Frankie Lymon as a member of The Teenagers in the 1950s.
|Birth name||Franklin Joseph Lymon|
|Also known as||Franklin Joseph Lineman|
September 30, 1942|
Harlem, New York
|Died||February 27, 1968
Harlem, New York
|Genres||Rhythm and blues, doo-wop, rock and roll, pop, swing|
|Labels||Gee, Big Kat, Roulette|
|Associated acts||The Teenagers, Little Richard, The Platters, Alan Freed|
Franklin Joseph "Frankie" Lymon (September 30, 1942 – February 27, 1968) was an American rock and roll/rhythm and blues singer and songwriter, best known as the boy soprano lead singer of the New York City-based early rock and roll group, The Teenagers. The group was composed of five boys, all in their early to mid teens. The original lineup of the Teenagers, an integrated group, included three African American members, Frankie Lymon, Jimmy Merchant and Sherman Garnes, and two Puerto Rican members, Herman Santiago and Joe Negroni.
The Teenagers' first single, 1956's "Why Do Fools Fall in Love", was also their biggest hit. After Lymon went solo in mid-1957, both his career and those of the Teenagers fell into decline. At age 25, he was found dead in his grandmother's bathroom from a heroin overdose. His life was shown in the 1998 film, Why Do Fools Fall In Love?.
- 1 Early years: joining the Teenagers
- 2 Life and career
- 3 Legacy
- 4 Discography
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
Early years: joining the Teenagers
Frankie Lymon was born in Harlem to a truck driver father and a mother who worked as a maid. Lymon's mother and father, Howard and Jeanette Lymon, also sang in a gospel group known as the Harlemaires; Frankie Lymon and his brothers Lewis and Howie sang with the Harlemaire Juniors (a fourth Lymon brother, Timmy, was a singer, though not with the Harlemaire Juniors). The Lymon family struggled to make ends meet, and Lymon began working as a grocery boy at age ten.
At the age of 12 in 1954, Lymon heard a local doo-wop group known as the Coupe De Villes at a school talent show. He befriended their lead singer, Herman Santiago, and he eventually became a member of the group, now calling itself both The Ermines and The Premiers. Dennis Jackson of Columbus, Georgia, was one of the main influences in Lymon's life. His personal donation of $500 helped start Lymon's career.
One day in 1955, a neighbor gave The Premiers several love letters that had been written to him by his girlfriend, with the hopes that he could give the boys inspiration to write their own songs. Merchant and Santiago adapted one of the letters into a song called "Why Do Fools Fall in Love". The Premiers, now calling themselves The Teenagers, got their first shot at fame after impressing Richard Barrett, a singer with The Valentines. Barrett, in turn, got the group an audition with record producer George Goldner. On the day of the group's audition, Santiago, the original lead singer, was late. Lymon stepped up and told Goldner that he knew the part because he helped write the song. The disc jockeys always called them "Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers".
Life and career
"Why Do Fools Fall in Love": fame and success
Goldner signed the quintet to Gee Records, and "Why Do Fools Fall in Love" became their first single in January 1956. The single peaked at #6 on the Billboard pop singles chart, and topped the Billboard R&B singles chart for five weeks.
Five other R&B top ten singles followed over the next year or so: "I Want You To Be My Girl", "I Promise To Remember", "Who Can Explain?", "Out in the Cold Again" and "The ABC's of Love". "I'm Not A Juvenile Delinquent" and "Baby Baby" were also popular Teenagers releases. "I Want You To Be My Girl" gave the band its second pop hit, reaching #13 on the national Billboard Hot 100 chart. "Goody Goody" (written by Matty Malneck and Johnny Mercer and originally performed by Benny Goodman) was a #20 pop hit, but did not appear on the R&B chart. The Teenagers placed two other singles in the lower half of the pop chart.
With the release of "I Want You To Be My Girl", the group's second single, The Teenagers became Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers. An album, The Teenagers Featuring Frankie Lymon, was issued in December 1956.
In early 1957, Lymon and the Teenagers broke up while on a tour of Europe. During an engagement at the London Palladium, Goldner began pushing Lymon as a solo act, giving him solo spots in the show. Lymon began performing with backing from pre-recorded tapes. The group's last single, "Goody Goody" backed with "Creation of Love," initially retained the "Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers" credit, but they were actually solo recordings (with backing by session singers). Lymon had officially departed from the group by September 1957; an in-progress studio album called Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers at the London Palladium was instead issued as a Lymon solo release.
As a solo artist, Lymon was not nearly as successful as he had been with the Teenagers. Beginning with his second solo release, "My Girl", Lymon had moved to Roulette Records. On a July 19, 1957, episode of Alan Freed's live ABC TV show The Big Beat, Lymon began dancing with a white teenage girl while performing. His actions caused a scandal, particularly among Southern TV station owners, and The Big Beat was subsequently canceled.
Lymon's slowly declining sales fell sharply after his voice changed and he lost his signature soprano voice. Adopting a falsetto, Lymon carried on. His highest charting solo hit was a cover of Bobby Day's "Little Bitty Pretty One", which peaked at number 58 on the Hot 100 pop chart in 1960, and which had actually been recorded in 1957. Addicted to heroin since age 15, Lymon fell further into his habit, and his performing career went into decline. According to Lymon in an interview with Ebony magazine in 1967, he said that at the age of 15 he was first introduced to heroin by a woman twice his age. In 1961, Roulette, now run by Morris Levy, ended their contract with Lymon and the singer entered a drug rehabilitation program.
After losing Lymon, the Teenagers went through a string of replacement singers, the first of whom was Billy Lobrano. In 1960, Howard Kenny Bobo sang lead on "Tonight's the Night" with the Teenagers; later that year, Johnny Houston sang lead on two songs. The Teenagers, who had been moved by Morris Levy to End Records, were released from their contract in 1961. The Teenagers briefly reunited with Lymon in 1965, without success.
Over the next four years, Lymon struggled through short-lived deals with 20th Century Fox Records and Columbia Records. Lymon began a relationship with Elizabeth Waters, who became his first wife in January 1964 and the mother of his first and only child, a baby girl named Francine who died two days after birth at Lenox Hill Hospital. Lymon's marriage to Waters was not legal in the beginning, because she was still married to her first husband. However, it is alleged that they became married by way of common law marriage. After the marriage failed, he moved to Los Angeles in the mid-1960s, where he began a romantic relationship with Zola Taylor, a member of the Platters. Taylor claimed to have married Lymon in Mexico in 1965, although their relationship ended several months later purportedly because of Lymon's drug habits. Lymon, however, had been known to say that their marriage was a publicity stunt and Taylor could produce no legal documentation of their marriage. In Major Robinson's gossip column of June 6, 1966, Zola said the whole thing was a joke that she went along with at the time (October 1965). (Note, however, that whatever was printed in Major Robinson's columns should always be questioned.)
He appeared at the Apollo as part of a revue, adding an extended tap dance number. Lymon recorded several live performances (such as "Melinda" in 1959), but none rose on the charts. His final television performance was on Hollywood a Go-Go in 1965, where the then 22-year-old singer lip-synched to the recording of his 13-year-old self singing "Why Do Fools Fall in Love." The same year, Lymon was drafted into the United States Army, and reported to Fort Gordon, Georgia, near Augusta, Georgia, for training. While in the Augusta area, Lymon met and fell in love with Emira Eagle, a schoolteacher at Hornsby Elementary in Augusta. The two were wed in June 1967, and Lymon repeatedly went AWOL to secure gigs at small Southern clubs. Dishonorably discharged from the Army, Lymon moved into his wife's home and continued to perform sporadically.
Traveling to New York in 1968, Lymon was signed by manager Sam Bray to his Big Apple label, and the singer returned to recording. Roulette Records expressed interest in releasing Lymon's records in conjunction with Big Apple and scheduled a recording session for February 28. A major promotion had been arranged with CHO Associates, owned by radio personalities, Frankie Crocker, Herb Hamlett and Eddie O'Jay. Lymon, staying at his grandmother's house in Harlem where he had grown up, celebrated his good fortune by taking heroin; he had remained clean ever since entering the Army three years earlier.
On February 27, 1968, Lymon was found dead of a heroin overdose at age 25 in his grandmother's bathroom. Lymon, a Baptist, was buried at Catholic Saint Raymond's Cemetery in the Throggs Neck section of The Bronx, New York City, New York.
"I'm Sorry" and "Seabreeze", the two songs Lymon had recorded for Big Apple before his death, were released later in 1968.
Lymon's troubles extended to others after his death. After R&B singer Diana Ross returned "Why Do Fools Fall in Love" to the Top Ten in 1981, a major controversy concerning Lymon's estate ensued. Zola Taylor, Elizabeth Waters, and Emira Eagle each approached Morris Levy, the music impresario who retained possession of Lymon's copyrights and his royalties, claiming to be Lymon's rightful widow; Lymon had neglected to divorce both Taylor and Waters. The complex issue resulted in lawsuits and counter-lawsuits, and in 1986, the first of several court cases concerning the ownership of Lymon's estate began.
Trying to determine who was indeed the lawful Mrs. Frankie Lymon was complicated by more issues. Waters was already married when she married Lymon; she had separated from her first husband, but their divorce was finalized in 1965, after she had married Lymon. Taylor claimed to have married Lymon in Mexico in 1965, but could produce no acceptable evidence of their union. Lymon's marriage to Eagle, on the other hand, was properly documented as having taken place at the Beulah Grove Baptist Church in Augusta, Georgia, in 1967; however, the singer was still apparently twice-married and never divorced when he married Eagle. The first decision was made in Waters' favor; Eagle appealed, and in 1989, the Appellate Division of the New York State Supreme Court reversed the original decision and awarded Lymon's estate to Eagle.
However, the details of the case brought about another issue: whether Morris Levy was deserving of the songwriting co-credit on "Why Do Fools Fall in Love". Although early single releases of "Why Do Fools Fall in Love" credit Frankie Lymon, Herman Santiago, and Jimmy Merchant as co-writers, later releases and cover versions were attributed to Lymon and George Goldner. When Goldner sold his music companies to Morris Levy in 1959, Levy's name began appearing as co-writer of "Why Do Fools Fall in Love" in place of Goldner's. Lymon was never paid his songwriting royalties during his lifetime; one result of Emira Eagle's legal victory was that Lymon's estate would finally begin receiving monetary compensation from his hit song's success. In 1987, Herman Santiago and Jimmy Merchant, both then poor, sued Morris Levy for their songwriting credits.
In December 1992, the United States federal courts ruled that Santiago and Merchant were co-authors of "Why Do Fools Fall in Love". However, in 1996 the ruling was reversed by the Court of Appeals for the 2nd Circuit on the basis of the statute of limitations: copyright cases must be brought before a court within three years of the alleged civil violation, and Merchant and Santiago's lawsuit was not filed until 30 years later. Authorship of "Why Do Fools Fall in Love" currently remains in the names of Frankie Lymon and Morris Levy.
Although their period of success was brief, Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers' string of hits were highly influential on the rock and R&B performers who followed them. Lymon's high-voiced sound is said to be a direct predecessor of the girl group sound, and the list of performers who name him as an influence include Michael Jackson, Ronnie Spector, Diana Ross, The Chantels, The Temptations, Smokey Robinson, Len Barry, and The Beach Boys, among others. The performers most inspired by and derivative of Lymon and the Teenagers' style are The Jackson 5 and their lead singer and future superstar Michael Jackson. Motown founder Berry Gordy based much of the Jackson 5's sound on Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers' recordings, and the Teenagers are believed to be the original model for many of the other Motown groups he cultivated.
Lymon's music and story were re-introduced to modern audiences with Why Do Fools Fall in Love, a 1998 biographical film directed by Gregory Nava, also the director of the Selena biopic. Why Do Fools Fall in Love tells a comedic, fictionalized version of Lymon's story from the points of view of his three wives as they battle in court for the rights to his estate. The film stars Larenz Tate as Frankie Lymon, Halle Berry as Zola Taylor, Vivica A. Fox as Elizabeth Waters, and Lela Rochon as Elmira Eagle. Why Do Fools Fall in Love was not a commercial success and met with mixed reviews; the film grossed a total of $12,461,773 during its original theatrical run.
In 1973, Lymon became known to a slightly younger generation than before with the release of American Graffiti, which included "Why Do Fools Fall in Love" on its soundtrack.
The song Harlem Roulette by The Mountain Goats off their 2012 album Transcendental Youth contains reference to Frankie Lymon and has been stated by frontman John Darnielle to be about the last night of Lymon's life.
Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers discography
- Gee releases
- 1956-01: [Gee 1002] "Why Do Fools Fall in Love" / "Please Be Mine" 1 (#1 on the R&B chart for 5 weeks)
- 1956-04: [Gee 1012] "I Want You to Be My Girl" / "I'm Not a Know-It-All" 2 (#3 on R&B chart)
- 1956-07: [Gee 1018] "I Promise to Remember" / "Who Can Explain" (double-sided hit on R&B chart (#10 and #7))
- 1956-10: [Gee 1022] "The ABC's of Love" / "Share" (#8 on R&B chart)
- 1957-02: [Gee 1026] "I'm Not a Juvenile Delinquent" / "Baby, Baby"
- 1957-04: [Gee 1032] "Teenage Love" / "Paper Castles"
- 1957-05: [Gee 1035] "Love Is a Clown / Am I Fooling Myself Again"
- 1957-06: [Gee 1036] "Out in the Cold Again" / "Miracle in the Rain" 5 (#10 on R&B chart)
- 1957-07: [Gee 1039] "Goody Goody" / "Creation of Love" 3
- 1957-12: [Gee 1046] "Everything to Me" / "Flip Flop" 4
- 1 Released as by "The Teenagers"
- ² Early copies released as by "The Teenagers featuring Frankie Lymon"; billing on later pressings changed to "Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers"
- ³ Both sides of this release are actually Frankie Lymon solo recordings.
- 4 billed as "The Teenagers" (lead vocal by Billy Lobrano)
- 5 Released as by "The Teenagers featuring Frankie Lymon"
- 1956: [Gee 701] The Teenagers Featuring Frankie Lymon
- 1986: Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers: For Collectors Only (Murray Hill 148)
Frankie Lymon solo discography
- Roulette releases
- 1957: [Roulette 4026] "My Girl" / "So Goes My Love"
- 1957: [Roulette 4035] "Little Girl" / "It's Christmas Once Again"
- 1958: [Roulette 4044] "Thumb Thumb" / "Footsteps"
- 1958: [Roulette 4068] "Portable on My Shoulder" / "Mama Don't Allow It" — 4/58
- 1958: [Roulette 4093] "Only Way to Love" / "Melinda"
- 1959: [Roulette 4128] "Up Jumped a Rabbit" / "No Matter What You've Done"
- 1969: [Roulette 21095 ""/ "1-20-12 Forever'
- Gee release
- 1959: [Gee 1052] "Goody Good Girl" / "I'm Not Too Young to Dream"
- Roulette releases
- 1960: [Roulette 4257] "Little Bitty Pretty One" / "Creation of Love"
- 1960: [Roulette 4283] "Buzz Buzz Buzz" / "Waitin' in School"
- 1961: [Roulette 4310] "Jailhouse Rock" / "Silhouettes"
- 1961: [Roulette 4348] "Change Partners" / "So Young (And So in Love)"
- 1961: [Roulette 4391] "Young" / "I Put the Bomp" (featuring backing vocals by two members of The Delicates (Denise Ferri and Peggy Santiglia))
- Later releases
- 1964: "To Each His Own" / "Teacher, Teacher" (20th Century Fox)
- 1964: "Somewhere" / "Sweet and Lovely" (Columbia)
- 1969: "I'm Sorry" / "Seabreeze" (Big Apple)
- 1956: Frankie Lymon And The Teenagers - 1981 Re-issue Roulette Y2-116-RO (Japan) [Gee 701]
- 1957: Frankie Lymon at the London Palladium (Roulette)
- 1958: Rock & Roll with Frankie Lymon (Roulette)
- 1994: Complete Recordings (Bear Family)
- New York Times, February 28, 1968, p. 50
- Barbee, Bobbie (1968-03-14). "Lymon Said: Addicts Gamble". Jet (Johnson Publishing Company) 33 (23): 60–62. ISSN 0021-5996.
- Bogdanov, Vladimir; Erlewine, Stephen Thomas; Woodstra, Chris (2002). All Music Guide To Rock: The Definitive Guide To Rock, Pop, and Soul (3 ed.). Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 680. ISBN 0-87930-653-X.
- Quebec, Michael (May 2002). "Alan Freed". Balboafeet.com. Retrieved November 19, 2006.
- Peters, Art (January 1967). "Comeback of a Child Star". Ebony (Johnson Publishing Company) 22 (3): 43. ISSN 0012-9011.
- "New York Beat". Jet Magazine. Johnson Publishing Co. 17 September 2011.
- Bennett Kinnon, Joy (December 1998). "The Real Story of Why Do Fools Fall In Love". Ebony (Johnson Publishing Company) 54 (2): 70. ISSN 0012-9011.
- Robinson, Major (June 6, 1966) The Pittsburgh Courier
- "Frankie Lymon Dies in Apartment.". The New York Times. February 28, 1968, Wednesday. "Frankie Lymon, the rock 'n' roll singer who popularized "Why Do Fools Fall in Love?" was found dead yesterday in the apartment of his grandmother, apparently, of an overdose of narcotics, according to the police."
- "Waters Declared Wife Of Frankie Lymon and Heir To $750,000 Royalties". Jet (Johnson Publishing Company) 75 (9). 1988-11-28. ISSN 0021-5996.
- Goldberg, Marv. "Marv Goldberg's R&B Notebook: The Teenagers".
- Matter of Lymon, 151 A.D.2d 248 (1989)
- Bennett, Joy. The Real Story of "Why Do Fools Fall in Love". The 1998 Frankie Lymon biographical film concludes with a comical post-script stating that Elmira Eagle (now legally Elmira Eagle-Lymon) received only $15,000 from winning Lymon's estate, after legal and other expenses were paid off. An excerpt from this article states otherwise: "A major discrepancy in the movie left the impression that [Elmira Eagle-Lymon] only received a $15,000 settlement. After Diana Ross re-recorded Frankie's song, "Why Do Fools Fall in Love," his estate was worth more than $1 million. Attorney [William] McCracken confirms that 'the settlement was well over seven figures.'"
- Jimmy Merchant and Herman Santiago v. Morris Levy, Big Seven Music Corp, and Roulette Records, Inc. Appeal decided August 7, 1996.
- Williams, Otis and Romanowski, Patricia (1988, 2002). Temptations [2nd edition]. New York: Cooper Square Press. Pg. 120-21.
- Koda, Cub. "Frankie Lymon". Allmusic. Retrieved 2007-08-21. "Frankie Lymon (1942-1968) & the Teenagers were a New York doowop group consisting of Joe Negroni, Herman Santiago, Jimmy Merchant, and Sherman Garnes but centered around the extraordinary talents of their lead singer, thirteen-year-old Frankie Lymon. Lymon was credited with their first big hit, "Why Do Fools Fall in Love" (In the early '90s, a federal judge ruled after a lengthy trial that Lymon hadn't written "Why Do Fools Fall in Love" — another member of the Teenagers had). His wise-beyond-his-years vocal and performing abilities not only made the Teenagers a group several notches above the competition but made Lymon the first Black teenage pop star."
- Fotenot, Robert. "Profile: Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers."
- "Reviews for Why Do Fools Fall in Love". Rotten Tomatoes.com. Reviews weighed on Rottentomatoes.com give Why Do Fools Fall in Love a rating of 55%.
- Entry for Why Do Fools Fall in Love at Box Office Mojo. Retrieved November 19, 2006.
- "Watch the Mountain Goats' John Darnielle Play "Harlem Roulette" on the Waterfront in New York". pitchfork.com. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers". rockhall.com. Retrieved 16 January 2010.[dead link]
- "Frankie Lymon & The Teenagers (Inducted 2000)". vocalgroup.org. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- "Doo Wop: Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers." The Entertainers We Love.
- Grossman, Wendy (Sept 3, 1998). "Widow of singer claims film phony." Augusta Chronicle.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Frankie Lymon.|
- Marv Goldberg's Biography of Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers
- Frankie Lymon and The Teenagers at historyofrock.com
- Tom Simon's article on The Teenagers
- Frankie Lymon at the Internet Movie Database
- Frankie Lymon at Find a Grave