GNU Emacs 23.3.1
|Original author(s)||Richard Stallman and Guy L. Steele, Jr.|
|Initial release||March 20, 1985|
|Stable release||24.3 / 11 March 2013|
|Preview release||24.3.90 / 12 April 2014|
|Written in||C, Emacs Lisp|
|Operating system||Cross-platform, GNU|
- 1 History
- 2 Licensing
- 3 Using GNU Emacs
- 4 Manuals
- 5 Internationalization
- 6 Extensibility
- 7 Performance
- 8 Platforms
- 9 Forks
- 10 Release history
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Richard Stallman began work on GNU Emacs in 1984 to produce a free software alternative to the proprietary Gosling Emacs. GNU Emacs was initially based on Gosling Emacs, but Stallman's replacement of its Mocklisp interpreter with a true Lisp interpreter required that nearly all of its code be rewritten. This became the first program released by the nascent GNU Project. GNU Emacs is written in C and provides Emacs Lisp, also implemented in C, as an extension language. Version 13, the first public release, was made on March 20, 1985. The first widely distributed version of GNU Emacs was version 15.34, released later in 1985. Early versions of GNU Emacs were numbered as "1.x.x," with the initial digit denoting the version of the C core. The "1" was dropped after version 1.12 as it was thought that the major number would never change, and thus the numbering skipped from "1" to "13".
GNU Emacs was later ported to Unix. It offered more features than Gosling Emacs, in particular a full-featured Lisp as its extension language, and soon replaced Gosling Emacs as the de facto Unix Emacs editor. Markus Hess exploited a security flaw in GNU Emacs' email subsystem in his 1986 cracking spree in which he gained superuser access to Unix computers.
GNU Emacs development was relatively closed until 1999 and was used as an example of the "Cathedral" development style in The Cathedral and the Bazaar. The project has since adopted a public development mailing list and anonymous CVS access. Development took place in a single CVS trunk until 2008 and today uses the Bazaar DVCS.
Richard Stallman has remained the principal maintainer of GNU Emacs, but he has stepped back from the role at times. Stefan Monnier and Chong Yidong have overseen maintenance since 2008.
The terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) state that the Emacs source code, including both the C and Emacs Lisp components, are freely available for examination, modification, and redistribution.
For GNU Emacs, like many other GNU packages, it remains policy to accept significant code contributions only if the copyright holder executes a suitable disclaimer or assignment of their copyright interest to the Free Software Foundation. Bug fixes and minor code contributions of fewer than 10 lines are exempt. This policy is in place so that the FSF can defend the software in court if its copyleft license is violated.
Older versions of the GNU Emacs documentation appeared under an ad-hoc license that required the inclusion of certain text in any modified copy. In the GNU Emacs user's manual, for example, this included instructions for obtaining GNU Emacs and Richard Stallman's essay The GNU Manifesto. The XEmacs manuals, which were inherited from older GNU Emacs manuals when the fork occurred, have the same license. Newer versions of the documentation use the GNU Free Documentation License with "invariant sections" that require the inclusion of the same documents and that the manuals proclaim themselves as GNU Manuals.
Using GNU Emacs
In its normal editing mode, GNU Emacs behaves like other text editors and allows the user to insert characters with the corresponding keys and to move the editing point with the arrow keys. Pressing the control key and/or the meta key/alt key/Escape key in conjunction with a regular key produces modified keystrokes that invoke functions from the Emacs Lisp environment. Commands such as
save-buffers-kill-emacs combine multiple modified keystrokes.
Some GNU Emacs commands work by invoking an external program, such as ispell for spell-checking or gcc for program compilation, parsing the program's output, and displaying the result in GNU Emacs. Users who prefer IBM Common User Access-style keys can use "cua-mode," a package that originally was a third-party add-on but has been included in GNU Emacs since version 22.
Emacs uses the "minibuffer," normally the bottommost line, to present status and request information. The minibuffer holds information such as text to target in a search or the name of a file to read or save. When applicable, command line completion is available using the tab and space keys.
File management and display
Emacs keeps text in buffers. The user can create new buffers and dismiss unwanted ones, and several buffers can exist at the same time. Most contain text loaded from text files, which the user can edit and save back to permanent storage. Buffers also serve to store temporary text, such as the documentation strings displayed by the "help" library and notification messages that in other editors would be displayed in a dialog box.
Emacs can split the editing area into separate sections called "windows," a feature that has been available since 1975, predating the graphical user interface in common use. "Windows" in Emacs are similar to what other systems call "frames" or "panes" - a rectangular portion of the program's display that can be updated and interacted with independently. Emacs windows are available both in text-terminal and graphical modes and allow more than one buffer, or several parts of a buffer, to be displayed at once. A common application is to display the source code of a program in one window while another displays the results of compiling the program or simply to display multiple files for editing at once. Emacs windows are tiled and cannot appear "above" or "below" its companions. In graphical environments, Emacs can launch multiple graphical-environment windows, known in the context of Emacs as "frames".
GNU Emacs can edit a variety of different types of text and adapts its behavior by entering add-on modes called "major modes." Defined major modes exist for many different file types including ordinary text files, the source code of many programming languages, HTML documents, and TeX and LaTeX documents. Each major mode involves an Emacs Lisp program that extends the editor to behave more conveniently for the specified type of text. Major modes typically provide some or all of the following common features:
- Syntax highlighting ("font lock"): combinations of fonts and colors, termed "faces," that differentiate between document elements such as keywords and comments.
- Automatic indentation to maintain consistent formatting within a file.
- The automatic insertion of elements required by the structure of the document, such as spaces, newlines, and parentheses.
- Special editing commands, such as commands to jump to the beginning or the end of a function while editing a programming file or commands to validate documents or insert closing tags while working with markup languages such as XML.
The use of "minor modes" enables further customization. A GNU Emacs editing buffer can use only one major mode at a time, but multiple minor modes can operate simultaneously. These may operate directly on documents, as in the way the major mode for the C programming language defines a separate minor mode for each of its popular indent styles, or they may alter the editing environment. Examples of the latter include a mode that adds the ability to undo changes to the window configuration and one that performs on-the-fly syntax checking. There is also a minor mode that allows multiple major modes to be used in a single file, as required when editing a document in which multiple programming languages are embedded.
Apart from the built-in documentation, GNU Emacs has an unusually long and detailed manual. An electronic copy of the GNU Emacs Manual, written by Richard Stallman, is bundled with GNU Emacs and can be viewed with the built-in info browser. Two additional manuals, the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual by Bil Lewis, Richard Stallman, and Dan Laliberte and An Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp by Robert Chassell, are included. All three manuals are also published in book form by the Free Software Foundation. The XEmacs manual is similar to the GNU Emacs Manual, from which it forked at the same time that the XEmacs software forked from GNU Emacs.
GNU Emacs has support for many alphabets, scripts, writing systems, and cultural conventions and provides spell-checking for many languages by calling external programs such as ispell. Version 24 added support for bidirectional text and left-to-right and right-to-left writing direction for languages such as Arabic, Persian and Hebrew.
Many encoding systems, including UTF-8, are supported. GNU Emacs uses UTF-8 for its encoding as of GNU 23, while prior versions used their own encoding internally and performed conversion upon load and save. The internal encoding used by XEmacs is similar to that of GNU Emacs but differs in details.
The GNU Emacs user interface originated in English and, with the exception of the beginners' tutorial, has not been translated into any other language.
A subsystem called Emacspeak enables visually impaired and blind users to use the editor through audio feedback.
The behavior of GNU Emacs can be modified and extended almost without limit by running Emacs Lisp scripts to define new commands, new buffer modes, new keymaps, and so on. Many extensions providing user-facing functionality define a major mode (either for a new file type or to build a non-text-editing user interface); others define only commands or minor modes, or modify another extension.
Many extensions are bundled with the GNU Emacs installation; others used to be downloaded as loose files (the Usenet newsgroup gnu.emacs.sources was a traditional source) but there has been a development of managed packages and package download sites since version 24, with a built-in package manager (itself an extension) to download and install them.
A few examples include:
- AUCTeX, tools to edit and process TeX and LaTeX documents
- Calc, a powerful RPN numerical calculator
- Calendar-mode, for keeping appointment calendars and diaries
- dired, a file manager
- Dissociated Press, a Racter-like text generator.
- Dunnet, a text adventure
- Ediff and Emerge, for comparing and combining files interactively.
- Emacs/W3, a web browser
- ERC and rcirc and Circe, IRC clients
- Emacs Speaks Statistics(ESS) modes for editing statistical languages like R and SAS
- Gnus, a full-featured newsreader and email client and early evidence for Zawinski's Law
- MULE (MultiLingual extensions to Emacs) allows the editing of text written in multiple languages in a manner somewhat analogous to Unicode
- Org-mode for keeping notes, maintaining various types of lists, planning and measuring projects, and for composing documents in many formats. (Such as PDF, HTML, or OpenDocument formats.)
- Info, an online help-browser
- Planner, a personal information manager
- SES, a spreadsheet
- SLIME extends GNU Emacs into a development environment for Common Lisp. With SLIME (written in Emacs Lisp) the GNU Emacs editor communicates with a Common Lisp system (using the SWANK backend) over a special communication protocol and provides such tools as a read–eval–print loop, a data inspector and a debugger.
- Viper, a vi emulation layer; also, Evil, a Vim emulation layer
- VM (View Mail), another full-featured email client
- Wanderlust, a versatile email and news client
- Mediawiki-mode for editing pages on MediaWiki projects.
GNU Emacs often ran noticeably slower than rival text editors on the systems in which it was first implemented, because the loading and interpreting of its Lisp-based code incurs a performance overhead. Modern computers are powerful enough to run GNU Emacs without trouble in most cases, but it remains a poor choice for very large files.
GNU Emacs has become one of the most-ported non-trivial computer programs and runs on a wide variety of operating systems, including DOS, Microsoft Windows and OpenVMS. It is available for most Unix-like operating systems, such as Linux, the various BSDs, Solaris, AIX, HP-UX, IRIX and Mac OS X, and is often included with their system installation packages. Native ports of GNU Emacs exist for Android[better source needed] and Nokia's Maemo.[better source needed]
GNU Emacs runs both on text terminals and in graphical user interface (GUI) environments. On Unix-like operating systems, GNU Emacs uses the X Window System to produce its GUI either directly or by using a "widget toolkit" such as Motif, LessTif, or GTK+. GNU Emacs can also use the graphics systems native to Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows to provide menubars, toolbars, scrollbars and context menus.
Lucid Emacs, based on an early alpha version of GNU Emacs 19, was developed beginning in 1991 by Jamie Zawinski and others at Lucid Inc. One of the best-known early forks in free software development occurred when the codebases of the two Emacs versions diverged and the separate development teams ceased efforts to merge them back into a single program. Lucid Emacs has since been renamed XEmacs and remains the second most popular variety of Emacs, after GNU Emacs. XEmacs development has slowed, with the most recent stable version 21.4.22 released in January 2009, while GNU Emacs has implemented many formerly XEmacs-only features. This has led some users to proclaim XEmacs' death.
Other forks, less known than XEmacs, include:
- Meadow - a Japanese version for Microsoft Windows
- SXEmacs - Steve Youngs' fork of XEmacs
- Aquamacs - a version which focuses on integrating with the Apple Macintosh user interface
|Version||Release date||Significant changes|
|24.3||March 10, 2013||Generalized variables are now in core Emacs Lisp, an update for the Common Lisp emulation library, and a new major mode for Python.|
|24.2||August 27, 2012||Bugfix release|
|24.1||June 10, 2012||Emacs Lisp Package Archive, support for native color themes, optional GTK+3, support for bi-directional input, support for lexical scoping in emacs lisp|
|23.4||January 29, 2012||Fixes a security flaw.|
|23.3||March 10, 2011||Improved functionality for using Emacs with version control systems.|
|23.1||July 29, 2009||Support for anti-aliased fonts on X through Xft, better Unicode support, Doc-view mode and new packages for viewing PDF and PostScript files, connection to processes through D-Bus (dbus), connection to the GNU Privacy Guard (EasyPG), nXML mode for editing XML documents, Ruby mode for editing Ruby programs, and more. Use of the Carbon GUI libraries on Mac OS X was replaced by use of the more modern Cocoa GUI libraries.|
|22.3||September 5, 2008||GTK+ toolkit support, enhanced mouse support, a new keyboard macro system, improved Unicode support, and drag-and-drop operation on X. Many new modes and packages including a graphical user interface to GDB, Python mode, the mathematical tool Calc, and the remote file editing system Tramp ("Transparent Remote (file) Access, Multiple Protocol").|
|22.2||March 26, 2008||New support for the Bazaar, Mercurial, Monotone, and Git version control systems. New major modes for editing CSS, Vera, Verilog, and BibTeX style files. Improved scrolling support in Image mode.|
|22.1||June 2, 2007||Support for the GTK+ graphical toolkit, support for drag-and-drop on X, support for the Mac OS X Carbon UI, org-mode version 4.67d included|
|21.1||October 20, 2001||Support for displaying colors and some other attributes on terminals, built-in horizontal scrolling, sound support, wheel mouse support, improved menu-bar layout, support for images, toolbar, and tooltips, Unicode support|
|20.1||September 17, 1997||Multi-lingual support|
|19.34||August 22, 1996||font-lock mode|
|19.28||November 1, 1994||Support for multiple frames using the X Windowing System; VC, a new interface for version control systems, hexl mode for hexadecimal editing.|
|18.24||October 2, 1986|
|17.36||December 20, 1985||Backup file version numbers|
|16.56||July 15, 1985|
|15.10||April 11, 1985|
|13.0?||March 20, 1985|
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