Brown rice

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Brown rice
Brownrice.jpg
Chinese name
Chinese 糙米
Literal meaning rough rice
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabet gạo lứt
Thai name
Thai ข้าวกล้อง
Korean name
Hangul 현미
Hanja 玄米
Japanese name
Kanji 玄米
Filipino name
Tagalog pináwa
Rice, brown, long-grain, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,548 kJ (370 kcal)
77.24 g
Sugars 0.85 g
Dietary fiber 3.52 g
2.92 g
7.85 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(35%)
0.401 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(8%)
0.093 mg
Niacin (B3)
(34%)
5.091 mg
(30%)
1.493 mg
Vitamin B6
(39%)
0.509 mg
Folate (B9)
(5%)
20 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(2%)
23 mg
Iron
(11%)
1.47 mg
Magnesium
(40%)
143 mg
Manganese
(178%)
3.743 mg
Phosphorus
(48%)
333 mg
Potassium
(5%)
223 mg
Sodium
(0%)
7 mg
Zinc
(21%)
2.02 mg
Other constituents
Water 10.37 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Brown rice (or "hulled" or "unmilled" rice) is whole grain rice. It has a mild, nutty flavor, and is chewier and more nutritious than white rice, but goes rancid more quickly because the bran and germ—which are removed to make white rice—contain fats that can spoil.[1] Any rice, including long-grain, short-grain, or sticky rice, may be eaten as brown rice.

White rice comparison[edit]

Brown rice and white rice have similar amounts of calories and carbohydrates. The main differences between the two forms of rice lie in processing and nutritional content.

When only the outermost layer of a grain of rice (the husk) is removed, brown rice is produced. To produce white rice, the next layers underneath the husk (the bran layer and the germ) are removed, leaving mostly the starchy endosperm.

Several vitamins and dietary minerals are lost in this removal and the subsequent polishing process. A part of these missing nutrients, such as vitamin B1, vitamin B3, and iron are sometimes added back into the white rice making it "enriched", as food suppliers in the US are required to do by the Food and Drug Administration.[2][not in citation given]

One mineral not added back into white rice is magnesium; one cup (195 g) of cooked long grain brown rice contains 84 mg of magnesium while one cup of white rice contains 19 mg.

When the bran layer is removed to make white rice, the oil in the bran is also removed. Rice bran oil may help lower LDL cholesterol.[3]

Among other key sources of nutrition lost are dietary fiber and small amounts of fatty acids.

Preparation[edit]

A nutritionally superior method of preparation using GABA rice or germinated brown rice (GBR) (also known as Hatsuga genmai in Japan), developed during the International Year of Rice, may be used.[4] This involves soaking washed brown rice for 20 hours in warm water (34 °C or 93 °F) prior to cooking it. This process stimulates germination, which activates various enzymes in the rice. By this method, it is possible to obtain a more complete amino acid profile, including GABA.

Storage[edit]

Brown rice has a shelf life of approximately 6 months,[5] but hermetic storage, refrigeration or freezing can significantly extend its lifetime. Freezing, even periodically, can also help control infestations of Indian meal moths.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Brown rice". WHFoods. Retrieved 2012-05-17. 
  2. ^ "Enriched rice". Edocket.access.gpo.gov. Retrieved 2012-05-17. 
  3. ^ Most, Marlene M; T; M; L (2005). "Rice bran oil, not fiber, lowers cholesterol in humans". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81 (1): 64–8. PMID 15640461. Retrieved 2008-02-11. 
  4. ^ Ito, Shoichi and Ishikawa, Yukihiro (2004-02-12). "Marketing of Value-Add Rice Products in Japan: Germinated Brown Rice and Rice Bread". Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  5. ^ "Storage". Usarice.com. Retrieved 2012-05-17. 

External links[edit]