Connective tissue (CT) is a kind of biological tissue that supports, connects, or separates different types of tissues and organs of the body. It is one of the four general classes of biological tissues—the others of which are epithelial, muscular, and nervous tissues.
All CT has three main components: cells, fibers, and extracellular matrices, all immersed in the body fluids.
Connective tissue can be broadly subdivided into connective tissue proper, special connective tissue, and series of other, less classifiable types of connective tissues. Connective tissue proper consists of loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue (which is further subdivided into dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues.) Special connective tissue consists of reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood. Other kinds of connective tissues include fibrous, elastic, and lymphoid connective tissues.
Fibroblasts are the cells responsible for the production of some CT.
Characteristics of CT:
- Cells are spread through an extracellular fluid.
- Ground substance - A clear, colorless, and viscous fluid containing glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans to fix the bodywater and the collagen fibers in the intercellular spaces. Ground substance slows the spread of pathogens.
- Fibers. Not all types of CT are fibrous. Examples of non-fibrous CT include adipose tissue and blood. Adipose tissue gives "mechanical cushioning" to our body, among other functions. Although there is no dense collagen network in adipose tissue, groups of adipose cells are kept together by collagen fibers and collagen sheets in order to keep fat tissue under compression in place (for example, the sole of the foot). The matrix of blood is plasma.
- Both the ground substance and proteins (fibers) create the matrix for CT.
Types of fibers:
|Collagenous fibers||-||Alpha polypeptide chains||tendon, ligament, skin, cornea, cartilage, bone, blood vessels, gut, and intervertebral disc.|
|Elastic fibers||-||elastic microfibril & elastin||extracellular matrix|
|Reticular fibers||-||Type-III collagen||liver, bone marrow, lymphatic organs|
- Storage of energy
- Protection of organs
- Provision of structural framework for the body
- Connection of body tissues
- Connection of epithelial tissues to muscle fibre.
- supply of hormones all over the body
It is estimated that 1 out of 10 people have a Connective Tissue Disorder. Various CT in CT.
Staining of connective tissue
For microscopic viewing, the majority of the CT staining techniques color tissue fibers in contrasting shades. Collagen may be differentially stained by any of the following techniques:
- Van Gieson's stain
- Masson's Trichrome stain
- Mallory's Aniline Blue stain
- Azocarmine stain
- Krajian's Aniline Blue stain
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