Diet of Galicia and Lodomeria

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This article is about the regional assembly of Galicia and Lodomeria. For the preceding body, see Estates of Galicia. For the parliament of the Spanish region, see Parliament of Galicia.
Diet of Galicia and Lodomeria
  • Polish: Sejm Krajowy
  • Ukrainian: Галицький Крайовий Сейм
  • German: Landtag von Galizien
Wappen Königreich Galizien & Lodomerien.png
Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
Type
Type
History
Founded 1861
Disbanded 1918
Preceded by Estates of Galicia
Succeeded by Sejm of the Second Polish Republic
Leadership
Charles I (1916–1918)
Seats 161 (150 until 1900)
Elections
Last election
1913
Meeting place
Diet Building
Lemberg (Polish: Lwów; Ukrainian: Lviv)

The Diet of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and of the Grand Duchy of Cracow was the regional assembly of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, a crown land of the Austrian Empire, and later Austria-Hungary.[1][2] In the history of the Polish parliaments, it is considered the successor of the former sejm walny, or general sejm of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and also of the sejmik, or local councils, in the territories of the Austrian Partition. It existed from 1861 until the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918.

Name[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Diet (assembly).

The multi-ethnic nature of the Kingdom resulted in the diet having multiple different names:

  • In German, the lingua franca of Cisleithania, it was called Landtag von Galizien und Lodomerien, meaning 'Diet of Galicia and Lodomeria'.[3]
  • In Polish, it was called either Sejm krajowy, meaning 'Sejm of the Land', or sejm lwowski, meaning 'Lwów Sejm'.[4][5][6]
  • In Ukrainian, it was called Га́лицький крайови́й сейм, transcribed Hálytsʹkyy krayovýy seym, meaning 'Sejm of Galicia'.

Landtag is a German word that means 'regional assembly', or 'diet'. In Polish, the word used is Sejm. Ruthenians also used the Polish word 'sejm', instead of the Ukrainian language equivalent rada.

History[edit]

Old seat of the Diet, from 1861–1880

Parts of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Lesser Poland territories were included in the Austrian partition as early as the First Partition of Poland in 1772.[7] From about 1775 to 1848, with several gaps, the crown land of Galicia had a relatively powerless parliamentary body, known originally as the Postulate Sejm (Polish: sejm postulatowy), and from 1817, as Estates of Galicia (Polish: stany galicyjskie).[8] The Diet of Galicia and Lodomeria, which was formed in 1861 following the promulgation of the October Diploma by Emperor Franz Joseph I, had more real power than its predecessors.[9] In Polish parliamentary tradition, it is considered to have continued the history of the general sejm and regional sejmiks on the lands of Lesser Poland and Ruthenia.[4][10]

The Diet was initially dominated by Polish nobles, but in time, it saw the emergence of a strong peasant faction.[11][12] Another notable change over time included the emergence of a Ruthenian (modern Ukrainian) bloc, changing the balance of power within the body.[11][12] Overall, the Diet preserved the Polish parliamentary tradition during a time in which it waned in the Prussian Partition and the Russian Partition, and saw the emergence of the major political parties and groupings that were to dominate the political life of the Second Polish Republic after World War I.[4][11][12] The leader of the Polish peasant movement in the Second Polish Republic, Wincenty Witos, gained his experience in the Diet, elected for the first time in 1908.[13] Similarly, the National Democrats, and the Polish socialists, had their political blocs in the diet around that time.[13]

Composition and organization[edit]

The seat of the Diet of Galicia from 1881–1918. It is now owned by Lviv University.

Deputies to the Diet represented districts in the Cisleithanian crown land of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria.[10][14] The Diet was unicameral, and numbered 150 deputies, all but nine elected by different social classes.[10][15] In 1861, grand landowners had 52 electors, and the right to elect 44 deputies; the Chambers of Commerce of Lemberg (Lwów, Lviv), Kraków and Brody had 39 electors and elected 3 deputies; townsmen (with property requirements) had 2264 electors, and the right to elect 20 deputies, and finally, rural (small) landowners had 8764 electors, and the right to elect 74 deputies.[10][16] Further reforms added a fifth group, with the right to elect 20 deputies.[10] Nine deputies sat ex officio: 2 chancellors of universities, and 7 archbishops and bishops.[10] The initial 9 were composed of 3 Greek-Catholic, 3 Roman Catholic, and one Arminian-Catholic priets, and representatives of the Lwów University and Kraków University; later three seats were added: one to Roman Catholic representative, one for the Lwów Polytechnical University and one for the Kraków Academy of Learning. From 1901, the Diet numbered 161 deputies; 10 of them sitting ex officio.[10][17]

The elections were not held on a regular schedule; they occurred usually every five to six years, upon Emperor's decree.[11] Thus the deputies' term of office lasted about six years.[18] The Diet had ten elections: 1861, 1867, 1870, 1877, 1883, 1889, 1889, 1895, 1901, 1908, and the final one, in 1913.[10]

At first, the deputies met in the Skarbek Theatre (today Maria Zankovetska National Academic Ukrainian Drama Theater). From 1881, the Diet met in a newly constructed building designed by architect Juliusz Hochberger and with a program of architectural sculpture by Teodor Rygier. The building is now owned by the University of Lviv.[10]

Competences[edit]

In the period of 1861 to 1873, the Diet elected 38 representatives from among its deputies to be sent to the Imperial Council of Cisleithania.[11]

The Diet had legislative powers. The legislative initiative was possessed by the Emperor, along with the Diet executive (six deputies and the Marshal), and all individual deputies.[17][18] It could debate and pass laws related to many issues in the field of education, culture, welfare, justice, public works, administration, religion and military.[17][18] It could also impose supplementary taxes, up to 10% of the direct tax.[18]

Marshal and Vice-Marshal[edit]

The position of 'Marshal' was equivalent to the position of 'Speaker' in Westminster-style parliaments. The Marshal was considered the presiding officer of the Diet.

Notable members[edit]

Notable members of the Diet of Galicia and Lodomeria include:[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Prince Leon Sapieha (to Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust). "Letter on Galician Autonomy, 1868". Baron Henry de Worms, The Austro-Hungarian Empire: A Political Sketch of Men and Events Since 1866 (London: Chapman and Hall, 1877), pp.278-282. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  2. ^ Henry de Worms, Baron Pirbright (1877). The Austro-Hungarian Empire: A Political Sketch of Men and Events Since 1866. Chapman and Hall. pp. 278–79. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  3. ^ Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria (1891). Die Österreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild: Galizien. Vienna: K.K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei. OCLC 462000518. 
  4. ^ a b c Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  5. ^ Bronisław Łoziński (1905). Galicyjski sejm stanowy, 1817-1845. Ksiȩg. H. Altenberga. p. 23. Retrieved 1 November 2012. 
  6. ^ Stanisław Grodziski (1993). Sejm Krajowy galicyjski: 1861-1914. Wydawn. Sejmowe. p. 54. ISBN 978-83-7059-052-9. Retrieved 1 November 2012. 
  7. ^ Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  8. ^ Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  9. ^ John Dalberg-Acton, Baron Acton (1910). The Cambridge Modern History. The Macmillan Company. OCLC 487943. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  12. ^ a b c Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  13. ^ a b Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  14. ^ Chrisholm, Hugh (1911). The Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. University Press. 
  15. ^ Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. p. 258. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  16. ^ Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. p. 251. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  17. ^ a b c Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  18. ^ a b c d Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  19. ^ Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. pp. 260–265. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 

External links[edit]