Eva Moskowitz

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Eva Sarah Moskowitz is founder and CEO of Success Academy Charter Schools and was a City Councilmember for the Upper East Side, both in New York City.[1]

Her later work has centered on education. Besides founding Success Academy Charter Schools (originally Harlem Success Academy), she has worked with the Harlem Education Fair, runs the Great Public Schools PAC, StudentsFirstNY, and worked with the New York City Charter School Center.[2] She coauthored Mission Possible (2012) with Arin Lavinia, mainly a guide to running charter schools.[3] She has a Ph.D in history, authored In Therapy We Trust (2001), and wrote a scholarly study of Betty Friedan's work in 1996.[4]

In Moskowitz' electoral political career, while in the City Council she chaired the Education Committee and she later lost a primary election to be the Democratic party nominee for Manhattan Borough President.[5] She has been opposed by the union the United Federation of Teachers (UFT), in every election.[6] According to the Wall Street Journal's Lisa Fleisher, Moskowitz has had support from parents of students in her charter schools.[7]

Early life and education[edit]

Moskowitz grew up in Harlem.[8] She graduated from Stuyvesant High School,[9] where "she thought half of the teachers were incompetent", according to Steven Brill[10] and claimed to the New Yorker she "didn't learn anything".[11] She found widespread student cheating and a coverup by the principal, according to New York magazine,[12] and began to consider that teachers' ability to choose where they would teach based on their seniority meant that they chose Stuyvesant, where, according to Brill, "the students could teach themselves."[13] Moskowitz went to the University of Pennsylvania, where, she said, a professor criticized her writing ability, and she studied writing, getting a B.A. with honors in history and influencing her prioritizing writing by her students at Success Academy Charter Schools.[14] She received a Ph.D. in American history from Johns Hopkins University[15] with her 1991 dissertation, "Naming the Problem: How Popular Culture and Experts Paved the Way For "personal politics".[16]

Early career[edit]

She taught women's history at University of Virginia as a visiting professor of communications and mass culture in 1989–1990, Vanderbilt University as an assistant professor of history in 1992–1993, and City University of New York (College of Staten Island) as an assistant professor of history in 1994–1995 and chaired the faculty seminar in American studies at Columbia University in 1996–1999.[17] She was the director of the children's literacy program ReadNet[18][19] and taught civics at the Prep for Prep school, where she was also the director of public affairs.[20]

Charter school leadership[edit]

Before entering electoral politics, Moskowitz applied to start a charter school in the Upper East Side, more recently telling Kyle Spencer "you can live on a posh street and be zoned for a very terrible school."[21] Moskowitz withdrew the application before holding electoral office.[21]

Success Academy Charter Schools[edit]

Moskowitz is a founder and the chief executive officer of Success Academy Charter Schools.[22] Her salary is $475,000 a year, and she has four assistants.[23]

More organizations[edit]

Moskowitz organized the Harlem Education Fair in 2009 for families to select from various charter and noncharter public schools, including Success Academy Charter Schools (then known as Harlem Success Academy).[24]

Great Public Schools Political Action Committee is run by Moskowitz; according to Brill, Moskowitz founded a PAC after a pro-Success Academy candidate lost an election.[25] The Great Public Schools PAC supports charter schools.[26] In the year 2011–2012, it gave $50,000 to Andrew Cuomo 2014, Inc.[27]

Moskowitz is on the board of StudentsFirstNY,[28] a local branch of Michelle Rhee's nationwide political campaign regarding schools.[29][30]

With the New York City Charter School Center, in mid-2011, Moskowitz led a parents' and students' rally to protest against the NAACP's involvement in a teachers' union's lawsuit against co-location of charter schools in noncharter public school buildings.[31]

Views[edit]

Inadequacy of common education[edit]

Moskowitz said, on international comparisons of education, "even our highest-performing students are doing worse than many other countries' lowest-performing students",[32] there's "'an international crisis,' affecting the affluent neighborhoods she's now [2012] targeting just as seriously as it affects poor ones", according to Hanlon partly quoting Moskowitz,[3] and Moskowitz said that "[she doesn't] think that Americans have totally digested the global competition that we're facing."[33]

She disclosed that, in 2004, 90% of Black and Hispanic students graduated from City high schools with local instead of Regents diplomas, the local diplomas not requiring passing statewide tests, according to Tanangachi Mfuni;[34] while, differing somewhat, Elissa Gootman said the city reported that fewer than 1 in 10 Black and Hispanic students graduated in 2004 with Regents diplomas and Gootman said that Moskowitz criticized the city's solutions as inadequate when "this is a monumental civil rights crisis"[35] and that issuing 3 kinds of diplomas is confusing because "the rules keep changing".[35] In mid-2012, Moskowitz told the N.Y. Times that "67 percent of the 1,071 elementary and middle schools in New York State have fewer than 50 percent of children passing the state reading exam."[36] She believed in a "great, free public education",[37] but that even in middle-class and more affluent districts public noncharter schools are not as good as parents think they are.[38] She disagreed with requiring children to go to where they are zoned.[39][40][41]

According to New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg's speechwriter and policy advisor Francis S. Barry, in 2003 or 2004 Moskowitz objected to the Mayor's proposal to keep 3rd-graders in 3rd grade if their math and English scores on citywide tests were "the lowest possible".[42] According to David M. Herszenhorn, in early 2004, Moskowitz questioned whether holding failing 3rd-graders back would boost 4th-grade test scores the next year, because the lower-performing students would still be in the 3rd grade and not taking the 4th-grade tests, just when the Mayor would run for reelection,[43] but city officials called her criticism, in Herszenhorn's word, "cynical".[43] Moskowitz, wrote Herszenhorn, arguing that "there is a consensus among educators that policies against social promotion don't work",[44][a] called for, in Herszenhorn's paraphrasing of Moskowitz, "the city ... to be more creative in its efforts to help struggling students, by improving prekindergarten programs, identifying learning disabilities earlier and perhaps having more nuanced grade levels, like a first grade-plus for students repeating first grade."[45][b] According to Joyce Mayer Perry, in 2004, Moskowitz did not oppose having a failing student repeat a grade but believed that intervention needed to be earlier so that children will succeed.[46]

According to Moskowitz, co-locating charters in buildings with noncharters lets parents more easily compare how well their children do in one and how badly in the other and so find out that noncharter schools can be better.[47] She opposed conditioning co-location on letting noncharter schools get credit for charter students' higher test scores, referring to a law in Ohio, because, according to her, it denies accountability and a quid pro quo has to be more carefully chosen.[38]

According to Brill and as interpreted by Boykin Curry, Moskowitz doubted that the New York City public school system can simply be reformed, because it may need a complete turnaround, a replacing of the traditional model with a model derived from charters.[48] Moskowitz wrote that "[while] much of the growth in excellent public schools has occurred in low-income communities .... [m]iddle-class neighborhoods [also] need more rigorous schools."[49] She chose to start charter schools "to demonstrate the incredible difference it truly makes when a school is run free from crushing bureaucracy and outlandish labor contracts."[47]

She said that public elementary school curricula are not challenging enough for students, who are bored.[50] She, with Arin Lavinia, wrote that math curricula are paced to be taught too slowly, as if they're designed for dysfunctional schools and all schools are expected to be just as slow, and Moskowitz and Lavinia argued for speeding the teaching.[51]

Moskowitz said, in 2009, that state tests are "too easy"[52] and, in 2012, that test success would predict economic success[32] and that "if kids do not do well on the tests, they certainly won't do well in life"[32] but that "I wouldn't want a school that only focused on testing, partly because the tests are a low bar."[53]

She favored closing failing public schools, including charter schools, not all charter schools being good.[54] She posited that a charter is not a guarantee of success, as it is only a grant of freedom to try for success.[38]

Challenges confronting teachers[edit]

Moskowitz has criticized schools of education, including master's programs, for graduating teachers who are unable to meet urban challenges.[55] She argued against lengthy, detailed, and relatively inflexible teachers' union contracts and "ossified, bureaucratic management",[32] as overly constraining principals.[56]

Parental participation[edit]

Moskowitz believed in parental choice for where children go to school, including parochial and other schools.[57] She does not want to "eradicate" noncharter schools,[58] believing they need to be modernized "educationally, operationally, financially",[59] and she argued for competition to improve failing public schools nationwide.[60] She supported parents at noncharter schools raising money to hire teaching assistants of their choice, opposing the teachers' union's objections.[61] Moskowitz said she's "never met an apathetic mom."[62]

Governmental role[edit]

Moskowitz advocated for charter schools to be funded per pupil as fully as public noncharters are,[63] stating "a kid is a kid is a kid and therefore the funding should be the same".[38] She favored "a federal role in education.... especially in the area of parent choice"[64] and thought that President Obama's offering substantial money contingent on charter-centered reforms brought "the fight out" into public view,[38] contributing to New York and some other states "lift[ing] ... caps on the creation of new charter schools".[65][c]

Diversity[edit]

Moskowitz objected to "a tendency in the charter school movement to celebrate a lack of socio-economic diversity."[38] She said, "I think we need many more charters that have socio-economic integration. I also think that we need to get charter schools into more affluent districts because I think many middle-class and upper middle-class parents think their schools are better than they are ... their schools are very complacent."[66] She described New York City schools as "shockingly segregated",[67] "most ... either more than 90 percent minority or less than 10 percent",[67] with some schools, by offering dual-language or gifted-and-talented programs attracting white middle-class students[67] while "overwhelmingly poor minority students"[67] take general education,[67] exhibiting "fake integration".[67] She added that the city's "racial and socio-economic segregation ... [is] hard to change",[38] impeding efforts to make charter schools into neighborhood schools and still have diversity among students,[38] but continued that "I think we will change it [the segregation] eventually because our program is so appealing to middle-class families."[38] However, she added, "whether people can put their racial discomforts aside, I do not know",[38] but later said "parents of all races and classes truly want diversity as long as it is also accompanied by academic excellence."[67]

Design of model[edit]

Moskowitz said that children's minds are "agile",[68] that the need is to raise intellectual standards after which "the kids will rise to our expectation",[69] and that "to raise the rigor bar" doesn't cost money.[69]

Moskowitz argued that, although replication is "difficult",[38] "educational opportunity ... [is not] rocket science".[70] Part of success was "old-fashioned parental involvement.... It has to be a partnership between parents and the school."[70] Another was reading. She said, "our children read constantly."[70] She said, "and the third ingredient is high-quality teaching. We have to have the very best in our school system and we have to invest in teachers so that they can get better."[70] She favored modernization, rigor, accountability, "highly effective teacher[s,] and ... highly effective principal[s]".[32] She argued for teachers and school leaders to have more flexibility to innovate in classrooms.[63] She advocated for principals to be able to hire and fire teachers and to attract the best teachers.[63] She supported decentralization in favor of teachers.[71] She called for more disclosure and increasing principals' accountability.[34] She said, "what you want to teach kids is to think critically, mathematically, scientifically. You want them to be great writers."[32] According to Nat Hentoff, when Moskowitz was a City Councilmember she argued for education in civics, on how government works.[72]

She argued that class sizes should be reconsidered and that allowing a few more students in a class may help in educating the students while being economical.[73] She argued that, when a school is funded on the basis of how many students it has, a larger class size may allow paying the teacher "exceedingly well"[73] and having "really talented" principals,[74] business managers so principals focus on instructional matters, more supplies and field trips for students and teachers, computers and e-books for students, more professional development, more tutoring, and more teaching staff, such as assistant teachers.[75] She said that students having computers and online books leads to their reading more books.[73][76] On the other hand, she agreed that a too-large class would be "absurd."[73] Overall, she posited that class size is a factor in students' success.[76]

She believed schools were responsible for safety, so that, when Nixzmary Brown died (largely due to Brown's parents) after substantial absence from school, Moskowitz said that the child's school was minimally compliant with rules, if that, and did not do enough for the child's safety and therefore for the child's education.[77]

Mission Possible, 2012[edit]

In Mission Possible (2012), which Moskowitz coauthored, according to Hanlon Moskowitz argued for the importance of charter schools because public noncharter education "never put[s] the customer first"[3] and fails to "boost productivity and innovate."[3] Hanlon said, "most of the book is a pedagogical how-to".[3]

Liberalism and personal role[edit]

Among Moskowitz's personal views relevant to education, according to Lisa M. Collins Moskowitz "says social justice drives her"[78] and, according to Coplon, Moskowitz said "really fundamental to social justice ... [is] to have choices in life."[79] According to Rich Lowry in the conservative National Review, Moskowitz is a liberal.[80] Moskowitz described herself as "controversial".[81]

Opposition[edit]

Moskowitz in 2010 said that the chief opponent of charters like hers was "the union-political-educational complex",[82] "the teachers' union and the elected officials .... [who] together can ... stop you from doing a lot of ... good things for kids."[82] She argued that charters are more threatening than when they began, partly because there are more charters, even given that not all charters are good.[83]

Electoral offices[edit]

Moskowitz is a Democrat.[84] The UFT has supported a candidate against Moskowitz in every race she has run.[6]

City Council[edit]

In 1995 or 1996, Moskowitz volunteered in Gifford Miller's City Council campaign, becoming his field director.[85] In 1997, according to Vivian S. Toy, Moskowitz ran a "strong"[86] campaign for but lost a City Council election.[86] In 1999, she was elected as New York City Councilmember for the Upper East Side of Manhattan.[13] In 2002–2005, she chaired the Council Education Committee[13][87] and held over "100 oversight hearings".[88] According to Joe Williams, "in December 2003, [UFT union then-president Randi] Weingarten declared war on Moskowitz's political career" and urged union members to vote against her.[89]

According to Winnie Hu in 2004, Moskowitz' staff turnover was substantial, she expected them to work hours not limited to "government hours", and she provided them with BlackBerry wireless devices when not all Councilmembers had them.[90] According to Alex Mindlin, one student starting as a volunteer continued with Moskowitz for 5 years, including as a constituent liaison, organizing campaign letter-writing, and coordinating 75 volunteer petitioners.[91] In 2014, former City Council colleague Gale Brewer said in criticizing Moskowitz, "I'm a big believer in 'how you get there is as important as the work you do when you get there'".[92]

Issues[edit]

Education[edit]

According to Hu, in 2003–2004, Moskowitz, with an "aggressive, confrontational style",[90] had "emerged as one of the most influential [Council] members ..., largely by parlaying her role as head of the Education Committee into a crusade for the city's troubled public schools."[90] According to Jonathan P. Hicks, she was "considered an expert in the Council on education issues".[93] In 2004, according to Hu, Moskowitz had "many" critics[90] and city schools then-chancellor Joel Klein described her as "tough-minded" and "determined";[94] according to Coplon, in an undated comment Klein said Moskowitz was "up there in the top five ["thorns in his side"], or the top three";[88] and, according to Hu, in 2004, Miller described her as "a very determined person and very focused, and sometimes that determination can rub people the wrong way".[90] According to Michael Winerip, in 2005, Moskowitz "has been one of the few checks on the school system under mayoral control and said it was often a battle getting information and sometimes required a subpoena"[95] and, according to Coplon and Lizzy Ratner, Moskowitz was known as an aggressive advocate for education reform.[18][88]

Also in 2005, wrote Susan Saulny, Moskowitz said "science education ... has been treated with second-class status for decades"[96] and that "the level of concern I think we should have" is still lacking.[96] Moskowitz held hearings on the shortage of science classes and the inability to pay experienced science and math teachers well.[97]

In 2003, Moskowitz called arts education across the city "completely hodgepodge".[98]

Wrote Winerip, in 2005 Moskowitz criticized city management of special education for students with disabilities for arrogance, refusal to listen, and failure to collaborate.[95]

Moskowitz held hearings in 2003 on the teachers' union contracts, which, according to Hu, "landed ... [Moskowitz] in the headlines for weeks"[90] and, according to Ratner, "attracted reporters and produced headlines."[18] Moskowitz also criticized contracts with principals and custodians.[99] According to Williams, Moskowitz' "public hearings on the impact of work rules and job protections for teachers, principals, and custodians ... [showed] that it took far too long to unload incompetent employees from the system"[100] and that "other rules were silly and counterproductive", namely some for custodians.[101] Williams said Moskowitz' "hearings attracted hoards [sic] of reporters and columnists"[101] and that the then-president of the UFT, Weingarten, "furious"[102] that the Council leadership had even permitted the hearings,[103] testified with an "often caustic exchange" with Moskowitz.[102] A secret list of witnesses was known to the UFT, some witnesses testified only after their identities were concealed, and some others refused to testify after agreeing to, according to Williams.[102] "At the time, Moskowitz was the only Democratic official in New York City who was elected without the UFT's endorsement", wrote Williams,[102] who also reported that Moskowitz was privately warned that the hearings could end her political career[104] and that she recognized that winning citywide office in the future would be easier if she was supported and not opposed by the union.[89] Miller, then the Council speaker, let Moskowitz go forward with the hearings,[104] Brian McLaughlin, leader of the New York City Central Labor Council, opposed them,[105] and Bloomberg went from calling Moskowitz a "gadfly" the night before the hearings[104] to praising her courage and criticizing her critics who were Council colleagues, according to Williams.[106] There was an effort to replace Moskowitz as committee chair, said Williams, but she served her full term.[107]

She also held hearings on the seeming absence of toilet paper.[8][88] She reported many parents' complaints about toilets being dirty, broken, or closed citywide and her own experience as a high school student with having to go across the street to a medical facility.[108]

According to Hicks, Moskowitz was the "author of a law, passed ... over ... Bloomberg's veto, that holds the School Construction Authority accountable for delays and budget overruns."[93][d]

Other[edit]

According to Hu, in ca. 2002–2004 Moskowitz wrote six laws, including on health care and campaign finance reform.[90]

According to the New York Times's Kelly Crow, in 2002, in response to public housing tenants' security concerns at the Stanley Isaacs Houses, Moskowitz arranged for funding for cameras but the money was never spent by the city, and the police offered more patrols but said crime was worse uptown.[109]

The next year, Moskowitz introduced a gun control bill.[90]

She introduced a bill to require baby diaper-changing stations in some buildings, at pools, and in parks and a bill to ban the sale and installing of audible car alarms.[110]

She also tried to increase voter registration among young people through the schools.[111]

Campaigns[edit]

Borough President primary campaign[edit]

In 2005, Moskowitz decided not to run again for the Council and entered the race for the Democratic party nomination to be the Manhattan Borough President to succeed C. Virginia Fields, according to Hicks emphasizing education and transportation issues.[112] The teachers' union campaigned heavily for Scott Stringer and against Moskowitz, based on Moskowitz' hearings about the teachers' contract and on other education issues, and so did the Working Families Party.[113] According to Francis Barry, the Working Families Party spent most of the approximately $100,000 it spent on the race "to attack ... Moskowitz, who had made her name by challenging the teachers' union."[114] Moskowitz raised almost $1 million and qualified for another $600,000 in city matching funds during the campaign, according to Hicks.[93] Ultimately, Moskowitz raised the most money of any Democratic candidate, but finished second to Stringer.[115]

Mayoralty[edit]

In 2005, Moskowitz endorsed Bloomberg for Mayor.[6] In 2010, she credited Bloomberg and his appointee Klein as schools chancellor with education improvements.[63]

Moskowitz stated her intention to run for Mayor of New York,[116] with, she said in 2012, a "70 to 80 percent chance"[3] she will run in 2017.[117]

Historian[edit]

In Therapy We Trust, 2001[edit]

Moskowitz wrote the book, In Therapy We Trust. According to Jesse Eisinger, Moskowitz identified "three tenets: happiness is the supreme goal, problems stem from psychological causes, and those psychological problems are treatable"[118] and labeled this set "the therapeutic gospel, a doctrine so ingrained in American society that few of us consciously recognize it".[118]

In the book, Moskowitz made several points: "We are ... bound together by a gospel of psychological happiness.... Americans turn to psychological cures as reflexively as they once turned to God. But our relationship to the psyche appears to have exceeded that of believers and become more like that of cult members."[119] Reformers recommended hiring "visiting teachers" who would understand children[120] when some school principals still believed in "more drill".[121] "The persistence of Americans' faith in psychological happiness is troubling.... Rather than offering real psychological insight, these cures are vapid therapies. There is little rigorous psychological thinking in our culture."[122] "Psychological interpretations tend to crowd out social, economic, and political ones."[123] "While I have no argument with psychological contentment as an important standard for individuals and no argument with in-depth psychological investigation as a means, when a whole society makes happiness and self-realization its rallying cry, clearly something is lost in the process."[122]

Documentary, study, and protest[edit]

Moskowitz directed and produced a 1997 documentary on women's roles after World War II.[124] The VHS-only video Some Spirit in Me (1993) was authored, produced, and directed by Moskowitz.[125]

Moskowitz wrote a scholarly study of Betty Friedan's work,[126] which was cited by Deborah Siegel as a "note[worthy]" study.[127]

Criticisms[edit]

Moskowitz has faced criticism for closing her schools so that students and parents may participate in political protests, and providing free transportation to a protest rally outside the State Capital in Albany.[128][129]

In June 2013, during his campaign for Mayor of New York, Bill de Blasio criticized Moskowitz's Success Academy Charter Schools for using public-school space without paying rent.[129] During an interview at the "Save our Schools" rally in Washington D.C., actor Matt Damon said of collocation: “Eva Moskowitz just spent $1.7 million in advertising, as in marketing for her[self] … [this] kind of core inequality has to be addressed." Damon was citing a New York Daily News article in which the actual figure was $1.6 million, a sum that has been disputed by a spokeswoman for the Success Network.[130] Additionally, critics have pointed out that in her dispute with Mayor de Blasio regarding collocation, her organization's expansion into a public school in Harlem would have displaced students there with disabilities.[131]

Protests and legal disputes involving Moskowitz and Success Academy Charter Schools are depicted in the pro-charter school film "The Lottery," as well as the critical documentary "The Inconvenient Truth Behind Waiting for Superman."[132] [133]

Moskowitz has been criticized by education historian and former Deputy Secretary of Education Diane Ravitch on numerous occasions, including interviews, op-eds, and on her education blog.[134][135]

Criticisms have been leveled at Moskowitz's record educating low-performing, English-language learning, and disabled students. English-language learners are significantly underrepresented at Success, and critics have charged that some lower-grade children eligible for government-mandated special education accommodation, or IEPs, have been withdrawn, effectively winnowing students before third grade, the year state testing begins.[136]

Personal life[edit]

She married Eric Grannis and they have three children, Culver, Dillon, and Hannah,[137] two of whom attend Success Academy Harlem East and one of whom is in high school at the private school, Avenues.[138]

Books[edit]

  • With Arin Lavinia (literacy coach, Success Academy Charter Schools), Mission Possible: How the Secrets of the Success Academies Can Work in Any School, Jossey-Bass (imprint of Wiley), 2012[60]
  • In Therapy We Trust: America's Obsession with Self-Fulfllment, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2001 (ISBN 0-8018-6403-8)

See also[edit]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Social promotion, promoting a student with peers even if the student did not complete educational requirements
  2. ^ Prekindergarten, a class before kindergarten
  3. ^ Caps on the creation of new charter schools, the maximum number that may be opened
  4. ^ School Construction Authority, a New York City government agency responsible for school construction

References[edit]

  1. ^ Name, including middle name: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I (ProQuest (database)), as accessed June 25, 2012, page for Naming the Problem: How Popular Culture and Experts Paved the Way for "personal politics" (Md.: Johns Hopkins Univ., 1992 (ProQuest document ID 303994013)) (abstract) (or ProQuest Dissertations & Theses).
      Runs schools: Louis, Errol, The Next Charter School War: Eva Moskowitz is Ready to Expand Into a Wealthier, Whiter Nabes (sic), in Daily News (New York, N.Y.), October 17, 2010, p. 2, as accessed June 30, 2012.
      Council: Brill, Steven, Class Warfare: Inside the Fight to Fix America's Schools (N.Y.: Simon & Schuster, 1st Simon & Schuster hardcover ed. August, 2011 (ISBN 978-1-4516-1199-1)), p. 142.
  2. ^ Founding Success Academy (not mentioning Harlem Success Academy): Iasevoli, Brenda, U. Tube: Student Teachers Learn From Video Training, in The Village Voice (New York, N.Y.), January 12, 2010, pp. 1–2 (online), as accessed June 2, 2012.
      Harlem Education Fair: Hernandez, Javier C., Charters Offer More Choices in Harlem, But Stir Concern For Public Schools, in The Culvert Chronicles (possibly vol. 4 & no. 8), March 5–11, 2009, p. 2.
      Great Public Schools PAC: N.Y. Public Interest Research Group (NYPIRG), Analysis: 127 Donors Each Gave $50,000 or More to State Committees Over Past Year (document hosted online by League of Women Voters of New York State), for release February 3, 2012, as accessed July 18, 2012, Rank 115 (at p. [10]).
      StudentsFirstNY: Sims, David, Charter Group is Told 'No Thanks' For Help in Congressional Race, in The Chief: Civil Service Leader: The Civil Employees' Weekly (New York, N.Y.), vol. CXVI, no. 14, June 15, 2012, p. [1].
      New York City Charter School Center: Barker, Cyril Josh, NAACP Stands Firm on Charter Schools, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, vol. 102, no. 22, June 2–8, 2011, pp. [1] & 36.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Hanlon, Greg, The Limits of the Eva Moskowitz Model, at Least Until She Becomes Mayor, in Capital New York, July 26, 2012, 10:13 a.m., as accessed July 28, 2012.
  4. ^ Received Ph.D. in history: Brill, Steven, Class Warfare, op. cit., p. [141].
      Authored book: Moskowitz, Eva, In Therapy We Trust: America's Obsession with Self-Fulfllment (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2001 (ISBN 0-8018-6403-8)).
      Friedan study: Moskowitz, Eva, It's Good to Blow Your Top: Women's Magazines and a Discourse of Discontent, 1945–1965, in Journal of Women's History, vol. 8, no. 3 (1996), pp. 66–98.
  5. ^ Chaired Education Committee: Brill, Steven, Class Warfare, op. cit., p. 142.
      Lost to be nominee for borough presidency: Hicks, Jonathan P, Incumbent In Queens Is Defeated By Old Rival, in N.Y. Times, September 14, 2005, apparently p. B.8.
  6. ^ a b c Dickter, Adam, Back to the Classroom, in The N.Y. Jewish Week (Manhattan ed.), vol. 218, issue 35, January 13, 2006, p. 40.
  7. ^ Fleisher, Lisa, Moskowitz Delays a Run, in The Wall Street Journal (probably online ed.), June 26, 2012, as of 10:20 p.m. E.T., as accessed July 14, 2012.
  8. ^ a b Gootman, Elissa, Charter School Chief Keeps a Hand in Politics, op. cit.
  9. ^ Eva Moskowitz, City Council Member, by Jen Chung, in Gothamist, July 26, 2005, as accessed November 2, 2007.
  10. ^ Brill, Steven, Class Warfare, op. cit., p. [141].
  11. ^ Marantz, Andrew, "Charter Chief," New Yorker, March 24, 2014, p. 34.
  12. ^ Coplon, Jeff, The Patron Saint (and Scourge) of Lost Schools, in New York, April 25, 2010, p. 2, as accessed May 19, 2012.
  13. ^ a b c Brill, Steven, Class Warfare, op. cit., p. 142.
  14. ^ Undergraduate, Univ. of Penna.: Brill, Steven, Class Warfare, op. cit., p. [141].
      Criticism and study of writing: Moskowitz, Eva, & Arin Lavinia, Mission Possible: How the Secrets of the Success Academies Can Work in Any School (San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass, 1st ed. 2012 (ISBN 978-1-118-16728-1)), pp. 124–125 (1st-person account by Moskowitz).
      Bachelor's degree: Hu, Winnie, Mayoral Ambitions and Sharp Elbows; Councilwoman Spars Way Into a Position of Influence, in N.Y. Times, April 29, 2004, as accessed February 21, 2013.
      B.A. with honors: Untitled document, received February 25, 2011, as accessed January 6 & 10, 2013, p. [12] (p. 12 per PDF viewer) (date of receipt at State Univ. of N.Y., Charter Schools Institute, per Proposal Transmittal Form, id., p. [1] (p. 1 in PDF viewer)).
      Prioritizing writing in Success Academies: Moskowitz, Eva, & Arin Lavinia, Mission Possible, op. cit., p. 124.
  15. ^ History: Brill, Steven, Class Warfare, op. cit., p. [141].
      American history: Hu, Winnie, Mayoral Ambitions and Sharp Elbows; Councilwoman Spars Way Into a Position of Influence, op. cit.
  16. ^ Main information: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I (ProQuest (database)), as accessed June 25, 2012 (ProQuest document ID 303994013) (abstract) (database title alternatively ProQuest Dissertations & Theses).
      Publication date: Google Books listing, as accessed March 15, 2014.
  17. ^ Taught women's history at Vanderbilt, U. Va., & Coll. Staten I.: Contributors, in Journal of Women's History, vol. 8, no. 3 (Fall 1996) (Project Muse), as accessed January 6, 2013 (probably a Moskowitz self-statement).
      U. Va.: Ratner, Lizzy, Taking on Unions, And Paying a Price, in N.Y. Observer, December 7, 2003, as accessed January 14, 2010.
      Prof., 1989–90: Proposal (untitled) to State Univ. of N.Y., Charter Schools Institute, for Brooklyn Success Academy Charter School 2 proposed to open August, 2012, Eva Moskowitz, as accessed January 20, 2013, p. [2] (p. 11 in PDF viewer) (résumé, also referred to in attachment 1-1).
      Vanderblt U. (without position title or years): Gootman, Elissa, Charter School Chief Keeps a Hand in Politics, op. cit.
      Vanderblt U., position title & years: Proposal (untitled) to State Univ. of N.Y., Charter Schools Institute, for Brooklyn Success Academy Charter School 2 proposed to open August, 2012, Eva Moskowitz, op. cit., p. [2].
      City U. of N.Y. (without coll. name, position title, or years): Ratner, Lizzy, Taking on Unions, And Paying a Price, op. cit.
      Coll. Staten I.: Gootman, Elissa, Charter School Chief Keeps a Hand in Politics, op. cit.
      City U. of N.Y., position title & years: Proposal (untitled) to State Univ. of N.Y., Charter Schools Institute, for Brooklyn Success Academy Charter School 2 proposed to open August, 2012, Eva Moskowitz, op. cit., p. [2].
      Chaired seminar, Columbia U., with years: Proposal (untitled) to State Univ. of N.Y., Charter Schools Institute, for Brooklyn Success Academy Charter School 2 proposed to open August, 2012, Eva Moskowitz, op. cit., p. [2].
  18. ^ a b c Ratner, Lizzy, Taking on Unions, And Paying a Price, op. cit.
  19. ^ Barker, Cyril Josh, et al., Charter Schools in Uncharted Waters, op. cit., p. [1], col. 4.
  20. ^ Taught at Prep for Prep: Barker, Cyril Josh, et al., Charter Schools in Uncharted Waters, op. cit., p. [1], col. 4.
      Position title: Hicks, Jonathan P., The Nine Candidates for Manhattan Borough President and What They Have to Say, in N.Y. Times, September 7, 2005, as accessed February 21, 2013.
  21. ^ a b Spencer, Kyle, Special Ed: Charter-School Champ Eva Moskowitz Makes a Play For Brownstone New York, in Capital New York, May 12, 2011, 8:48 a.m., as accessed June 2, 2012.
  22. ^ Founder, Success Academy Charter Schools: Iasevoli, Brenda, U. Tube: Student Teachers Learn From Video Training, in The Village Voice (New York, N.Y.), January 12, 2010, pp. 1–2 (online), as accessed June 2, 2012.
      CEO, Success Academy Charter Schools: Louis, Errol, The Next Charter School War, op. cit.
  23. ^ Marantz, Andrew, "Charter Chief," New Yorker, March 24, 2014, p. 32.
  24. ^ Hernandez, Javier C., Charters Offer More Choices in Harlem, But Stir Concern For Public Schools, in The Culvert Chronicles (possibly vol. 4 & no. 8), March 5–11, 2009, p. 2.
  25. ^ Great Public Schools PAC run by Moskowitz: N.Y. Public Interest Research Group (NYPIRG), Analysis, op. cit.
      When a PAC founded: Brill, Steven, Class Warfare, op. cit., p. 383 and see p. 382.
  26. ^ N.Y. Public Interest Research Group (NYPIRG), Analysis, op. cit.
  27. ^ Year: N.Y. Public Interest Research Group, Analysis, op. cit., p. 1 n. 1.
      Amount & recipient: N.Y. Public Interest Research Group (NYPIRG), Analysis, op. cit.
  28. ^ Sims, David, Charter Group is Told 'No Thanks' For Help in Congressional Race, in The Chief: Civil Service Leader: The Civil Employees' Weekly (New York, N.Y.), vol. CXVI, no. 14, June 15, 2012, p. [1].
  29. ^ Phillips, Anna M., Group Aims to Counter Influence of Teachers' Union in New York, N.Y. Times, April 3, 2012 (online), as accessed June 7, 2012.
  30. ^ Barker, Cyril Josh, StudentsFirst Aims to Improve Public Schools, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, April 19–25, 2012, p. 39.
  31. ^ Barker, Cyril Josh, NAACP Stands Firm on Charter Schools, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, vol. 102, no. 22, June 2–8, 2011, pp. [1] & 36.
  32. ^ a b c d e f Bartiromo, Maria, host, Wall Street Journal Report, on CNBC (CNBC News Transcripts), January 14 or 15, 2012, 7:30 p.m. E.S.T.
  33. ^ Bungeroth, Megan Finnegan, Upper West Success Settles in After Controversial Start, in West Side Spirit (New York, N.Y.), December 1, 2011, p. 8.
  34. ^ a b Mfuni, Tanangachi, Put to the Test: Most Blacks, Hispanics Graduate with Local, Not Regents Diploma, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, vol. 96, issue 27, June 30–July 6, 2005, p. 1.
  35. ^ a b Gootman, Elissa, Few Minorities Get Best High School Diplomas, in N.Y. Times, November 30, 2005, as accessed February 23, 2013.
  36. ^ Moskowitz, Eva, Charter School's Goal, in N.Y. Times, July 3, 2012, as accessed July 24 & 25, 2012 (letter of June 28, 2012).
  37. ^ Rivoli, Dan, West Side Charter Approved, in West Side Spirit (New York, N.Y.), November 4, 2010, p. 4.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mitchell, Nancy, 5 Questions For Eva Moskowitz, in Chalkbeat Colorado, February 19, 2010 (page text), as accessed June 18, 2012 (at prior URL and publication title), & April 5, 2014.
  39. ^ Eichna, Charlotte, Charter Crusader: Eva Moskowitz, in Our Town (East Side (Manhattan), New York, N.Y.), April 1, 2010, p. 10, col. 2, and see pp. [1] & 10–11.
  40. ^ Moskowitz, Eva, A To-Do List For N.Y.C. Schools Chancellor Cathie Black: Eva Moskowitz Lays Out Her Priorities, in Daily News (New York, N.Y.), p. 1 (online), November 15, 2010, 4:00 a.m. (opinion) (author not staff writer (newspaper byline erroneous)), as accessed May 11, 2012 ("[not] a failing zoned school").
  41. ^ Dawkins, S. L., Only Days to Save Kids From Failing Schools, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, March 27, 2003, p. 3.
  42. ^ Barry, Francis S., The Scandal of Reform: The Grand Failures of New York's Political Crusaders and the Death of Nonpartisanship (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Univ. Press, 2009 (ISBN 978-0-8135-4478-6)), p. 131 & n. 19 ("two months after the 2003 referendum", per p. 130, thus "2003 or 2004" herein), citing, at p. 131 n. 19, Herszenhorn, David M., Studies in Chicago Fault Policies of Holding Back Third Graders, in N.Y. Times, April 7, 2004.
  43. ^ a b Herszenhorn, David M., Special Help For 3rd Graders Is Promised, in N.Y. Times, January 16, 2004, as accessed February 21, 2013.
  44. ^ Herszenhorn, David M., Special Help For 3rd Graders Is Promised, op. cit.
  45. ^ Herszenhorn, David M., Special Help For 3rd Graders Is Promised, op. cit.
  46. ^ Perry, Joyce Mayer, Mayor's Goal Reached: Nearly 12,000 3rd-Graders to be Left Behind, op. cit.
  47. ^ a b Moskowitz, Eva, Charter-School Envy: Spotlight on District Dysfunction, in N.Y. Post, last updated July 22, 2012, 11:41 p.m., as accessed July 25, 2012 (opinion column).
  48. ^ Brill, Steven, Class Warfare, op. cit., pp. 419–420 (Boykin Curry's full name Ravenel Boykin Curry IV, per p. 116).
  49. ^ Moskowitz, Eva, A To-Do List For N.Y.C. Schools Chancellor Cathie Black, op. cit., p. 1.
  50. ^ Except boredom: Ronalds-Hannon, Eliza, Finding a Cure For Public Education's Ills, in Crain's New York Business, July 19, 2011, 3:47 p.m., as accessed June 4, 2012 (reporting on Crain's Future of New York conference).
      Boredom: Benjamin, Liz, host, Eva Moskowitz Touts Charter School Success, in Capital Tonight, on YNN (Your News Now), filed August 2, 2012, 9:00 p.m., as accessed August 11, 25, & 26 & September 6, 2012 (approximately 2 min. 36 sec. from start to approx. 2 min. 57 sec., as accessed August 26, 2012).
  51. ^ Moskowitz, Eva, & Arin Lavinia, Mission Possible, op. cit., p. 64.
  52. ^ Hernandez, Javier C., A Moo-Moo Here, and Better Test Scores Later, in N.Y. Times, October 19, 2009, as accessed May 16, 2012.
  53. ^ Bartiromo, Maria, host, Wall Street Journal Report, op. cit.
      Not quotation but opposing using test scores as sole criterion: Perry, Joyce Mayer, Mayor's Goal Reached: Nearly 12,000 3rd-Graders to be Left Behind, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, vol. 95, issue 25, June 17–23, 2004, p. 4.
  54. ^ Favored closing public schools: Cano, Karla, & Jack Sidransky, Children'sPressline: Council Members Respond to Kids' Concerns, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, vol. 96, issue 2, May 26–June 2, 2005, p. 18.
      Charter schools included: Moskowitz, Eva, A To-Do List For N.Y.C. Schools Chancellor Cathie Black, op. cit., p. 2.
      Not all charter schools good: Mitchell, Nancy, 5 Questions For Eva Moskowitz, op. cit.
  55. ^ Other than master's programs: Iasevoli, Brenda, U. Tube, op. cit., p. 2.
      Master's programs: Ronalds-Hannon, Eliza, Finding a Cure For Public Education's Ills, op. cit.
  56. ^ Benjamin, Liz, host, Eva Moskowitz Touts Charter School Success, op. cit. (approximately 7 min. 41 sec. from start to approx. 8 min. 2 sec., as accessed August 25, 2012).
  57. ^ Whole statement: Eichna, Charlotte, Charter Crusader, op. cit., p. 10, col. 2, and see pp. [1] & 10–11.
      Other than parochial and other: Mitchell, Nancy, 5 Questions For Eva Moskowitz, op. cit.
  58. ^ Quoting interviewer/host: Benjamin, Liz, host, Eva Moskowitz Touts Charter School Success, op. cit. (approximately 8 min. 52 sec. from start to approx. 9 min. 15 sec., as accessed August 25, 2012).
  59. ^ Benjamin, Liz, host, Eva Moskowitz Touts Charter School Success, op. cit. (approximately 8 min. 52 sec. from start to approx. 9 min. 15 sec., as accessed August 25, 2012).
  60. ^ a b Spencer, Kyle, In New Book, Success Academy Operator Promotes Charter Schools and Offers Advice, in SchoolBook, June 14, 2012, 1:26 p.m., as accessed June 23, 2012.
  61. ^ Moskowitz, Eva, It's the UFT vs. City Parents: By Stopping Hiring of Teaching Assistants, the Union Sells Out Kids, in Daily News (New York, N.Y.), July 28, 2009, 5:37 p.m. (opinion), as accessed June 23, 2012.
  62. ^ Mitchell, Nancy, 5 Questions For Eva Moskowitz, op. cit. (video) (approximately 9 min. 54 sec. from start to approx. 9 min. 56 sec.), as accessed June 23, 2012.
  63. ^ a b c d Moskowitz, Eva, A To-Do List For N.Y.C. Schools Chancellor Cathie Black, op. cit., p. 2.
  64. ^ Moskowitz, Eva S., Eva Moskowitz: Feds Can Urge the Nation to Think Bigger, Be Bolder, Move Faster, in redefinED, August 16, 2012, as accessed August 17, 2012 (opinion).
  65. ^ Moskowitz, Eva S., Eva Moskowitz: Feds Can Urge the Nation to Think Bigger, Be Bolder, Move Faster, op. cit.
  66. ^ Mitchell, Nancy, 5 Questions For Eva Moskowitz, op. cit. (page text) (spaceless and space-bounded ellipsis or suspension points so in original).
  67. ^ a b c d e f g Moskowitz, Eva, Seeking Real Diversity In New Schools, in SchoolBook (Viewpoint), August 16, 2012, 1:14 p.m., as accessed August 17, 2012.
  68. ^ Benjamin, Liz, host, Eva Moskowitz Touts Charter School Success, op. cit. (approximately 2 min. 36 sec. from start to approx. 2 min. 57 sec., as accessed August 26, 2012).
  69. ^ a b Reske, Henry J., & Katie Lotman, NYC Charter School Founder Requires Parents Get Involved, in Newsmax.TV, July 26, 2012, 8:46 p.m., as accessed July 28, 2012 (including video, accessed July 28, 2012).
  70. ^ a b c d Rosato, Ken, host, New York Viewpoint, on WABC-TV, New York, N.Y., July 25, 2010, part 3 (video), as accessed June 16, 2012 (approximately 4 min. 44 sec. from start (not counting advertisement preceding start) to approx. 5 min. 29 sec.).
  71. ^ Barker, Cyril Josh, & Stephon Johnson, Charter Schools in Uncharted Waters, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, vol. 102, no. 27, July 7–13, 2011, p. 31, col. 1.
  72. ^ Hentoff, Nat, Learning Why We're Americans, in The Village Voice (New York, N.Y.), April 18, 2006, p. 1 (online), as accessed June 2, 2012.
  73. ^ a b c d Conan, Neal, host, School Founder Says Class Size Doesn't Matter, on Talk of the Nation (NPR News) (National Public Radio), March 29, 2011 ("transcript ... accuracy ... may vary", "text may not be ... final", & "the authoritative record ... is the audio"), as accessed May 25, 2012.
  74. ^ Quotation: Moskowitz, Eva, The Cost of Small Class Size, in The Washington Post, March 27, 2011 (opinion), as accessed May 19, 2012.
      Other than quotation: Conan, Neal, host, School Founder Says Class Size Doesn't Matter, op. cit.
  75. ^ Business managers so principals focus instructionally: Moskowitz, Eva, The Cost of Small Class Size, op. cit.
      More supplies and field trips for students and teachers:
        Conan, Neal, host, School Founder Says Class Size Doesn't Matter, op. cit.
        Moskowitz, Eva, The Cost of Small Class Size, op. cit.
      Computers and e-books for students: Moskowitz, Eva, The Cost of Small Class Size, op. cit.
      More professional development:
        Conan, Neal, host, School Founder Says Class Size Doesn't Matter, op. cit.
        Moskowitz, Eva, The Cost of Small Class Size, op. cit.
      More tutoring: Conan, Neal, host, School Founder Says Class Size Doesn't Matter, op. cit.
      More teaching staff, such as assistant teachers: Conan, Neal, host, School Founder Says Class Size Doesn't Matter, op. cit.
  76. ^ a b Moskowitz, Eva, The Cost of Small Class Size, op. cit..
  77. ^ Moorer, Talise D., ACS Shakeup Skims Surface of Deeper Problem, Part 3, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, vol. 97, issue 8, February 16–22, 2006, p. 3.
  78. ^ Collins, Lisa M., Charter War Cobble Hill, in South Brooklyn Post, December 20, 2011, as accessed June 1, 2012.
  79. ^ Coplon, Jeff, The Patron Saint (and Scourge) of Lost Schools, op. cit., p. 2, as accessed May 19, 2012.
  80. ^ "National Review [is] ... the bible of American conservatism": Hari, Johann, Titanic: Reshuffling the Deck Chairs on the National Review Cruise, in The New Republic, vol. 237, issue 1, July 2, 2007 (in MasterFile Premier (EbscoHost) (PDF) (subscription may be required)), p. 31.
      Moskowitz is a liberal: Lowry, Rich, Revolt Against the Blob, in National Review, June 15, 2010, 12:00 a.m., as accessed June 23, 2012.
  81. ^ Mitchell, Nancy, 5 Questions For Eva Moskowitz, op. cit. (video) (approximately 3 min. 10 sec. from start to approx. 3 min. 22 sec.), as accessed June 23, 2012.
  82. ^ a b Rosato, Ken, host, New York Viewpoint, op. cit. (approximately 1 min. 10 sec. from start (not counting advertisement preceding start) to approx. 1 min. 25 sec.).
  83. ^ More charters and not all good: Mitchell, Nancy, 5 Questions For Eva Moskowitz, op. cit.
  84. ^ Goodnough, Abby, Councilman Is Named City Finance Commissioner, in The New York Times, June 25, 1999, as accessed April 27, 2013.
  85. ^ Whole sentence: Ratner, Lizzy, Taking on Unions, And Paying a Price, op. cit.
      Except becoming field director: Hu, Winnie, Mayoral Ambitions and Sharp Elbows; Councilwoman Spars Way Into a Position of Influence, op. cit.
  86. ^ a b Toy, Vivian S., The 1997 Elections: The Council; Democratic Majority Retains Wide Margin, in N.Y. Times, November 5, 1997, with correction of November 6, 1997, appended, as accessed April 27, 2013.
  87. ^ With year range (although "from 2002 through 2006" in original probably should be "from 2002 until 2006"): Kolodner, Meredith, United Federation of Teachers Union Fed City Council Questions to Ask Charter School Advocates, in Daily News (New York, N.Y.), April 7, 2009, 7:02 p.m., as accessed April 6, 2013.
  88. ^ a b c d Coplon, Jeff, The Patron Saint (and Scourge) of Lost Schools, op. cit., p. 2, as accessed May 19, 2012.
  89. ^ a b Williams, Joe, Cheating Our Kids, op. cit., p. 90.
  90. ^ a b c d e f g h Hu, Winnie, Mayoral Ambitions and Sharp Elbows; Councilwoman Spars Way Into a Position of Influence, op. cit.
  91. ^ Mindlin, Alex, Peach-Fuzz Pols, in N.Y. Times, September 18, 2005 (with correction of September 25, 2005, appended), as accessed February 23, 2013.
  92. ^ Skelding, Conor, Female Officials on Moskowitz, Palin, Age-Reporting, in Capital New York (Capital Pro), March 12, 2014, 2:03 p.m., as accessed March 15, 2014.
  93. ^ a b c Hicks, Jonathan P., The Nine Candidates for Manhattan Borough President and What They Have to Say, op. cit.
  94. ^ Two quotations: Hu, Winnie, Mayoral Ambitions and Sharp Elbows; Councilwoman Spars Way Into a Position of Influence, op. cit.
  95. ^ a b Winerip, Michael, Keeping Special Ed on the Radar, in N.Y. Times, October 19, 2005, as accessed February 23, 2013.
  96. ^ a b Saulny, Susan, Science Chief Says Schools In New York Are Failing, in N.Y. Times, November 11, 2005), as accessed February 23, 2013.
  97. ^ Hearings on shortage of science classes: Gootman, Elissa, Charter School Chief Keeps a Hand in Politics, op. cit.
      Hearings on inability to pay experienced science and math teachers well: Ratner, Lizzy, Taking on Unions, And Paying a Price, op. cit.
  98. ^ Pogrebin, Robin, Battling the Chaos in Schools' Arts Classes, N.Y. Times, June 5, 2003, as accessed February 23, 2013.
  99. ^ Lowry, Rich, Revolt Against the Blob, op. cit.
  100. ^ Williams, Joe, Cheating Our Kids: How Politics and Greed Ruin Education (N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 1st ed. October, 2005 (ISBN 1-4039-6839-X)), p. 87 and see pp. 100, 125, & 258.
  101. ^ a b Williams, Joe, Cheating Our Kids, op. cit., p. 87.
  102. ^ a b c d Williams, Joe, Cheating Our Kids, op. cit., p. 88.
  103. ^ Williams, Joe, Cheating Our Kids, op. cit., pp. 87–88 and see pp. 88–89 (efforts to limit hearings).
  104. ^ a b c Williams, Joe, Cheating Our Kids, op. cit., p. 89.
  105. ^ Williams, Joe, Cheating Our Kids, op. cit., pp. 88–89.
  106. ^ Williams, Joe, Cheating Our Kids, op. cit., pp. 89–90 (Williams said "praised her courage").
  107. ^ Effort to replace: Williams, Joe, Cheating Our Kids, op. cit., p. 89.
      Served full: Kolodner, Meredith, United Federation of Teachers Union Fed City Council Questions to Ask Charter School Advocates, op. cit.
  108. ^ Gootman, Elissa, Dirty and Broken Bathrooms Make for a Long School Day, in N.Y. Times, January 29, 2004, as accessed February 21, 2013.
  109. ^ Neighborhood Report: Upper East Side; With Affluence All Around, A Little Crime Seems a Lot, in The New York Times, November 10, 2002, as accessed February 21, 2013.
  110. ^ Diaper-changing stations: Cardwell, Diane, Change Is in the Air at City Hall; Bill Would Require Diapering Stations in Public Places, in N.Y. Times, September 21, 2002, as accessed February 23, 2013.
      Car alarms: Lee, Denny, Neighborhood Report: Kew Gardens Hills; Orthodox Jews and Car Alarms: What Does the Talmud Say?, in N.Y. Times, January 11, 2004, as accessed February 23, 2013.
  111. ^ Browne, J Zamgba, New Legislation Aimed at Bringing New Voters Into the Electoral Process, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, vol. 95, issue 29, July 15–21, 2004, p. 3.
  112. ^ Party primary, office, and predecessor: Cooper, Michael, Scott Stringer Wins a Crowded Primary and a Likely Election as Borough President, in N.Y. Times, September 14, 2005, as accessed February 21, 2013.
      Issues: Hicks, Jonathan P., The Nine Candidates for Manhattan Borough President and What They Have to Say, op. cit.
  113. ^ UFT:
        Except other education issues: Cooper, Michael, Scott Stringer Wins a Crowded Primary and a Likely Election as Borough President, op. cit.
        Other education issues: Klein, Joel, The Failure of American Schools, in The Atlantic, as accessed May 19, 2012.
      Working Families Party: Cooper, Michael, Scott Stringer Wins a Crowded Primary and a Likely Election as Borough President, op. cit.
  114. ^ Barry, Francis S., The Scandal of Reform, op. cit., p. 235.
  115. ^ Stringer not named: Hicks, Jonathan P, Incumbent In Queens Is Defeated By Old Rival, op. cit.
      Stringer: Cooper, Michael, Scott Stringer Wins a Crowded Primary and a Likely Election as Borough President, op. cit.
  116. ^ Eichna, Charlotte, Charter Crusader, op. cit., pp. 10 & 11, col. 1.
  117. ^ 2017: Hanlon, Greg, The Limits of the Eva Moskowitz Model, at Least Until She Becomes Mayor, op. cit.
      On 2013:
        Fleisher, Lisa, Moskowitz Delays a Run, op. cit.
        Campbell, Colin, Moskowitz: 'If Bill de Blasio Becomes Mayor, What Is He Going to Do?', in Politicker, July 4, [2012], 9:48 a.m., as accessed July 24 & 25, 2012 (single quotation marks in headline so in original).
  118. ^ a b Eisinger, Jesse, The Trade: Goldman's Journey to Self-Improvement, in N.Y. Times, January 20, 2011 (online), as accessed June 7, 2012.
  119. ^ Moskowitz, Eva, In Therapy We Trust, op. cit., p. [1].
  120. ^ Moskowitz, Eva, In Therapy We Trust, op. cit., p. 52.
  121. ^ Moskowitz, Eva, In Therapy We Trust, op. cit., p. 53.
  122. ^ a b Moskowitz, Eva, In Therapy We Trust, op. cit., p. 283.
  123. ^ Moskowitz, Eva, In Therapy We Trust, op. cit., p. 284.
  124. ^ Moskowitz, Eva, In Therapy We Trust, op. cit., dust jacket, rear flap.
  125. ^ Some Spirit in Me, OCLC 38915965, in WorldCat, as accessed September 5, 2012.
  126. ^ Moskowitz, Eva, It's Good to Blow Your Top, op. cit.
  127. ^ Siegel, Deborah, Sisterhood, Interrupted: From Radical Women to Grrls Gone Wild (N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007 (ISBN 978-1-4039-8204-9)), p. 76 n. 9.
  128. ^ Carpenter, Zoë. "Were Charter Teachers and Students Pressured to Rally for Charter Schools in Albany?". The Nation. Retrieved 10 June 2014. 
  129. ^ a b Cramer, Philissa. "DEVELOPING STORY Repost This Article 152 Reprising 2012 rally, charter advocates planning march for Oct. 8". The Chalkbeat. Retrieved 10 June 2014. 
  130. ^ Decker, Geoff. "Matt Damon criticizes Eva Moskowitz’s charters at D.C. rally". Chalkbeat New York. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  131. ^ Ravitch, Diane. "New York Schools: The Roar of the Charters". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  132. ^ http://commons.trincoll.edu/edreform/2013/02/an-analysis-of-the-lottery/
  133. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/05/24/inconvenient-truth-behind-waiting-for-superman_n_865962.html
  134. ^ Ravitch, Diane. "Moskowitz "Success Academy" Sues to Block Audit". Diane Ravitch's Blog. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  135. ^ Ravitch, Diane. "Mayor de Blasio and Education: Fact-Checking Eva Moskowitz’s Claims Diane Ravitch in The Huffington Post". Network for Public Education. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  136. ^ Coplon, Jeff. "The Patron Saint (and Scourge) of Lost Schools". New York Magazine. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  137. ^ Moskowitz, Eva, & Arin Lavinia, Mission Possible, op. cit., pp. 156 & 157.
  138. ^ Marantz, p. 34.

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Andrew Eristoff
New York City Council, 4th District
1999–2005
Succeeded by
Daniel Garodnick
Preceded by
Priscilla A. Wooten
New York City Council, Education Committee, Chair
2002–2005
Succeeded by
Robert Jackson