34th Infantry Division (United States)
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (April 2009)|
|34th "Red Bull" Infantry Division|
34th Infantry Division shoulder sleeve insignia (SSI)
|Active||August 1917 – 1963, 1991 – present|
|Country||United States of America|
|Size||approx 15,000 Soldiers|
|Motto||"Attack, Attack, Attack!"|
|Engagements||World War II
|MG David Elicerio |
|Charles W. Ryder
Charles L. Bolte
Richard C. Nash
Charles D. Rhodes
|Distinctive Unit Insignia|
|US infantry divisions (1939–present)|
|33rd Infantry Division (Inactive)||35th Infantry Division|
The 34th Infantry Division is a division in the Army National Guard that participated in World War I and World War II. It holds the distinction of being the first U.S. division deployed to Europe in World War II. The division was deactivated in 1945, and the 47th "Viking" Infantry Division later created in the division's former area. In 1991 the 47th Division was redesignated the 34th. Since 2001 division soldiers have served on homeland security duties in the continental United States, in Afghanistan, and in Iraq. The 34th has also been deployed to support peacekeeping efforts in the former Yugoslavia and elsewhere.
The division continues to serve today, with most of the Division part of the Minnesota and Iowa National Guard. In 2011, it was staffed by roughly 6,500 soldiers from the Minnesota National Guard, 2,900 from the Iowa Guard, about 300 from the Nebraska Guard, and about 100 from other states.
World War I
The division was established as the 34th Division of the National Guard in August 1917, consisting of units from North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, and Minnesota. On 25 August 1917 it was placed under the command of Maj. Gen. A. P. Blacksom, who was succeeded by Brig. Gen. F. G. Mauldin briefly on 18 September 1917 but was back in command by 10 December 1917.
The division takes its name from the shoulder sleeve insignia designed for a 1917 training camp contest by American regionalist artist Marvin Cone, who was then a soldier enlisted in the unit. Cone's design evoked the desert training grounds of Camp Cody, New Mexico, by superimposing a red steer skull over a black Mexican water jug called an "olla." In World War I, the unit was called the "Sandstorm Division." German troops in World War II, however, called the U.S. division's soldiers "Red Devils" and "Red Bulls," the division later officially adopted the nickname Red Bulls.
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On 8 May 1918 Brig. Gen. F. G. Mauldin took command. The 34th Division arrived in France in October 1918 but it was too late for the division to be sent to the front, as the end of hostilities was ending, an armistice was signed the following month. Brig. Gen. John A. Johnston took command 26 October 1918, and some personnel were sent to other units to support their final operations. The 34th returned to the U.S. and was inactivated in December 1918.
Between the world wars
On 17 January 1921, the 109th Observation Squadron was federally recognized as the first aviation unit in the Minnesota National Guard. The squadron was assigned as a divisional observation unit for the 34th Division, at that time recruiting from Minnesota, Iowa, South Dakota, and North Dakota. The 34th was reorganized as the 1st Infantry Regiment, Minnesota National Guard on 31 January 1920.
On 16 May 1934, the truck driver's union initiated a strike (Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934), which quickly degenerated into open violence in the streets of Minneapolis. Minnesota Governor Floyd B. Olson activated the National Guard, and 4,000 Guardsmen to suppress the chaos. Utilizing roving patrols, curfews, and security details, the 34th quickly restored order, thus enabling negotiated settlement of the labor dispute.
On 18 June 1939, a tornado hit Anoka, Minnesota, and Governor Harold E. Stassen called on the Guard again. 300 Guardsmen patrolled the streets and imposed a quasi-martial law while the community was stabilized.
Prelude to World War II
The expanding war in Europe threatened to draw a reluctant United States into the conflict. As the potential of U.S. involvement became more evident, the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt still hoped to avoid war, while military leaders needed to prepare to fight.
A review of existing legislation, including the National Defense Act of 1916 and its amendments, indicated that new legislation was needed to ensure effective integration of the National Guard into the regular Army, draft and selective service regulations, and related matters.
While legislative review was in motion, initial steps were taken to prepare troops what for lay ahead through "precautionary training." The 34th Infantry Division was deemed one of the most service-ready units, and Ellard A. Walsh was promoted to Major General in June, 1940 and placed in command.
The 34th was subsequently activated on 10 February 1941, with troops from North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Iowa. The division was transported by rail and truck convoys to the newly constructed Camp Claiborne in Rapides Parish, Louisiana near Alexandria.
The soldiers started rigorous training including maneuvers in Alexandria starting 7 April 1941. The climate during the summer was especially harsh. The division then participated in what became known as the Louisiana Maneuvers, and become a well-disciplined, high spirited, and well prepared unit.
World War II
In common with other U.S. Army divisions the 34th was reorganized from a square to a triangular division before seeing combat. The division's three infantry regiments became the 133rd, 135th, and 168th Infantry Regiments.
On 8 January 1942, the 34th was transported by train to Fort Dix, New Jersey to quickly prepare for overseas movement. The first contingent embarked at Brooklyn on 14 January 1942 and sailed from New York the next day. The initial group of 4,508 stepped ashore at 12:15 hrs on 26 January 1942 at Dufferin Quay, Belfast. They were met by a delegation including the Governor (Duke of Abercorn), the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland (John Miller Andrews), the Commander of British Troops Northern Ireland (General G. E. W. Franklyn), and the Secretary of State for Air (Sir Archibald Sinclair).
While in Northern Ireland, Hartle was tasked with organizing an American version of the British Commandos, a group of small "hit and run" forces, and promoted his Aide-de-camp, artillery Captain William O. Darby to lead the new unit. Major Darby assembled volunteers, and of the first 500 Rangers, 281 came from the 34th Infantry Division. On 20 May 1942, Hartle was designated commanding general of V Corps and Major General Charles Ryder took command of the 34th. The division trained in Northern Ireland until it boarded ships to travel to North Africa for Operation TORCH in November 1942.
The 34th Infantry Division saw its first combat in French Algeria on 8 November 1942. As a member of the Eastern Task Force, which included two brigades of the British 78th Infantry Division, and two British Commando units, they landed at Algiers and seized the port and outlying airfields. Elements of the Division took part in numerous subsequent engagements in Tunisia during the Allied build-up, notably at Sened Station, Sidi Bou Zid and Faid Pass, Sbeitla, and Fondouk Gap. In April 1943 the Division assaulted Hill 609, capturing it on 1 May 1943, and then drove through Chouigui Pass to Tebourba and Ferryville. The Battle of Tunisia was won, and the Axis forces surrendered.
The Division then trained for the inception of the Allied Invasion of Italy (Operation Avalanche), beginning with the Salerno landing. The 151st Field Artillery Battalion went in on D-day, 9 September 1943, at Salerno, while the rest of the Division followed on 25 September. Engaging the enemy at the Calore River, 28 September 1943, the 34th, as part of the U.S. II Corps, relentlessly drove north to take Benevento, crossed the winding Volturno three times in October and November, assaulted Monte Patano, and took one of its four peaks before being relieved, 9 December 1943. In January 1944, the Division was back on the front line battering the Bernhardt Line defenses. Persevering through bitter fighting along the Mignano Gap, the 34th used goat herds to clear the minefields. The 34th took Monte Trocchio without resistance as the German defenders withdrew to the main prepared defenses of the Gustav Line. On 24 January 1944, during the First Battle of Monte Cassino they pushed across the Rapido River into the hills behind and attacked Monastery Hill which dominated the town of Cassino. While they nearly captured the objective, in the end their attacks on the monastery and the town failed. The performance of 34th Division in the mountains is considered to rank as one of the finest feats of arms carried out by any soldiers during the war. In return they sustained losses of about 80 per cent in the Infantry battalions. They were relieved from their positions 11–13 February 1944. Eventually, it took the combined force of five allied infantry divisions to finish what the 34th nearly accomplished on its own.
After rest and rehabilitation, the 34th landed at the Anzio beachhead 25 March 1944. The division maintained defensive positions until the offensive of 23 May, when it broke out of the beachhead, took Cisterna, and raced to Civitavecchia and Rome. After a short rest, the Division drove across the Cecina River to liberate Livorno, 19 July 1944, and continued on to take Monte Belmonte in October during the fighting on the Gothic Line. Digging in south of Bologna for the winter, the 34th jumped off, 15 April 1945, and captured Bologna on 21 April. Pursuit of the routed enemy to the French border was halted on 2 May upon the German surrender in Italy. On 27th June 1944 the 16th SS-Panzer Grenadiers command post in San Vincenzo, Italy was overrun by the 1st Battalion, 133rd Infantry, 34th Division. The command post was a town centre apartment which had been commandeered, when the owners returned to their apartment they found a signed large leather bound Stieler's Hand Atlas which had been left behind; more on this story here http://generalheinrichvonvietinghoff.wordpress.com/
The Division participated in six major Army campaigns in North Africa and Italy. The Division is credited with amassing 517 days of front-line combat, more than any other U.S. division. One or more 34th Division units were engaged in actual combat with the enemy on 611 days. This would have been 1st Battalion, 133rd Infantry and the IRONMAN battalion. This battalion still holds the record over the rest of the United States Army for days in combat. The division was credited with more combat days than any other division in the war. The 34th Division suffered 3,737 killed in action, 14,165 wounded in action, and 3,460 missing in action, for a total of 21,362 battle casualties. Casualties of the division are considered to be the highest of any division in the theatre when daily per capita fighting strengths are considered. There is little doubt the division took the most enemy-defended hills of any division in the European Theatre. The division's soldiers were awarded ten Medals of Honor, ninety-eight Distinguished Service Crosses, one Distinguished Service Medal, 1,153 Silver Stars, 116 Legion of Merit medals, one Distinguished Flying Cross, 2,545 Bronze Star Medals, fifty-four Soldier's Medals, thirty-four Air Medals, with duplicate awards of fifty-two oak leaf clusters, and 15,000 Purple Hearts.
- Activated: 10 February 1941 (National Guard Division from North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota)
- Overseas: May 1942
- Days of combat: 517
- Distinguished Unit Citations: 3
- Foreign Awards:
- French Croix de Guerre
- Killed in Action: 3,737
- Wounded in action: 14,165
- Missing in action: 3,460
- Total Battle Casualties: 21,362
- Returned to U.S.: 3 November 1945
- Inactivated: 3 November 1945
Cold War to 2001
The 34th Infantry Division was inactivated on 3 November 1945. The Division was reformed within the Iowa and Nebraska National Guards in 1946–7, but it disbanded again in 1963, being replaced in part by the 67th Infantry Brigade. It also retained its Division HQ as a Command HQ to supervise training of combat and support units in the former division area for some years. The 47th Infantry Division (which had never seen combat) was active at St Paul, Minn., by 1963, as the National Guard combat division covering the former 34th's area.
The division was reactivated as a National Guard division (renaming the 47th Division) for Minnesota and Iowa on 10 February 1991 upon the fiftieth anniversary of its federal activation for World War II. At that point the Division transitioned into a Medium Division, with a required strength of 18,062 soldiers.
||This section includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2013)|
The Minnesota National Guard now maintains an “optimal force structure,” preparing and organizing the right people with the right training and the right equipment to accomplish the job. The 34th Infantry Division was the first National Guard Division to transform to the Army's modular and expeditionary Brigade Combat Team Structure. The Division's units have grown and are now spread across Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, North Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Colorado, Wyoming and Missouri. The Minnesota Army National Guard provides the Division Headquarters and is located in Rosemount (Main Command Post), and Inver Grove Heights (Tactical Command Post); both are southern suburbs of the Twin Cities. Today, the division has undergone much change due to transformation. The entire division is projected to have transformed by Training Year 2010.
Since October 2001, division personnel served in Operation Joint Forge in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Operation Joint Guardian in Kosovo. Other deployments during the same time period have included Operation Vigilant Hammer in Europe, the Mediterranean Theater of Operations, and Egypt, and Joint Task Force Bravo – Honduras.
The 34th Infantry Division has deployed approximately 11,000 soldiers on operations since October 2001. At home this has included troops deployed for Operation Noble Eagle; abroad units and individual soldiers have gone to Afghanistan and Iraq.
- 2004 In May 2004, the 1st Battalion, 168th Infantry Regiment (augmented by Company D, 2nd Battalion, 135th Infantry Regiment), 2nd Brigade, 34th Infantry Division, and with nearly 100 key positions filled by members of the 1st Battalion (IRONMAN), 133rd Infantry Regiment, 2nd Brigade, 34th Infantry Division, commenced combat operations at 13 Provincial Reconstruction Team sites throughout Afghanistan as part of Operation Enduring Freedom, returning the Red Bull patch to combat after 59 years and earning the battalion the distinction of becoming the first unit in the 34th Infantry Division to wear the Red Bull patch as a right-shoulder combat patch since World War II. The 2011 book Words in the Dust by former 34th ID soldier Trent Reedy is a novel based on the experiences of the 34th ID soldiers assigned to the Farah, Afghanistan PRT.
- 2010 In August 2010, nearly 3,000 Iowa Army National Guard soldiers, with 28 hometown send-offs, left for a year-long deployment to Afghanistan, making it the largest deployment of the Iowa National Guard since World War II. Augmented by the 1–134th Cavalry Reconnaissance and Surveillance Squadron of the Nebraska Army National Guard, the brigade conducted pre-mobilization training in Mississippi and California. The troops partnered with Afghan security forces to provide security and assist in training.
- 2005 In January 2005, Company A, 1st Battalion, 194th Armor Regiment (1/194 AR) arrived at Camp Ashraf (about 80 km north of Baghdad) to conduct security and convoy operations in the surrounding area and conducted joint operations with Iraqi Army ahead of the October 2005 Iraqi constitution ratification vote. The 151 man unit was formed from nearly all of the soldiers in the 1/194th and Company A was chosen to honor the unit's lineage of the soldiers who fought to defend the Philippines against the Japanese and the Bataan Death March that followed. The unit was awarded the Meritorious Unit Commendation for its exceptional service.
- 2006 In March 2006, 1st Brigade, 34th Infantry Division commenced combat operations in central and southern Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom, marking the largest single unit deployment for the 34th Infantry Division since World War II. Returning in July 2007, 1st Brigade served one of the longest consecutive combat operations by the United States Army (activated for 22 months total with 16 in Iraq). In an effort to recreate the Living Red Bull Patch from Camp Cody, NM, in 1918, the 1st Brigade made its own Living Patch on the parade field at Camp Shelby, MS prior to its deployment to Iraq for OIF 06-08. On 16 July 2009 3 members of the Fighting Red Bulls were killed in Basra, Iraq.
- 2011 In June 2011, 1st Brigade deployed to Kuwait, supplying troops for Operation New Dawn. The Brigade was augmented with 1-180th Cavalry and 1-160th Field Artillery from the Oklahoma National Guard as well as the 112th Military Police Battalion from the Mississippi National Guard.
34th Infantry Division exercises Training and Readiness Oversight of the following elements, they cannot be considered organic:
- Main Command Post (MCP)
- Special Troops Battalion (STB)
- 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team (MN NG)
- Special Troops Battalion
- 1st Squadron, 94th Cavalry Regiment (Armored Recon)
- 1st Battalion, 194th Armor Regiment (Combined Arms)
- 2nd Battalion, 135th Infantry Regiment (United States)
- 2nd Battalion, 136th Infantry Regiment (United States)
- 1st Battalion, 125th Field Artillery Regiment
- 1-34th Brigade Support Battalion
- 2nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (IA NG)
- 32nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (WI NG)
- 116th Cavalry Brigade Combat Team (ID NG)
- Special Troops Battalion
- 2nd Squadron, 116th Cavalry Regiment (Armored Recon) (ID NG)
- 1st Squadron, 163rd Cavalry Regiment (Combined Arms) (MT NG)
- 3rd Squadron, 116th Cavalry Regiment (Combined Arms) (OR NG)
- 1st Battalion, 148th Field Artillery Regiment (ID NG)
- 145th Brigade Support Battalion (ID NG)
- Combat Aviation Brigade, 34th Infantry Division (MN NG)
- Headquarters & Headquarters Company
- 1st Battalion, 113th Aviation Regiment (Support & Security) (ND NG)
- 2nd Battalion, 147th Aviation Regiment (Assault) (MN NG)
- 1st Battalion, 183rd Aviation Regiment (Attack) (ID NG)
- 1st Battalion, 189th Aviation Regiment (General Support) (MT NG)
- 834th Aviation Support Battalion (MN NG)
- 115th Fires Brigade (WY NG)
- 141st Maneuver Enhancement Brigade (ND NG)
- 157th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade (WI NG)
- 67th Battlefield Surveillance Brigade (NE ARNG) (Attached)
- 1st Squadron, 134th Cavalry Regiment (R&S) (NE ARNG)
- 1167th Brigade Support Company (NE ARNG)
- 250th Military Intelligence Battalion (CA NG)
- 67th Signal Network Support Company (MT NG)
- 347th Regional Support Group (formerly 34th Division Support Command)
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company
- 147th Personnel Services Battalion
- 347th Personnel Services Detachment
- 34th Military Police Company
- 257th Military Police Company
- 114th Transportation Company
- 204th Medical Company (Area Support)
- 247th Finance Detachment
- 34th Infantry Division Band
- Service Battery, 1st Battalion, 214th Field Artillery Regiment (GA NG)
- Companies A and B, 2nd Battalion, 123rd Armor Regiment (KY NG)
- MN ARNG Command
- United States Army, Division, 34th (1945). The Story of the 34th Infantry Division - Louisiana to Piza. Information and Education Section, MTOUSA. p. 1.
- "34th Infantry Division (ARNG)". United States Army Combined Arms Center. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- "Guard101.ppt". Slide 6. Minnesota National Guard. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- Corell, Ben; 34th Infantry Division Association (Winter 2012). "2nd Brigade Combat Team, 34th Infantry Div 2010-11 Afghan Deployment Report". The 34th ID Association Newsletter: 4. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- "34th Infantry Division". U.S. Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- "34th Infantry Division "Red Bull"". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- http://www.nationalguard.mil/news/todayinhistory/january.aspx, accessed December 2012.
- Johnson, Jack (Winter 2012). "Allies". Newsletter for Members and Friends of the Military Historical Society of Minnesota XX (1): 1–3.
- "Anoka, Minnesota Tornado". United Press. GenDisasters. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- Bendetson, Karl (Fall). "A Discussion of the Soldiers' and Sailor's Civil Relief Act of 1940". Washington and Lee Law Review II (1): 2. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Background of Selective Service". Selective Service System. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
- "Camp Claiborne, Louisiana". Western Maryland's Historical Library. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
- Jeffers, H. Paul (2007). Onward We Charge: The Heroic Story of Darby's Rangers in World War II. Chapter 2: Penguin Books.
- Staab, William (2009). Not for Glory. Vantage Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-533-16121-8.
- Howe, George. "U.S. Army in World War II, Mediterranean Theater of Operations - Northwest Africa: Seizing the Initiative in the West". Hyperwar Foundation. pp. 423–437. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- Center of Military History (1943). To Bizerte With The II Corps. Historical Division, War Department. pp. 37–50.
- Atkinson, Rick (2008). The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944. Macmillan. p. 260.
- Majdalany, Fred (1957). Cassino: Portrait of a Battle. Longman, Green and Co. p. 87.
- "History of the 34th Infantry Division". Minnesota National Guard. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- 2000 Minn. Laws ch. 281, codified at Minn. Stat. 161.14 subd. 46.
- "2012 Optimal Force Structure Objectives". Minnesota National Guard. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- 34th Infantry Division History, accessed December 2012.
- "Decade of change transforms Red Bulls". Minnesota National Guard. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "Our Fallen Troops". Minnesota National Guard. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- AUSA, Torchbearer Special Report, 7 November 2005; http://www.ausa.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/ILW%20Web-ExclusivePubs/Torchbearer/TBearComp1v12.pdf
- "1st Squadron, 94th Cavalry". Minnesota National Guard. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "1st Combined Arms Battalion, 194th Armor Regiment". Minnesota National Guard. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "1st Battalion, 125th Field Artillery". Minnesota National Guard. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "134th Brigade Support Battalion". Minnesota National Guard. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "1st Battalion, 194th Field Artillery Regiment". Iowa National Guard. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "334th Brigade Support Battalion". Global Security. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "132nd Support Battalion". Global Security. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "250th Military Intelligence Bn (Battlefield Surveillance Brigade)". California National Guard. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "347th Regional Support Group". Minnesota National Guard. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 34th Infantry Division (United States).|
- 34th Infantry Division webpage
- 34th Infantry Division FaceBook page
- 34th Infantry Division Association
- French Croix de Guerre Citation
- World War II Reenactors – 34th Infantry Division 133rd
- 34th Division in Italy, World War II
- Aviation units in The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950 reproduced at CMH.
- Wisconsin Army National Guard
- UNIT DESIGNATIONS IN THE ARMY MODULAR FORCE
- Camp Cody – 34th Division WWI
- 34th Division Soldiers respond to John Kerry comment
- The short film Big Picture: The Red Bull Attacks is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
- 34th Infantry Division - Louisiana to Pisa (1945)
- Major Russell Hartle, leading the 34th Division to Northern Ireland in 1942