/EEC
- EU Directive 2005L0036-EN 01.01.2007
- ANNEX III list of regulated education and training referred to in the third sub paragraph of Article 13(2)
The qualifications framework requires: "regulated courses for the professions of state-certified ('staatlich gepruefte(r)') technician/engineer ('Techniker(in)'), business economist (business manager), ('Betriebswirt(in)'), designer ('Gestalter(in)') and family assistant ('Familiepfleger(in)'), of a total duration not less than 16 years, a prerequisite of which is successful completion of compulsory schooling or equivalent education and training (of a duration of not less than nine years) and successful completion of a course at a trade school ('Berufsschule') of a duration of not less than three years and comprising, upon completion of at least two years of work experience, full-time education and training of a duration of not less than two years or part-time education and training of equivalent duration."
International engineering technologist (IntET)
The international engineering technologist (IntET) qualification was launched in late 2007 by the Engineering Technologists Mobility Forum (ETMF), which is part of the International Engineering Alliance (IEA). The qualification is awarded by each member jurisdiction followed by a jurisdictional identifier, such as IntET (UK) for the U.K.
In addition to the benefits gained through IEng professional qualification (an eligibility requirement), IntET (UK) offers additional benefits, including letters after name (such as "J. Smith IEng IntET (UK)") and easier admission to National Registers of IntET register member jurisdictions. The Engineering Council and its fellow ETMF members are pursuing the possibility of future mutual recognition of professional titles, which would further enhance the benefits of IntET qualification.
The IntET (UK) qualification is open to U.K.-registered incorporated engineers who have met the requirements: seven years post-graduate experience, two years responsibility of significant engineering work, and maintaining continuing professional development. Incorporated engineers who do not hold an accredited degree recognised under the Sydney Accord, or equivalent academic qualification, are currently not eligible to apply for IntET (UK) qualification.
References and notes
- "Engineering Technology". NSPE Issue Briefs. NSPE. Archived from the original on 2011-03-16.
- "Frequently Asked Questions - Parents and Students". ABET. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16.
- "Engineering vs. Engineering Technology". Department of Engineering Technology and Construction Management, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
- "Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP), Engineering Technologies/Technicians". U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- Wright, Jr., John (2009). "Venn Diagram Definitions". Retrieved 2010-10-13.
- "Engineering Technicians". Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. December 17, 2009. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
- ATMAE Scope of Recognition
- Hunt, S.E. (June 1996). "(GB) United Kingdom". Mapping The World of Education: The Comparative Database System (PDF) 2. National Science Foundation. pp. 365–372. Retrieved 23 October 2005.
- "The European Communities (Recognition of Professional Qualifications) (First General System) Regulations 2005". Office of Public Sector Information.
- "The European Communities (Recognition of Professional Qualifications) Regulations 2007". Office of Public Sector Information.
- "Incorporated Engineer". Regulated professions database. European Commission. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- "Employers Fact Sheet #35, Career Structure - Incorporated Engineer" (pdf). SEMTA.
- "Engineer". Regulated professions database. European Commission. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- Sastry, M.K.S.; Clement K. Sankat; Harris Khan; Dave Bhajan (2008). "The need for technologists and applied technology programmes: an experience from Trinidad and Tobago". International Journal of Management in Education 2 (2): 222. doi:10.1504/IJMIE.2008.018393.
- Sastry, M.K.S.; C.K. Sankat, D. Exall, K.D. Srivastava, H. Khan, B.Copeland, W. Lewis, D.Bhajan (April 2007). "An Appraisal of Tertiary Level Institutional Collaboration and Joint Degree Programs in Trinidad and Tobago". Latin American and Caribbean Journal of Engineering Education 1 (1): 27–34. ISSN 1935-0295. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
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