Excoecaria

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Excoecaria
Excoecaria agallocha (Blind Your Eye) W IMG 6929.jpg
Excoecaria agallocha in Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamily: Euphorbioideae
Tribe: Hippomaneae
Subtribe: Hippomaninae
Genus: Excoecaria
L.
Synonyms[1]

Excoecaria is a plant genus of the family Euphorbiaceae, formally described by Linnaeus in 1759.[2][3] The genus is native to the Old World Tropics (Africa, southern Asia, northern Australia, and assorted oceanic islands).[1][4][5]

The milky latex of Excoecaria agallocha, also known as Thillai, milky mangrove, blind-your-eye mangrove and river poison tree, is poisonous. Mangroves of this plant surround the ancient Thillai Chidambaram Temple in Tamil Nadu. Contact with skin can cause irritation and rapid blistering; contact with eyes will result in temporary blindness. It is distributed in the Pichavaram wetlands, near Chidambaram, in Australia from northern New South Wales, along the northern coastline around to Western Australia.The latex is extremely poisonous. Even dried and powdered leaves contain the poison which can kill fish very quickly.

Species[1]
  1. Excoecaria acerifolia - Uttarakhand, Yunnan, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan
  2. Excoecaria acuminata - Fiji
  3. Excoecaria agallocha - S China, Indian Subcontinent, SE Asia, Papuasia, N Australia, W Pacific Is
  4. Excoecaria antsingyensis - Madagascar
  5. Excoecaria aporusifolia - Vietnam
  6. Excoecaria bantamensis - S Thailand, Philippines, Java, Kalimantan Barat
  7. Excoecaria benthamiana - Seychelles
  8. Excoecaria borneensis - Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines, Sulawesi, Maluku
  9. Excoecaria bussei - E + S Africa
  10. Excoecaria canjoerensis - India
  11. Excoecaria cochinchinensis - S China, Indochina, W Malaysia
  12. Excoecaria confertiflora - Viti Levu
  13. Excoecaria cuspidata - Meghalaya
  14. Excoecaria dallachyana - Queensland, New South Wales
  15. Excoecaria formosana - Nansei-shoto, Taiwan
  16. Excoecaria glaucescens - Madagascar
  17. Excoecaria goudotiana - Madagascar
  18. Excoecaria grahamii - W Africa
  19. Excoecaria guineensis - W + C Africa
  20. Excoecaria holophylla - Myanmar
  21. Excoecaria kawakamii - Taiwan
  22. Excoecaria laotica - Laos, Thailand
  23. Excoecaria lissohylla - Madagascar
  24. Excoecaria madagascariensis - Madagascar, E + SE + S Africa
  25. Excoecaria magenjensis - Mozambique
  26. Excoecaria obtusa - Philippines
  27. Excoecaria oppositifolia - Indian Subcontinent, Indochina
  28. Excoecaria pachyphylla - Philippines
  29. Excoecaria parvifolia - N Australia
  30. Excoecaria perrieri - Madagascar
  31. Excoecaria philippinensis - Philippines, Sabah
  32. Excoecaria poilanei - Vietnam
  33. Excoecaria rectinervis - Nicobar Islands
  34. Excoecaria simii - Cape Province, KwaZulu-Natal
  35. Excoecaria stenophylla - Philippines
  36. Excoecaria thouarsiana - Madagascar
  37. Excoecaria venenata - S China
  38. Excoecaria yunnanensis - Yunnan
formerly included[1]

moved to other genera (Actinostemon Adenopeltis Alchornea Anomostachys Bocquillonia Bonania Cerbera Falconeria Grimmeodendron Gymnanthes Homalanthus Maprounea Microstachys Neoshirakia Sapium Sclerocroton Sebastiania Shirakiopsis Spirostachys Stillingia Triadica )

  1. E. abyssinica - Shirakiopsis elliptica
  2. E. aerea - Sapium glandulosum
  3. E. africana - Spirostachys africana
  4. E. albicans - Gymnanthes albicans
  5. E. arguta - Sapium argutum
  6. E. baccata - Balakata baccata
  7. E. bicalcarata - Sebastiania bicalcarata
  8. E. biglandulosa - Sapium glandulosum
  9. E. bodenbenderi - Stillingia bodenbenderi
  10. E. brachyandra - Actinostemon brachypodus
  11. E. brachypoda - Actinostemon brachypodus
  12. E. brasiliensis - Sebastiania brasiliensis
  13. E. bridgesii - Sebastiania bridgesii
  14. E. caribaea - Actinostemon caribaeus
  15. E. chamelaea - Microstachys chamaelea
  16. E. colliguaya - Adenopeltis serrata
  17. E. concolor - Actinostemon concolor
  18. E. cubensis - Bonania cubana
  19. E. cuneata - Sapium cuneatum
  20. E. discolor - Sebastiania klotzschiana
  21. E. diversifolia - Shirakiopsis indica
  22. E. eglandulata - Sebastiania eglandulata
  23. E. eglandulosa - Grimmeodendron eglandulosum
  24. E. emarginata - Bonania emarginata
  25. E. erythrosperma - Bonania erythrosperma
  26. E. faradianensis - Microstachys faradianensis
  27. E. farinosa - Gymnanthes farinosa
  28. E. glandulosa - Gymnanthes glandulosa
  29. E. glauca - Shirakiopsis indica
  30. E. glomeriflora - Spirostachys venenifera
  31. E. guianensis - Maprounea guianensis
  32. E. haematosperma - Sapium haematospermum
  33. E. hippophaifolia - Sebastiania schottiana
  34. E. hochstetteriana - Sclerocroton integerrimus
  35. E. indica - Shirakiopsis indica
  36. E. insignis - Falconeria insignis
  37. E. integerrima - Sclerocroton integerrimus
  38. E. japonica - Neoshirakia japonica
  39. E. klotzschii - Actinostemon klotzschii
  40. E. laevis - Homalanthus populneus
  41. E. lanceolaria - Triadica cochinchinensis
  42. E. lastellei - Anomostachys lastellei
  43. E. laurocerasus - Sapium laurocerasus
  44. E. leucogyna - Sapium leucogynum
  45. E. leucosperma - Sapium leucogynum
  46. E. lucida - Gymnanthes lucida
  47. E. macrocarpa - Sapium macrocarpum
  48. E. manniana - Shirakiopsis elliptica
  49. E. marginata - Sapium glandulosum
  50. E. martii - Sapium obovatum
  51. E. mauritiana - Stillingia lineata
  52. E. melanosticta - Sclerocroton melanostictus
  53. E. myricifolia - Bonania myricifolia
  54. E. oblongifolia - Sclerocroton oblongifolius
  55. E. obovata - Sapium obovatum
  56. E. obtusifolia - Sebastiania obtusifolia
  57. E. obtusiloba - Sapium glandulosum
  58. E. occidentalis - Sapium glandulosum
  59. E. ovatifolia - Cerbera odollam
  60. E. pallens - Gymnanthes pallens
  61. E. pallida - Sapium pallidum
  62. E. potamophila - Sebastiania potamophila
  63. E. reticulata - Sclerocroton integerrimus
  64. E. rhomboidea - Bocquillonia rhomboidea
  65. E. riparia - Gymnanthes riparia
  66. E. sagrae - Grimmeodendron eglandulosum
  67. E. salpingadenia - Stillingia salpingadenia
  68. E. sebifera - Triadica sebifera
  69. E. serrata - Adenopeltis serrata
  70. E. serrulata - Gymnanthes gaudichaudii
  71. E. sicca - Alchornea sicca
  72. E. stylaris - Sapium stylare
  73. E. suberosa - Sapium glandulosum
  74. E. subsessilis - Sebastiania subsessilis
  75. E. subulata - Sebastiania subulata
  76. E. sylvatica - Stillingia sylvatica
  77. E. synonym - Spirostachys africana
  78. E. tenax - Gymnanthes pallens
  79. E. tijueensis - Sapium haematospermum
  80. E. tinifolia - Gymnanthes elliptica
  81. E. tristis - Sapium argutum
  82. E. unequidentata - Bocquillonia rhomboidea
  83. E. venenifera - Spirostachys venenifera
  84. E. venulosa - Gymnanthes albicans
  85. E. virgata - Shirakiopsis virgata
  86. E. warmingii - Sebastiania warmingii

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Linnaeus, Carl von. 1759. Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 1288 in Latin
  3. ^ Tropicos Excoecaria L.
  4. ^ Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  5. ^ Flora of China Vol. 11 Page 280 海漆属 hai qi shu Excoecaria Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 2: 1288. 1759.

External links[edit]