Grove Street Cemetery
Grove Street Cemetery
The Egyptian Revival entry gateway
|Location||200 Grove St., New Haven, Connecticut|
|Area||18 acres (7.3 ha)|
|Architect||Hezekiah Augur; Henry Austin|
|Architectural style||Egyptian Revival, Gothic Revival|
|NRHP Reference #||97000830|
|Added to NRHP||August 8, 1997|
|Designated NHL||February 16, 2000|
Grove Street Cemetery or Grove Street Burial Ground in New Haven, Connecticut is located adjacent to the Yale University campus. It was organized in 1796 as the New Haven Burying Ground and incorporated in October 1797 to replace the crowded burial ground on the New Haven Green. The first private, nonprofit cemetery in the world, it was one of the earliest burial grounds to have a planned layout, with plots permanently owned by individual families, a structured arrangement of ornamental plantings, and paved and named streets and avenues. This was "a real turning point... a whole redefinition of how people viewed death and dying", according to historian Peter Dobkin Hall, with novel ideas like permanent memorials and the sanctity of the deceased body. In part for this reason, it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2000. Many notable Yale and New Haven luminaries are buried in the Grove Street Cemetery, including fourteen Yale presidents; nevertheless, it was not restricted to members of the upper class, and was open to all.
Initially consisting of six acres (24,000 m²), it has been expanded to nearly 18 acres (73,000 m²). The perimeter of the cemetery was surrounded by an eight foot (2.4 m) stone wall in 1848-49, and the entrance on Grove Street is a brownstone Egyptian Revival gateway, designed by New Haven architect Henry Austin (who is buried at the cemetery), and built in 1845. The lintel of the gateway is inscribed "The Dead Shall Be Raised."; the concluding period has been called the most eloquent and sublime piece of punctuation in stone. The quotation is taken from 1 Corinthians 15.52: "For the trumpet will sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we will be changed." The oft-recounted (and likely apocryphal) response of many presidents of Yale is, in substance, "They certainly will be, if Yale needs the property." Immediately inside the gate is a Victorian chapel, now used as an office. The gravestones from the New Haven Green (but not the remains) were moved here for preservation in 1821 and are displayed against the walls of the cemetery. Visitors from afar mingle with New Haven residents enjoying the quiet, park-like atmosphere.
Yale plans to construct two new residential colleges to the immediate north of the cemetery. Various people have accordingly suggested to the cemetery Proprietors that an additional gate be constructed in the north section of the historic wall that surrounds the burial ground to permit pedestrians to walk through the cemetery from the main Yale campus to the planned new colleges. In addition, the Proprietors recently considered a proposal brought forward by one Proprietor that would replace a portion of the stone sections of the wall bordering Prospect Street (the eastern border of the cemetery and a main route to the planned colleges) with iron fencing similar to that already running along most of the cemetery's southern border on Grove Street. This proposal, now withdrawn following a meeting of the Proprietors to which the public was invited for the first time, included architectural and landscaping designs by Yale Architecture School Dean Robert Stern, among the country's most distinguished architects (who will also be designing the new colleges).
The cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997. It was designated a National Historic Landmark by the United States Secretary of the Interior in 2000, citing its history and the architectural significance of its gateway.
It is managed by Camco Cemetery Management.
- James Rowland Angell (1869–1949)—President of Yale University
- Kanichi Asakawa (1873–1948)—historian.
- Jehudi Ashmun (1794–1828)—religious leader, and social reformer, agent of the African Colonization Society
- Hezekiah Augur (1791–1858)—wood carver, sculptor and inventor.
- Henry Austin (1804–1891)—architect, designed the gate of the cemetery, Dwight Hall at Yale, and several mansions on Hillhouse Avenue.
- Delia Bacon (1811–1859)—originator of the proposition that Francis Bacon wrote the plays attributed to Shakespeare
- Leonard Bacon (1802–1881)—clergyman and abolitionist
- Charles Montague Bakewell (1867–1957)—politician
- Roger Sherman Baldwin (1793–1863)—Governor of Connecticut
- Simeon Baldwin (1761–1851)—Mayor of New Haven
- Simeon Eben Baldwin (1840–1927)—Governor of Connecticut
- Ida Barney (1886-1982) noted female American astronomer
- John Bassett (1652–1714)—captain of the trainband; deputy to the General Court (legislature) of Connecticut Colony
- Lyman Beecher (1775–1865)—abolitionist, father of Harriet Beecher Stowe and Henry Ward Beecher
- Nathan Beers (1763–1861)—paymaster to Connecticut troops in the American Revolution
- Hiram Bingham I (1789–1863)—Hawaiian missionary and clergyman.
- James Bishop (d. 1691)—was Secretary, Lieutenant Governor and Deputy Governor of New Haven Jurisdiction.
- Eli Whitney Blake (1795–1886)—manufacturer and inventor of the stone crusher. His brother, Philos, invented the corkscrew.
- William Whiting Boardman (1794–1871)—politician.
- Edward Gaylord Bourne (1860–1908)—historian and educator. Leader in the American Historical Association.
- Phiness Bradley (1745–1797)—soldier. Captain, commander of the artillery defending New Haven, July 5, 1779
- William H. Brewer (1828–1910)—scientist. Helped found the Yale Forestry School; co-founder of the list Agricultural Experiment Station with S. W. Johnson.
- James Brewster (1788–1866)—industrialist and railroad promoter.
- Kingman Brewster, Jr., (1919–1988)—President of Yale University
- William Bristol (1779–1836)—Mayor of New Haven, Connecticut.
- Walter Camp—football coach known as the "Father of American Football".
- Leverett Candee (1795–1863)—Industrialist. First practical use of Goodyear's vulcanization of rubber
- Arthur E. Case (1894–1946)—professor and author
- Jedediah Chapman (d. 1863)—Civil War Union Army Officer killed at the Battle of Gettysburg.
- Thomas Clap (1703–1767)—Rector & President of Yale College
- David Daggett (1764–1851)—United States Senator, mayor of New Haven, Connecticut.
- Napthali Daggett (1727–1780)—clergyman, President pro tempore of Yale College.
- George Edward Day (1814–1905)—Bible revisor
- Jeremiah Day (1773–1868)—President of Yale University.
- Amos Doolittle (1754–1832)—silversmith, engraver of Revolutionary scenes. "The Revere of Connecticut."
- Timothy Dwight IV (1752–1817)—President of Yale University.
- Timothy Dwight V (1829–1916)—President of Yale University.
- Amos Beebe Eaton (1806–1877)—Civil War Union Army Brigadier General.
- Theophilus Eaton (1590–1657)—a founder of New Haven, first Governor of New Haven.
- Henry W. Edwards (1779–1847)—U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator, and Governor of Connecticut.
- Pierpont Edwards (1750–1826)—Delegate to the Continental Congress.
- Jeremiah Evarts (1781-1631)—scholar, writer and missionary executive. Editor of the ‘’Panoplist’’ and the ‘’Missionary Herald’’.
- Henry Farnham (1836–1917)—prominent New Haven merchant and philanthropist.
- Ludwig Felber (1903–1937)—died in the crash of the Hindenburg airship.
- George Peck Fisher (1827–1902)—historian and theologian
- Andrew Hull Foote (1806–1863)—naval officer who ended the rum ration in the United States Navy.
- A. Bartlett Giamatti (1938–1989)—baseball commissioner, President of Yale University.
- Josiah Willard Gibbs, Sr. (1790–1861)—professor at Yale Divinity School who first spoke with the mutineers of the Amistad.
- Josiah Willard Gibbs, Jr. (1839–1903)—scientist, "Father of Thermodynamics"
- Chauncey Goodrich (1790–1860)—Yale professor of Homiletics and Pastoral Charge.
- Elizur Goodrich (1761–1849)—mayor of New Haven, Connecticut.
- Charles Goodyear (1800–1860)—inventor of vulcanized rubber.
- Alfred Whitney Griswold (1906–1963)—President of Yale University.
- Arthur Twining Hadley (1857–1930)—Dean of Yale Graduate School when women were first admitted. President of Yale University.
- Henry Baldwin Harrison (1821–1901)—Governor of Connecticut
- James Hillhouse (1754–1832)— real estate developer, politician, and treasurer of Yale. Namesake of Hillhouse Avenue in New Haven.
- J. Aspinwal Hodge (1861–1916)—Presbyterian minister in early New Haven, Connecticut.
- James Mason Hoppin (1820–1906)—professor of religion and art.
- Leverett Hubbard 1725-1795)—soldier, physician and apothecary.
- David Humphreys (1752–1818)—Aide de Camp to General George Washington
- Charles Roberts Ingersoll (1821–1903)—Governor of Connecticut
- Colin Macrae Ingersoll (1819–1903)—United States Representative from Connecticut.
- Ralph Isaacs Ingersoll (1789–1872)—United States Minister to Russia, mayor of New Haven, Connecticut.
- Eli Ives (1779–1861)—professor of Medicine
- Chauncey Jerome (1793–1868)—mayor of New Haven, clockmaker
- Nathaniel Jocelyn (1796–1881)—portrait painter and engraver.
- Samuel W. Johnson (1839–1909)—Yale professor, co-founder of the Agricultural Experiment Station Movement with William H. Brewer
- James Kingsley (1778–1852)—professor of Hebrew, Greek and Ecclesiastical History at Yale.
- John Gamble Kirkwood (1907–1959)—chemist.
- Charlton Miner Lewis (1866–1923)—Yale professor and author.
- Elias Loomis (1811–1889)—mathematician and astronomer.
- Daniel Lyman (1718–1788)—Surveyor, Deputy to the General Court, Court Referee, Justice of the Peace and caretaker of the State's public records.
- Samuel Mansfield (1717–1775)—first sheriff of New Haven
- Othniel Charles Marsh (1831–1899)—paleontologist.
- Henry Czar Merwin (1839–1863)—Civil War Union Army Officer killed at the Battle of Gettysburg
- Glenn Miller (Alton G. Miller) cenotaph -- (1904–1944)—Jazz bandleader, trombonist.
- Dr. Timothy Mix (1711–1779)—Colonial soldier who died on a British prison ship.
- Jedidiah Morse (1761–1826)—clergy, "Father of American Geography". Father of Samuel F. B. Morse.
- Theodore T. Munger (1830–1910)—clergyman.
- Hubert Anson Newton (1830–1896)—meteorologist and mathematician.
- George Henry Nettleton (1874–1959)—author.
- Denison Olmsted (1791–1859)—Professor of Medicine and Natural Philosophy at Yale. One of the first to see Halley's Comet in 1835.
- Lars Onsager (1903–1976)—Chemist. Nobel Laurate.
- Jaroslav Pelikan (1923–2006))— Scholar in the history of Christianity, Christian theology and medieval intellectual history.
- Timothy Pitkin (1766–1847)—politician, United States Representative from Connecticut.
- Noah Porter (1811–1892)—clergyman, President of Yale College
- Joel Root
- Charles Seymour (1885–1963)—President of Yale University
- Joseph Earl Sheffield (1793–1882)—merchant, founder of Sheffield Scientific School.
- Roger Sherman (1721–1793)— important founding father, the only person to have signed all four basic documents of American sovereignty, the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution. Today his grave is the center of this colonial city's Independence Day festivities.
- Benjamin Silliman (1779–1864)—pioneer in scientific education.
- Benjamin Silliman, Jr. (1816–1885)—Yale chemist and geologist. First suggested some practical uses for petroleum.
- Aaron Skinner (1800–1858)—civic figure and supervisor of improvements to Grove Street Cemetery
- Nathan Smith (1770–1835)—United States Senator from Connecticut.
- Ezra Stiles (1727–1795)—President of Yale University.
- Henry Randolph Storrs (1787–1837)—jurist.
- Titus Street (1786–1842)—businessman and civic figure
- Alfred Howe Terry (1827–1890)—Civil War Union Army Major General.
- Ithiel Town (1784-June 12, 1844)—architect and civil engineer. Inventor of the lattice truss bridge.
- Martha Townsend (1753–1797)—first interment in Grove Street Cemetery
- William Kneeland Townsend (1849–1907)—jurist
- Henry H. Townshend (1874–1953)—proprietor and historian of Grove Street Cemetery.
- Timothy Trowbridge (1631–1734)—merchant, soldier and politician.
- Alexander C. Twining (1801–1884)—inventor of first practical artificial ice system.
- Noah Webster (1758–1843)—lexicographer, dictionary publisher.
- Nathan Whiting—soldier, Colonel in the Seven Years' War.
- Eli Whitney (1765–1825)—inventor of the cotton gin.
- Theodore Winthrop (1828–1861)—Major, United States Army. First New Haven victim of the Civil War.
- Melancthon Taylor Woolsey (1717–1758)—colonel in the Colonial Army.
- Theodore Dwight Woolsey (1812–1889)—abolitionist, President of Yale.
- David Wooster (1711–1777)—Buried in Danbury, Connecticut but memorialized at Grove Street Cemetery. Major General, 7th in rank below Washington. Killed in action.
- Mary Clabaugh Wright (1917–1970)—educator and historian, first woman to become a full professor at Yale.
- List of National Historic Landmarks in Connecticut
- National Register of Historic Places listings in New Haven, Connecticut
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.
- "Grove Street Cemetery". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-10-03.
- "Cemetery Holds New Haven History", Steve Grant, The Hartford Courant, December 26, 2008
- Bruce Clouette (September 29, 1999), National Register of Historic Landmark Nomination: Grove Street Cemetery / New Haven City Burial Ground (PDF), National Park Service and PDF (32 KB)
- The Grove Street Bulletin, vol. 1, no. 4, 2005
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Grove Street Cemetery.|
- Grove Street Cemetery home site
- Grove Street Cemetery at Creepy Connecticut
- New Haven Independent "Plot-holders Slam Cemetery Plan"
- New Haven Register "Architect pushes for changes at city cemetery"
- Peter Dobkin Hall, "Setting, Landscape, Architecture, and the Creation of Civic Space in the United States, 1790-1920"