gzip

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GNU Gzip
Gzip-Logo.png
Original author(s)
Developer(s) GNU Project
Initial release October 31, 1992; 21 years ago (1992-10-31)
Stable release 1.6 (June 9, 2013; 16 months ago (2013-06-09)) [±][1]
Written in C
Operating system Cross-platform
Type Data compression
License GNU GPLv3
Website www.gnu.org/software/gzip/

gzip is a file format and a software application used for file compression and decompression. The program was created by Jean-Loup Gailly and Mark Adler as a free software replacement for the compress program used in early Unix systems, and intended for use by the GNU Project (the "g" is from "GNU"). Version 0.1 was first publicly released on 31 October 1992, and version 1.0 followed in February 1993.

File format[edit]

gzip
Filename extension .gz
Internet media type application/gzip[2]
Uniform Type Identifier (UTI) org.gnu.gnu-zip-archive
Developed by Jean-Loup Gailly and Mark Adler
Type of format Data compression
Open format? Yes

gzip is based on the DEFLATE algorithm, which is a combination of LZ77 and Huffman coding. DEFLATE was intended as a replacement for LZW and other patent-encumbered data compression algorithms which, at the time, limited the usability of compress and other popular archivers.

"gzip" is often also used to refer to the gzip file format, which is:

  • a 10-byte header, containing a magic number (1f 8b), a version number and a timestamp
  • optional extra headers, such as the original file name,
  • a body, containing a DEFLATE-compressed payload
  • an 8-byte footer, containing a CRC-32 checksum and the length of the original uncompressed data.

Although its file format also allows for multiple such streams to be concatenated (zipped files are simply decompressed concatenated as if they were originally one file[3]), gzip is normally used to compress just single files.[4] Compressed archives are typically created by assembling collections of files into a single tar archive, and then compressing that archive with gzip. The final .tar.gz or .tgz file is usually called a tarball.[5]

gzip is not to be confused with the ZIP archive format, which also uses DEFLATE. The ZIP format can hold collections of files without an external archiver, but is less compact than compressed tarballs holding the same data, because it compresses files individually and cannot take advantage of redundancy between files (solid compression).

Implementations[edit]

NetBSD Gzip / FreeBSD Gzip
Developer(s) The NetBSD Foundation
Written in C
Operating system Cross-platform
Type Data compression
License Simplified BSD License

Various implementations of the program have been written. The most commonly known is the GNU Project's implementation using Lempel-Ziv coding (LZ77). OpenBSD's version of gzip is actually the compress program, to which support for the gzip format was added in OpenBSD 3.4. The 'g' in this specific version stands for gratis.[6] FreeBSD, DragonFlyBSD and NetBSD use a BSD-licensed implementation instead of the GNU version; it is actually a command-line interface for zlib intended to be compatible with the GNU implementation's options.[7] These implementations originally come from NetBSD, and supports decompression of bzip2 and the Unix pack(1) format.

Derivatives and other uses[edit]

When gzip is invoked as gunzip, it decompresses the data (a file or stdin). gunzip is equivalent to gzip -d.

When gzip is invoked as zcat, it also decompresses the data, but behaves similarly to cat. It decompresses individual files and concatenates them to standard output. zcat is equivalent to gzip -d -c.[8]

The tar utility included in most Linux distributions can extract .tar.gz files by passing the z option e.g. tar -zxf file.tar.gz.

zlib is an abstraction of the DEFLATE algorithm in library form which includes support both for the gzip file format and a lightweight stream format in its API. The zlib stream format, DEFLATE, and the gzip file format were standardized respectively as RFC 1950, RFC 1951, and RFC 1952.

The "Content-Encoding"/"Accept-Encoding" and "Transfer-Encoding"/"TE" headers in HTTP/1.1 allow clients to optionally receive compressed HTTP responses and (less commonly) to send compressed requests. The specification for HTTP/1.1 (RFC 2616) specifies three compression methods: "gzip" (RFC 1952; the content wrapped in a gzip stream), "deflate" (RFC 1950; the content wrapped in a zlib-formatted stream), and "compress" (explained in RFC 2616 section 3.5 as "The encoding format produced by the common UNIX file compression program compress. This format is an adaptive Lempel-Ziv-Welch coding (LZW)."). Many client libraries, browsers, and server platforms (including Apache and Microsoft IIS) support gzip. Many agents also support deflate, although several important players incorrectly implement deflate support using the format specified by RFC 1951 instead of the correct format specified by RFC 1950 (which encapsulates RFC 1951). Notably, Internet Explorer versions 6, 7, and 8 report deflate support but do not actually accept RFC 1950 format, making actual use of deflate highly unusual. Many clients accept both RFC 1951 and RFC 1950-formatted data for the "deflate" compressed method, but a server has no way to detect whether a client will correctly handle RFC 1950 format.[9]

Since the late 1990s, bzip2, a file compression utility based on a block-sorting algorithm, has gained some popularity as a gzip replacement. It produces considerably smaller files (especially for source code and other structured text), but at the cost of memory and processing time (up to a factor of 4)[citation needed]. bzip2-compressed tarballs are conventionally named either .tar.bz2 or simply .tbz.

AdvanceCOMP and 7-Zip can produce gzip-compatible files, using an internal DEFLATE implementation with better compression ratios than gzip itself—at the cost of more processor time compared to the reference implementation.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Meyering, Jim (2013-06-09). "gzip-1.6 released [stable]". Retrieved 2012-06-09. 
  2. ^ The 'application/zlib' and 'application/gzip' Media Types. Tools.ietf.org. RFC 6713. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6713. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
  3. ^ "GNU Gzip: Advanced usage". Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  4. ^ "Can gzip compress several files into a single archive?". Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  5. ^ "tarball, The Jargon File, version 4.4.7". Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  6. ^ "OpenBSD gzip(1) manual page". OpenBSD. Retrieved 2007-07-23. 
  7. ^ "gzip". Man.freebsd.org. 2011-10-09. Retrieved 2014-03-01. 
  8. ^ "zcat manual page in FreeBSD 7.0". Retrieved 2014-08-31. 
  9. ^ "Gzip compression is typically implemented on Apache servers by using the module mod_gzip or on iis servers by making modifications to the web.config file". Retrieved 2014-08-31. 

References[edit]

  • RFC 1952 – GZIP file format specification version 4.3

External links[edit]