New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York metropolitan area, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. A global power city, New York exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment. The home of the United Nations Headquarters, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has been described as the cultural capital of the world.
Founded as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic in 1626, the city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a county of New York State. The five boroughs—The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island—were consolidated into a single city in 1898. With a census-estimated 2012 population of 8,336,697 distributed over a land area of just 302.64 square miles (783.8 km2), New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. The New York metropolitan area's population of approximately 19.8 million people remains by a significant margin the United States' largest Metropolitan Statistical Area. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.
Many districts and landmarks in New York City have become well known to its approximately 55 million annual visitors. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway theatre district, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The names of many of the city's bridges, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. New York City's financial district, anchored by Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, has been called the world's leading financial center and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalization of its listed companies. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and is a globally recognized symbol of the United States and its democracy. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive rapid transit systems worldwide. Numerous colleges and universities are in New York, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world.
The 68th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment
served in the Union Army
during the American Civil War
. Also known as the Cameron Rifles
or the Second German Rifle Regiment
, the men were mostly German immigrants. Organized in July 1861, three months after the outbreak of war, the 68th saw service in the Eastern
As a part of the Army of the Potomac, it was initially assigned to the defenses of Washington, D.C. Later, the 68th was transferred to the Shenandoah Valley and fought at the Battle of Cross Keys. The men of the 68th were then reassigned to central Virginia and found themselves in the thick of the fighting at Second Bull Run. After returning to the nation's capital, the regiment fought in Chancellorsville and was routed by Confederate forces. At Gettysburg, they saw battle on two of the three days and took heavy losses.
The regiment was then transferred to the west and participated in the Chattanooga campaign. The 68th fought in the battles of Wauhatchie and Missionary Ridge, assisting in the Union victories there. The regiment marched to relieve the siege of Knoxville, and then spent the last year of the war on occupation duty in Tennessee and Georgia, before being disbanded in November 1865.
Derek Sanderson Jeter
; born June 26, 1974) is an American baseball shortstop
who has played 18 seasons in Major League Baseball
(MLB) for the New York Yankees
. A five-time World Series
champion, Jeter has been a central figure of the Yankees during their success of the 1990s and 2000s due to his clubhouse presence, on-field leadership, hitting ability, and baserunning. He is the Yankees' all-time career leader in hits
(3,110), games played (2,426), stolen bases
(329), and at bats
(9,868). His accolades include twelve All-Star
selections, five Gold Glove Awards
, four Silver Slugger Awards
, two Hank Aaron Awards
, and the Roberto Clemente Award
. Jeter is the all-time MLB leader in hits by a shortstop, and the 28th player to reach 3,000 hits
The Yankees drafted Jeter out of high school in 1992, and he debuted in the major leagues in 1995. The following year, he became the Yankees' starting shortstop, won the Rookie of the Year Award, and helped the team win the 1996 World Series. Jeter continued to contribute to the team's championship seasons of 1998–2000; he finished third in voting for the American League (AL) Most Valuable Player (MVP) Award in 1998, recorded multiple career-high numbers in 1999, and won both the All-Star Game MVP and World Series MVP Awards in 2000. He has consistently placed among the AL leaders in hits and runs scored for the past ten years, and since 2003, he has served as the Yankees' team captain.
- July 1, 1948 – The first flight departs from John F. Kennedy International Airport.
- July 2, 1868 – The IRT Ninth Avenue Line, the first elevated railway in New York City, opens.
- July 13, 1977 – A New York City blackout of 1977 lasting 25 hours begins, resulting in city-wide looting and arson.
- July 13–16, 1863 – The largest insurrection in United States history, outside of the American Civil War, occurs when an anti-draft riot (pictured) sees at least 120 civilians die, and 11 black men lynched.
- July 19, 1845 – The Great New York City Fire of 1845 breaks out.
- July 31, 1667 – The Treaty of Breda ends conflict between England and the Netherlands, with the Dutch surrendering their claim on New York.
The discography of Eric B. & Rakim, an American hip hop duo from New York City, consists of four studio albums, five compilation albums, 15 singles, and nine music videos. Eric B. & Rakim formed and signed a record deal with Zakia Records in 1985. The following year, the duo signed a deal with 4th & B'way Records. Their debut album Paid in Full was released in 1987. In the United States, it peaked at number 58 on the Billboard 200, number 8 on R&B/Hip-Hop Albums, and was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). It appeared on the Dutch, New Zealand, and UK Albums Chart. Paid in Full composed of five singles, four of which appeared on Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs. The fifth single "Paid in Full" (1988) peaked within the top five of the Dutch and New Zealand Singles Chart.
Their second studio album, Follow the Leader (1988), peaked at number 22 on the Billboard 200, number 7 on R&B/Hip-Hop Albums, and was certified gold by the RIAA. The album peaked at 25 on the UK Albums Chart, and appeared on the Swedish, Dutch, and New Zealand Albums Chart. Three songs from the album were released as singles: "Follow the Leader", "Microphone Fiend", and "The R", the first and last of which appeared on Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs. The duo's third studio album Let the Rhythm Hit 'Em was released in 1990. It peaked at number 32 on the Billboard 200, number 10 on R&B/Hip-Hop Albums, and was certified gold by the RIAA. The album appeared on the UK and Dutch Albums Chart. Let the Rhythm Hit 'Em spawned three singles, including the title track and "In the Ghetto", both of which peaked within the top 10 on US Hot Rap Tracks. Don't Sweat the Technique (1992) was the duo's fourth studio album. It peaked at number 22 on the Billboard 200 and number 9 on R&B/Hip-Hop Albums. It appeared on the UK Albums chart. Four songs, all of which appeared in the top 40 on R&B/Hip-Hop Songs, were released as singles from the album. The title track, released as the third single, topped Hot Rap Tracks. In 1992 after Don't Sweat the Technique, Eric B. & Rakim disbanded. From 2001 to 2010, five compilation albums have been released: 20th Century Masters – The Millennium Collection: The Best of Eric B. & Rakim (2001), Classic (2003), Gold (2005), Repaid in Full: The Paid in Full Remixed (2008), and Rarities Edition: Paid in Full (2010).
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