Gothic Line order of battle

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Gothic Line order of battle is a listing of the significant formations that were involved in Operation Olive, the Allied offensive on the Gothic Line in northern Italy, August–September 1944, and in the subsequent fighting in the central Apennine mountains and on the plains of eastern Emilia–Romagna up to April 1945.

Allied Forces Headquarters Mediterranean[edit]

Supreme Allied Commander Mediterranean:

General Sir Henry Maitland Wilson (until 12 December 1944)
Field Marshal Sir Harold Alexander (from 12 December 1944)

Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Mediterranean:

Lieutenant General Jacob L. Devers (until September 1944)
Lieutenant General Joseph T. McNarney (from September 1944)

Chief of Staff

Lieutenant-General Sir James Gammell (to 12 December 1944)
Lieutenant-General Sir John Harding (from 12 December 1944 to 6 March 1945[1])
Lieutenant-General William Morgan (from 6 March 1945)[1]

Allied Armies in Italy (until 12 December 1944)[edit]

Commander-in-Chief: General Sir Harold Alexander
Chief of Staff: Lieutenant-General Sir John Harding

Allied 15th Army Group (from 12 December 1944)[edit]

Commander: Lieutenant General Mark Wayne Clark (promoted to full general 10 March 1945)
Chief of Staff: Major General Alfred M. Gruenther

U.S. Fifth Army[edit]

Commander:

Lieutenant General Mark Wayne Clark (until 16 December 1944)
Lieutenant General Lucian K. Truscott (from 16 December 1944)
U.S. II Corps[edit]
Major General Geoffrey Keyes
U.S. IV Corps[edit]
Major General Willis D. Crittenberger

* Order of entry into battle

British XIII Corps (transferred to British 8th Army in January 1945)[edit]
Lieutenant-General Sidney Kirkman (until 25 January 1945)
Lieutenant-General Sir John Harding (from 25 January 1945)
Independent units under Army HQ[edit]

British 8th Army[edit]

Commander:

Lieutenant-General Sir Oliver Leese (until 1 October 1944)
Lieutenant-General Sir Richard McCreery (from 1 October 1944)
British V Corps[edit]
Lieutenant-General Charles Keightley
British X Corps (until December 1944 and from February 1945)[edit]
Lieutenant-General Sir Richard McCreery (until 6 November 1944)
Lieutenant-General John Hawkesworth (from 6 November 1944)
British XIII Corps (transferred from U.S. 5th Army January 1945)[edit]

see listing above under U.S. 5th Army)

Canadian I Corps (until February 1945)[edit]
Lieutenant-General E. L. M. Burns (until 10 November 1944)
Lieutenant-General C. Foulkes (from 10 November 1944)
Polish II Corps[edit]
Lieutenant-General Władysław Anders
Other Units[edit]

German Army Group C[edit]

Commander:

Field Marshal Albert Kesselring (until 25 October 1944, from January 1945 until 9 March 1945)
General Heinrich von Vietinghoff (from 25 October 1944 until January 1945 and from 9 March 1945)

German Tenth Army[edit]

Commander:

General Heinrich von Vietinghoff (until 25 October 1944)
Lieutenant-General Joachim Lemelsen (from 25 October 1944 to 15 February 1945)
Lieutenant-General Traugott Herr (from 15 February 1945)

German LXXVI Panzer Corps[edit]

Lieutenant-General Traugott Herr (until 26 December 1944)
Lieutenant-General Graff Gerhard von Schwerin (from 26 December 1944 to 25 April 1945)
Major-General Karl von Graffen (from 25 April 1945)

German LI Mountain Corps[edit]

Lieutenant-General Valentin Feurstein until March 1945 and then Lieutenant-General Friedrich-Wilhelm Hauck

German Fourteenth Army[edit]

Commander:
Lieutenant-General Joachim Lemelsen (to 24 October 1944 and from 17 February 1945)
Lieutenant-General Frido von Senger und Etterlin (October 1944)
Lieutenant-General Heinz Ziegler (24 October to 22 November 1944)
Lieutenant-General Traugott Herr (22 November to 12 December 1944)
Lieutenant-General Kurt von Tippelskirch (from 12 December 1944 to 16 February 1945)

German I Parachute Corps[edit]

Lieutenant-General Alfred Schlemm (to 30 September 1944)
Lieutenant-General Richard Heidrich (from 1 November 1944 to 23 January 1945)
Major-General Hellmuth Böhlke (from 23 January 1945 to 7 February 1945)
Lieutenant-General Richard Heidrich (from 7 February 1945)

German XIV Panzer Corps[edit]

Lieutenant-General Frido von Senger und Etterlin

Army Group Liguria[edit]

Commander: General Alfredo Guzzoni

Army Reserve[edit]

Independent Units[edit]

German LXXV Corps (Italian-French border)[edit]

Lieutenant-General Hans Schlemmer

Adriatic Coast Command[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jackson (1988), p. 196.
  2. ^ Jackson (1987), p. 225.

References[edit]

  • Blaxland, Gregory (1979). Alexander's Generals (the Italian Campaign 1944-1945). London: William Kimber & Co. ISBN 0-7183-0386-5. 
  • Carver, Field Marshal Lord (2001). The Imperial War Museum Book of the War in Italy 1943-1945. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. ISBN 0-330-48230-0. 
  • Houterman, Hans; Koppes, Jeroen. "World War II unit histories and officers". Retrieved 2007-07-23. 
  • Jackson, General Sir William & Gleave, Group Captain T.P. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO:1987]. Butler, Sir James, ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume VI: Victory in the Mediterranean, Part 2 - June to October 1944. History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84574-071-8. 
  • Jackson, General Sir William & Gleave, Group Captain T.P. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO:1988]. Butler, Sir James, ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume VI: Victory in the Mediterranean, Part 3 - November 1944 to May 1945. History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84574-072-6. 
  • "Orders of Battle.com". Retrieved 2007-07-23. 
  • "ALLIED ORDER OF BATTLE". Retrieved 2011-07-03. 
  • "GERMAN ORDER OF BATTLE". Retrieved 2011-07-03. 
  • Montemaggi, Amedeo (2002). LINEA GOTICA 1944. La battaglia di Rimini e lo sbarco in Grecia decisivi per l'Europa sud-orientale e il Mediterraneo. Rimini: Museo dell'Aviazione. 
  • Montemaggi, Amedeo (2006). LINEA GOTICA 1944: scontro di civiltà. Rimini: Museo dell'Aviazione. 
  • Montemaggi, Amedeo (2008). CLAUSEWITZ SULLA LINEA GOTICA. Imola: Angelini Editore. 
  • Montemaggi, Amedeo (2010). ITINERARI DELLA LINEA GOTICA 1944. Guida storico iconografica ai campi di battaglia. Rimini: Museo dell'Aviazione. 
  • Orgill, Douglas (1967). The Gothic Line (The Autumn Campaign in Italy 1944). London: Heinemann. 
  • Wendell, Marcus. "Axis History Factbook: German army order of battle". Retrieved 2007-07-23.