Frank the Poet
Frank the Poet (ca. 1810–1861) (real name Francis MacNamara) was a convict, transported to New South Wales from Ireland, who composed cheeky improvised verse expressing the convict's point of view. In 1832 he was convicted of larceny, and sentenced to seven years transportation. He was a troublesome convict who often absconded and received an extended sentence as well as floggings and other punishments, and was finally sent to the dread Port Arthur in Van Diemen's Land. He received a ticket of leave in 1847 and his freedom in 1849, after which there is little record of his life. His verse suggests he was an educated person with strong political convictions.
He versified from the start of his convict career: treating the court to an extempore epigram about being sent to Botany Bay; and composing a mock heroic poem about his case during the voyage out. Except for one longer poem, his verse was passed among convicts by word of mouth. Some of his ballads and epigrams survive in manuscript form in the Mitchell Library, Sydney, having been written down in the late nineteenth century. The popular ballad Moreton Bay or A Convict's Lament, often sung in Australian primary schools, has also been attributed to Frank the Poet. His published work, A Convict's Tour to Hell was written in October 1839 while he worked as a shepherd at Stroud.
In A Convict's Tour to Hell Frank dies during captivity and, assuming there is no place for him in heaven, heads downwards, setting up camp by the River Styx, until Charon offers him a free fare on account of his reputation. Not liking the look of Hell, Frank first seeks admission to Purgatory but Pope Pius VII refuses him admittance, explaining Limbo was invented by priests and Popes for their own exclusive use. He then tries Hell where he sees many of his former jailers, such as Captain Logan, as well as Governor Darling and Captain Cook (condemned for discovering New South Wales) – before the Devil sends him to join the rest of the poor and downtrodden in Heaven, as Hell was made just for the 'Grandees of the Land'. Saint Peter admits him to Heaven on the say so of several residents such as Bold Jack Donahue (a convict who turned bushranger).
Francis MacNamara died in Mudgee on 28 August 1861. News of his death was carried in three newspapers in New South Wales, the Western Post 31 August, the Empire 4 September and the Maitland Mercury 7 September.
More recent research displayed at  provides clear evidence that Francis MacNamara did not die at Mudgee as stated above but that he was involved in the McIvor escort robbery and the disappearance of the ill fated ship the Madagascar in 1853. The person who dies at Mudgee was an imposter which further displays the fame that Frank the Poet had gained during his life.
On 5 August 2012 ABC Radio National broadcast "Frank the Poet - A Convict's Tour to Hell".
- Meredith, J. and R. Whalan, Frank the Poet (Melbourne, 1979) discusses the identity of Frank the Poet
- Presenter: Lorena Allam (2012-08-05). "Frank the poet – A Convict's Tour To Hell". Hindsight. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Radio National. http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/hindsight/frank-the-poet/4126734.
- Jose, Nicholas (general editor) Macquarie PEN Anthology of Australian Literature Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest NSW, 2009 p. 83.
- music and lyrics
- Reece, R. H. W. MacNamara, Frances (c.1810–1861) Australian Dictionary of Biography Eighth edition, accessed 14 Nov 2009]
- Frank the Poet 'A Convict's Tour to Hell' in Jose (gen. ed.) 2009 pp. 83 – 89.
- Frank the Poet
- Reece, B., ‘Frank the Poet’ in B. Reece (ed), Exiles from Erin (Lond, 1991).
- Stewart,G., 'The Silent Moon'. (Digital book. 2012. ISBN 9780646583877)