Gediminids

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Gediminids
(Gediminaičiai, Giedyminowicze, Гедзімінавічы, Гедиміновичі, Гедиминовичи)
COA of Gediminaičiai dynasty Lithuania.svg
The Columns of Gediminas, symbol of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Gediminids coat of arms
Country Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Titles Grand Dukes of Lithuania
Founded 1315 or 1316
Founder Gediminas
Final ruler Žygimantas Augustas
Dissolution 1569

The Gediminids (Lithuanian: Gediminaičiai, Polish: Giedyminowicze, Belarusian: Гедзімінавічы, Ukrainian: Гедиміновичі, Russian: Гедиминовичи) were a dynasty of monarchs in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that reigned from the 14th to the 16th century. One branch of this dynasty, known as the Jagiellons, reigned also in the Kingdom of Poland, Kingdom of Hungary and Kingdom of Bohemia. Several other branches ranked among the leading aristocratic dynasties of Russia and Poland into recent times.

Their monarchical title in Lithuanian primarily was, by some folkloristic data, kunigų kunigas ("Duke of Dukes"), and later on, didysis kunigas ("Great/High Duke") or, in a simple manner, kunigaikštis. In the 18th century the latter form was changed into tautological didysis kunigaikštis, which nevertheless would be translated as "Grand Duke" (for its etymology, see Grand Prince).

Origin[edit]

The origin of Gediminas himself is much debated. Some sources say he was Vytenis' ostler, others that he was of peasant stock. Some historians consider him as the son or grandson of Lithuanian or Yatvingian duke Skalmantas. Most scholars agree, however, that Gediminas was Vytenis' brother (the parentage of Vytenis is explained differently in various fake genealogies, compiled from the 16th century onwards; according to the latest Polish research, his parentage cannot be established.[1]

Confirmed Gediminid Rulers[edit]

Branches of the dynasty[edit]

The Gediminid symbol in Rambynas Hill, Lithuania

The Eastern Orthodox branches of the family were mostly Ruthenian, which also was one of the two main languages of their established state. Some of these families (e.g., Czartoryski) later converted to Roman Catholicism and became thoroughly Polonized. Others (e.g., Galitzine) moved to Muscovy and became thoroughly Russified.

In Poland, most Gediminid families (such as Olelkowicz-Słucki, Wiśniowiecki, Zbaraski) are extinct, but at least some families survive to the present: Korecki, Khovanski, Czartoryski, Sanguszko, and Koriatowicz-Kurcewicz.

The Russian Gediminid families include Bulgakov, Golitsin, Kurakin, Khovansky, Trubetskoy, Mstislavsky, Belsky, and Volynsky.

Gediminid descendants[edit]

I. The descendants of Narimantas:

  1. Dukes of Pinsky (nobility)[ru] (faded at the end of the 15th century)
    1. Dukes of Kurcewicze[pl]
      1. Dukes of Buremscy[pl]
  2. Dukes of Patrikeyev[ru]
    1. Dukes of Bulgakov (nobility)[ru]
      1. Dukes of Golitsyn
      2. Dukes of Kurakin
    2. Dukes of Schentyatev (nobility)[ru]
    3. Dukes of Khovansky (nobility)[ru]
  3. Dukes of Korecki
    1. Dukes of Ruzhinsky (nobility)[ru]

II. The descendants of Algirdas:

  1. Duke Andrei of Polotsk
    1. Dukes of Polubinsky (nobility)[ru]
    2. Dukes of Lukomsky (nobility)[ru]
  2. Dmitrijus Algirdaitis
    1. Dukes of Trubetskoy (Trubchevsk)
  3. Konstantinas Algirdaitis[ru]
    1. Dukes of Czartoryski
  4. Vladimiras Algirdaitis
    1. Olelkaičiai (descendents of Aleksandras Olelka[ru])
      1. Dukes of Slutsky (nobility)[ru] (faded at the end of the 16th century)
    2. Dukes of Belsky
  5. The descendants of Kaributas
    1. Dukes of Zbarazhsky (nobility)[ru]
      1. Dukes of Wiśniowiecki
      2. Dukes of Voronetsky (nobility)[ru]
      3. Dukes of Nesvisky[pl]
      4. Dukes of Porytskie (nobility)[ru]
  6. The descendants of Fiodoras Algirdaitis[ru]
    1. Dukes of Hurkowicze (nobility)[pl]
    2. Dukes of Kobryn
    3. Dukes of Sanguszko
  7. Jagiellonians
  8. The descendants of Lengvenis
    1. Dukes of Mstislavsky

III. The descendants of Kęstutis (faded in the second half of the 15th century)

IV. The descendants of Jaunutis:

    1. Dukes of Zaslavsky
      1. Dukes of Mstislavsky

V. The descendants of Liubartas (faded in the first half of the 15th century)

VI. Koriatowicz[uk], descended from Karijotas

  1. Dukes of Podilskyi (nobility)
  2. Dukes of Volynsky (nobility)[ru]

Family tree[edit]

Butegeidis
(? – c. 1292)
G. Duke of Lith., c. 1285 – c. 1292
 
 
 
 
Budvydas-Pukuveras
(? – c. 1296)
G. Duke of Lith., c. 1292 – c. 1296
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vytenis
(? – 1316)
G. Duke of Lith., c. 1296–1316
 
Gediminas
(c. 1275–1341)
G. Duke of Lith., 1316–1341
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jaunutis
(?)
G. Duke of Lith., 1341–1345
 
Algirdas
(c. 1296–1377)
G. Duke of Lith., 1345–1377
 
Kęstutis
(1297–1382)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ladislaus (Jogaila)
(c. 1351–1434)
G. Duke of Lith., 1377–1401
King of Poland, 1386–1434
 
Švitrigaila
(c. 1370–1452)
G. Duke of Lith., 1430–1432
 
Vytautas
(1352–1430)
G. Duke of Lith., 1401–1430
 
Žygimantas Kęstutaitis
(? – 1440)
G. Duke of Lith., 1432–1440
 
 
 
 
Jagiellon branch
(Jogailaičiai)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jan Tęgowski, "Pierwsze pokolenia Gedyminowiczów", 1999

External links[edit]