New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York metropolitan area, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. A global power city, New York exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment. The home of the United Nations Headquarters, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has been described as the cultural capital of the world.
Founded as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic in 1626, the city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a county of New York State. The five boroughs—The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island—were consolidated into a single city in 1898. With a census-estimated 2012 population of 8,336,697 distributed over a land area of just 302.64 square miles (783.8 km2), New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. The New York metropolitan area's population of approximately 19.8 million people remains by a significant margin the United States' largest Metropolitan Statistical Area. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.
Many districts and landmarks in New York City have become well known to its approximately 55 million annual visitors. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway theatre district, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The names of many of the city's bridges, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. New York City's financial district, anchored by Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, has been called the world's leading financial center and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalization of its listed companies. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and is a globally recognized symbol of the United States and its democracy. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive rapid transit systems worldwide. Numerous colleges and universities are in New York, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world.
The 68th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment
served in the Union Army
during the American Civil War
. Also known as the Cameron Rifles
or the Second German Rifle Regiment
, the men were mostly German immigrants. Organized in July 1861, three months after the outbreak of war, the 68th saw service in the Eastern
As a part of the Army of the Potomac, it was initially assigned to the defenses of Washington, D.C. Later, the 68th was transferred to the Shenandoah Valley and fought at the Battle of Cross Keys. The men of the 68th were then reassigned to central Virginia and found themselves in the thick of the fighting at Second Bull Run. After returning to the nation's capital, the regiment fought in Chancellorsville and was routed by Confederate forces. At Gettysburg, they saw battle on two of the three days and took heavy losses.
The regiment was then transferred to the west and participated in the Chattanooga campaign. The 68th fought in the battles of Wauhatchie and Missionary Ridge, assisting in the Union victories there. The regiment marched to relieve the siege of Knoxville, and then spent the last year of the war on occupation duty in Tennessee and Georgia, before being disbanded in November 1865.
Morris "Moe" Berg
(March 2, 1902 – May 29, 1972) was an American catcher
in Major League Baseball
who later served as a spy for the Office of Strategic Services
(OSS) during World War II
. Although he played 15 seasons in the major leagues, Berg was never more than an average player, usually used as a backup catcher. He was better known for being "the brainiest guy in baseball" than for anything he accomplished in the game.
A graduate of Princeton University and Columbia Law School, Berg spoke several languages and regularly read 10 newspapers a day. His reputation was fueled by his successful appearances as a contestant on the radio quiz show Information, Please in which he answered questions about the derivation of words and names from Greek and Latin, historical events in Europe and the Far East, and ongoing international conferences.
As a spy working for the United States government, Berg gathered intelligence on resistance groups the U.S. government was considering supporting in Yugoslavia. On a mission to Italy, he interviewed physicists concerning Nazi Germany's nuclear program. After the war, Berg worked occasionally for the OSS's successor, the Central Intelligence Agency.
- July 1, 1948 – The first flight departs from John F. Kennedy International Airport.
- July 2, 1868 – The IRT Ninth Avenue Line, the first elevated railway in New York City, opens.
- July 13, 1977 – A New York City blackout of 1977 lasting 25 hours begins, resulting in city-wide looting and arson.
- July 13–16, 1863 – The largest insurrection in United States history, outside of the American Civil War, occurs when an anti-draft riot (pictured) sees at least 120 civilians die, and 11 black men lynched.
- July 19, 1845 – The Great New York City Fire of 1845 breaks out.
- July 31, 1667 – The Treaty of Breda ends conflict between England and the Netherlands, with the Dutch surrendering their claim on New York.
The New York Mets
are a Major League Baseball
based in Flushing, Queens
, in New York City. They play in the National League East
division. The first game of the new baseball season for a team is played on Opening Day
, and being named the Opening Day starting pitcher
is an honor, which is often given to the player who is expected to lead the pitching staff that season, though there are various strategic reasons why a team's best pitcher might not start on Opening Day. The New York Mets have used 20 different Opening Day starting pitchers
in their 50 seasons. The 20 starters have a combined Opening Day record of 26 wins
, 12 losses
(26–12) and 12 no decisions
. No decisions are only awarded to the starting pitcher if the game is won or lost after the starting pitcher has left the game.
Tom Seaver holds the Mets' record for most Opening Day starts with 11, and has an Opening Day record of 6–0. He also has the most starts in Shea Stadium, the Mets' home ballpark from 1964 through 2008. Seaver and Dwight Gooden hold the Mets' record for most Opening Day wins with six each. Al Jackson and Roger Craig share the worst winning percentage as the Opening Day starting pitcher with a record of 0–2.
From 1968 through 1983, Mets' Opening Day starting pitchers went 16 consecutive years without a loss. During this period, Tom Seaver won six starts with five no decisions, Craig Swan won two starts, and Jerry Koosman, Pat Zachry and Randy Jones won one start apiece. Furthermore, in the 31-year period from 1968 through 1998, Mets' Opening Day starting pitchers only lost two games. During that period, they won 19 games with 10 no decisions. The only losses during this period were by Mike Torrez in 1984 and by Dwight Gooden in 1990.
Overall, Mets Opening Day starting pitchers have a record of 0–1 at the Polo Grounds, a 13–5 record with four no decisions at Shea Stadium and a 1–0 record at Citi Field. In addition, although the Mets were nominally the home team in 2000, the game was played in Tokyo Dome in Tokyo, Japan. Mike Hampton started the game in Tokyo and lost, making the Mets' Opening Day starting pitchers' combined home record 14–7, and their away record 12–5. The Mets went on to play in the World Series in 1969, 1973, 1986 and 2000, and won the 1969 and 1986 World Series championship games. Tom Seaver (1969 and 1973), Dwight Gooden (1986) and Mike Hampton (2000) were the Opening Day starting pitchers when the Mets played in the World Series, and they had a combined Opening Day record of 2–1.
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