Harry Dexter White

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Harry Dexter White
WhiteandKeynes.jpg
Harry Dexter White (left) with John Maynard Keynes at the Bretton Woods Conference
Born (1892-10-09)October 9, 1892
Boston, Massachusetts
Died August 16, 1948(1948-08-16) (aged 55)
Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire
Education Columbia University
Stanford University
Harvard University
Occupation Economist
Employer Lawrence University
U.S. Treasury department
International Monetary Fund
Known for Bretton Woods agreement
First U.S. Director of IMF (1946-47)
Spouse(s) Anne Terry White
Children Joan White Pinkham, Ruth White Levitan
Parents Joseph Weit
Sarah Magilewski

Harry Dexter White (October 9, 1892 – August 16, 1948) was an American economist, senior U.S. Treasury department official, and an active agent of Soviet espionage.[1] He was the senior American official at the 1944 Bretton Woods conference. He dominated the conference and imposed his vision of post-war financial institutions over the objections of John Maynard Keynes, the British representative. After the war, White was a major architect of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank.

White was accused in 1948 of being a spy for the Soviet Union. In August 1948, White testified and defended his record to the House Un-American Activities Committee. Three days after testifying he died of a heart attack. Newly opened Soviet records show that he did in fact pass secret state information to the Soviets during World War II.[2] Benn Steil, director of international economics at the Council on Foreign Relations, says White acted out of idealism, not as a member of the Communist Party, "not simply because he believed that the Soviet Union was a vital U.S. ally but because he also believed passionately in the success of the bold Soviet experiment with socialism." Steil says White was not a Communist party member because, "White would not take orders from Moscow. He worked on his own terms. He joined no underground movements."[3]

Early life[edit]

Harry Dexter White was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the seventh and youngest child of Jewish Lithuanian[4] immigrants, Joseph Weit and Sarah Magilewski, who had settled in America in 1885. In 1917 he enlisted in the U.S. Army, and was commissioned as lieutenant and served in France in a non-combat capacity in World War I. He did not begin his university studies until age 30, first at Columbia University, then at Stanford, where he earned a first degree in economics. After completing a Ph.D. in economics at Harvard University at 38 years of age, White taught four years at Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin. Harvard University Press published his Ph.D. thesis in 1933, as The French International Accounts, 1880–1913. His PhD dissertation won the David A. Wells Prize granted annually by the Department of Economics, Harvard University.

Office of Monetary Research[edit]

White was a dedicated internationalist, and his energies were directed at continuing the Grand Alliance and maintaining peace through trade. He believed that powerful, multilateral institutions could avoid the mistakes of Versailles and prevent another worldwide depression. As head of the independently-funded Office of Monetary Research, White was able to hire staff without the normal civil service regulations or background enquiries.[5]

Treasury Department[edit]

In 1934, Jacob Viner, a professor at the University of Chicago working at the Treasury Department, offered White a position at the Treasury, which he accepted.[citation needed]

According to Benn Steil, while "no single individual can be said to have triggered" the Pearl Harbor attack Harry Dexter White "was the author of the key ultimatum demands". Steil also maintains "the Japanese government made the decision to move forward with the Pearl Harbor strike after receiving the ultimatum".[6]

After the December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, White was appointed assistant to Henry Morgenthau, Jr., the Secretary of the Treasury, to act as liaison between the Treasury and the State Department on all matters bearing on foreign relations. He was also made responsible for the "management and operation of the Exchange Stabilization Fund without a change in its procedures." White eventually came to be in charge of international matters for the Treasury, with access to extensive confidential information about the economic situation of the USA and its wartime allies.

According to Henry Morgenthau's son, White was the principal architect behind the Morgenthau Plan.[7] The Morgenthau postwar plan, as authored by White, was to take all industry out of Germany, eliminate its armed forces, and convert the country into an agricultural community, in the process eliminating most of Germany's economy and its ability to start another war. According to Professor Anthony Kubek, writing in The Journal of Historical Review:

White opined that if the Russians needed two million German laborers to reconstruct their devastated areas, he saw nothing wrong with it; it was "in the interest" of Russia and even Germany that the labor force come from the ranks of the Gestapo, the S.S., and the Nazi party membership. "That's not a punishment for crime," he stated, "that's merely a part of the reparations problem in the same way you want certain machines from Germany..."[1]

A version of the plan, limited to turning Germany into "a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character", was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill at the Second Quebec Conference in September 1944. However, someone in White's department with access to details of the plan leaked it to the press, and White himself provided an advance copy to Soviet intelligence.[8] Public protests forced Roosevelt to publicly backtrack. The Nazis and Joseph Goebbels used the Morgenthau Plan as a propaganda coup to encourage their troops and citizens to fight on. General Omar Bradley, among others, noticed "a near-miraculous revitalization of the German army." In the end Morgenthau still did manage to influence the resulting occupation policy.[9]

White was the senior American official at the 1944 Bretton Woods conference, and reportedly dominated the conference and imposed his vision over the objections of John Maynard Keynes, the British representative.[5][10] After the war, White was closely involved with setting up what were called the Bretton Woods institutions—the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. These institutions were intended to prevent some of the economic problems that had occurred after World War I. As late as November 1945, White continued to argue for improved relations with the Soviet Union.[11] White later became a director and U.S. representative of the IMF.

On June 19, 1947, White abruptly resigned from the International Monetary Fund, vacating his office the same day.[citation needed]

Accusations of espionage[edit]

Chambers accusations 1939, 1945[edit]

On September 2, 1939, Assistant Secretary of State and Roosevelt's adviser on internal security Adolf Berle had a meeting, arranged by journalist Isaac Don Levine, with defecting Soviet agent Whittaker Chambers. In his notes of that meeting, written later that night, Levine listed a series of names, including a "Mr. White".[12] Berle's notes of the meeting contain no mention of White.[13] Berle drafted a 4-page memorandum on the information which he then passed to the President, who dismissed the idea of espionage rings in his administration as 'absurd'. The director of the FBI, J. Edgar Hoover, as late as 1942,[14] also dismissed Chambers' revelations as 'history, hypothesis, or deduction.'

Bentley accusations 1945, 1948, 1953[edit]

On March 20, 1945, State Department security officer Raymond Murphy interviewed Chambers. His notes record that Chambers identified White as "a member at large but rather timid", who had brought various members of the American communist underground into the Treasury.[15]

On November 7, 1945, defecting Soviet espionage courier Elizabeth Bentley told investigators of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) that in late 1942 or early 1943 she learned from Soviet spies Nathan Gregory Silvermaster and Ludwig Ullmann that one source of the government documents they were photographing and passing on to her and NKVD spymaster Jacob Golos was Harry Dexter White.[16]

The next day, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover sent a hand-delivered letter to Truman's Military Aide, Gen. Harry Vaughan, at the White House, reporting information that "a number of persons employed by the government of the United States have been furnishing data and information to persons outside the Federal Government, who are in turn transmitting this information to espionage agents of the Soviet government." The letter listed a dozen Bentley suspects, the second of whom was Harry Dexter White.[17]

The FBI summarized the Bentley information and in its follow-up investigation on the suspects she named, again including White,[18] in a report entitled 'Soviet Espionage in the United States',[19] which was sent to the White House, the Attorney General and the State Department on December 4, 1945.[20] Six weeks later, on January 23, 1946, Truman nominated White as U.S. Director of the International Monetary Fund. The FBI responded with a 28-page memo specifically on White and his contacts, received by the White House on February 4, 1946.[21] White's nomination was approved by the Senate, acting in ignorance of the allegations against White, on February 6, 1946.

Six years later, Truman would testify that White had been "separated from the Government service promptly" upon receipt of this information—first from the Treasury, and then from the IMF.[22] In fact, White was still at the IMF on June 19, 1947—more than two years after the FBI had alerted the White House about him—when he abruptly resigned (vacating his office the same day), after Attorney General Tom Clark ordered a Federal grand jury investigation of the Bentley charges.[23]

On July 31, 1948 Bentley told the House Committee on Un-American Activities that White had been involved in espionage activities on behalf of Soviet Union during World War II,[24] and had passed sensitive Treasury documents to Soviet agents. Bentley said White's colleagues passed information to her from him. In her 1953 testimony Bentley said that White was responsible for passing Treasury plates for printing Allied military marks in occupied Germany to the Soviets, who thereupon printed currency with abandon,[25] sparking a black market and serious inflation throughout the occupied country,[26] costing the U.S. a quarter of a billion dollars.[27] However the alternative explanation is that Treasury officials feared that denying Soviet use of the plates in their occupation sector would endanger postwar cooperation.[25]

Bentley wrote in her 1951 autobiography that she had been "able through Harry Dexter White to arrange that the United States Treasury Department turn the actual printing plates over to the Russians".[28] Bentley had not previously mentioned this to the FBI or to any of the committees, grand juries or prosecutors before whom she had testified earlier, and there was no evidence at the time that Bentley had any role in this transfer. Some questioned Harry Dexter White's role in it.[4] In her 1953 testimony before Joseph McCarthy's Senate subcommittee, she elaborated, testifying that she was following instructions from NKVD New York rezident Iskhak Abdulovich Akhmerov (who operated under the cover name "Bill") to pass word through Ludwig Ullmann and Nathan Gregory Silvermaster for White to "put the pressure on for the delivery of the plates to Russia".[29]

This is the only case in which Bentley biographer Kathryn Olmstead concluded that Bentley was lying about her role,[26] citing historian Bruce Craig's conclusion that "the whole 'scheme' was a complete fabrication".[30]

But Bentley's testimony would later be corroborated in dramatic fashion by a memorandum found in Soviet archives after half a century. In it, Gaik Ovakimian, head of the American desk of the NKVD (for which Bentley worked),[31] cites a report from New York (where Bentley was based)[32] from April 14, 1944 (when Bentley was running the Silvermaster group)[33][34] reporting that, "following our instructions" via Silvermaster, White had obtained "the positive decision of the Treasury Department to provide the Soviet side with the plates for engraving German occupation marks".[35]

Chambers accusations 1948[edit]

Whittaker Chambers, an admitted former Soviet espionage agent, subsequently testified on August 3 to his association with White in the Communist underground secret apparatus up to 1938.[36] Chambers produced documents he had saved from his days as a courier for the Soviets' American spy-ring. Among these was a handwritten memorandum that he testified White had given him. The Treasury Department identified this document as containing highly confidential material from the State Department, while the FBI Laboratory established that it was written in White's handwriting.[37] Chambers stated, however, that White was the least productive of his contacts. [38] Chambers said of White, "His motives always baffled me", a point underscored by Chambers' grandson.[39]

Death[edit]

On August 13, 1948, White testified before HUAC and denied being a communist. After he finished testifying he had a heart attack. He left Washington for a rest on his Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire farm. He had just arrived when he had another heart attack.[40] Two days later, on August 16, 1948, he died, age 55.[41][42] An overdose of digitalis was reported as the cause of death.[43]

Accusations by Jenner and McCarthy 1953[edit]

Senator William Jenner's Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments Investigation by the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS) looked extensively into the problem of unauthorized and uncontrolled powers exercised by non-elected officials, specifically White. Part of its report looked into the implementation of Roosevelt administration policy in China and was published as the Morgenthau Diary.[44] The report stated,

The concentration of Communist sympathizers in the Treasury Department, and particularly the Division of Monetary Research, is now a matter of record. White was the first director of that division; those who succeeded him in the directorship were Frank Coe and Harold Glasser. Also attached to the Division of Monetary Research were William Ludwig Ullman, Irving Kaplan, and Victor Perlo. White, Coe, Glasser, Kaplan, and Perlo were all identified as participants in the Communist conspiracy ...

The committee also heard testimony by Henry Morgenthau's speechwriter, Jonathan Mitchell, that White had tried to persuade him that the Soviets had developed a system that would supplant capitalism and Christianity.

In 1953, Senator Joseph McCarthy and Eisenhower administration Attorney General Herbert Brownell, Jr. revealed that the FBI had warned the Truman administration about White before the President appointed him to the IMF. Brownell made public the FBI's November 8, 1945 letter to the White House warning about White and others, and revealed that the White House had received the FBI report on "Soviet Espionage in the United States," including the White case, six weeks before Truman nominated White to the IMF.[45]

Although he does not dispute that the FBI sent these and other warnings to Truman, Sen. Daniel Patrick Moynihan wrote in his introduction to the 1997 Moynihan Commission report on government secrecy that Truman was never informed of Venona.[46] In support of this, he cited a statement from the official NSA/CIA history of Venona that "no definitive evidence has emerged to show" that Truman was informed of Venona.[47]

Venona project[edit]

NSA cryptographers identified Harry Dexter White as the source denoted in the Venona decrypts at various times under the code names "Lawyer",[48] "Richard",[49] and "Jurist".[50] Two years after his death, in a memorandum dated 15 October 1950, White was positively identified by the FBI, through evidence gathered by the Venona project, as a Soviet source, code named "Jurist".[51]

Years later, the Justice Department publicly disclosed the existence of the Venona project which deciphered Soviet cable traffic naming White as "Jurist", a Soviet intelligence source. As reported in the FBI Memorandum on White:

You have previously been advised of information obtained from [Venona] regarding Jurist, who was active during 1944. According to the previous information received from [Venona] regarding Jurist, during April, 1944, he had reported on conversations between the then Secretary of State Hull and Vice President Wallace. He also reported on Wallace's proposed trip to China. On August 5, 1944, he reported to the Soviets that he was confident of President Roosevelt's victory in the coming elections unless there was a huge military failure. He also reported that Truman's nomination as Vice President was calculated to secure the vote of the conservative wing of the Democratic Party. It was also reported that Jurist was willing for any self-sacrifice in behalf of the KGB but was afraid that his activities, if exposed, might lead to a political scandal and have an effect on the elections.

This codename was confirmed by the notes of KGB archivist Vasili Nikitich Mitrokhin in his country volume 6, chapter 3, part1, where six key Soviet agents are named. Harry Dexter White is listed as being first "KASSIR" and later "JURIST".[52]

Another example of White acting as an agent of influence for the Soviet Union was his obstruction of a proposed $200 million loan to Nationalist China in 1943, which he had been officially instructed to execute,[53] at a time when inflation was spiraling out of control.[54]

Other Venona decrypts revealed further damaging evidence against White, including White's suggestions on how to meet and pass information on to his Soviet handler. Venona Document #71 contains decryptions of White's discussions on being paid for his work for the Soviet Union.[54][55]

In 1997, the bipartisan Moynihan Commission on Government Secrecy, chaired by Democratic Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, stated in its findings,

The complicity of Alger Hiss of the State Department seems settled. As does that of Harry Dexter White of the Treasury Department.[56]

Further evidence of White's complicity as a Soviet agent was gleaned from Soviet archives and KGB operative Alexander Vassiliev. In a book by Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America — the Stalin Era, Vassiliev, a former Soviet journalist and KGB operative, reviewed Soviet archives dealing with White's actions on behalf of the Soviet Union. White assisted Harold Glasser, a Treasury executive and NKVD spy, "in obtaining posts and promotions at Treasury while aware of his Communist ties". Because of White's backing, Glasser survived an FBI background check. In December 1941 the Secret Service forwarded a report to Harry White indicating that it had evidence Glasser was involved in Communist activities. White never acted on the report. Glasser continued to serve in the Treasury Department, and soon began recruiting other agents and preparing briefing reports on Treasury personnel and other potential espionage agents for the NKVD. After America became involved in World War II, Glasser received appointments to several higher-level positions in the government on White's approval.[57]

According to Soviet archives, White's other KGB code names were "Richard", and "Reed". In order to protect their source, Soviet intelligence repeatedly changed White's code name.

Assessment of Soviet involvement[edit]

In 2000, Robert Skidelsky, in reviewing the evidence, concludes that:

A combination of naivety, superficiality and supreme confidence in his own judgment -together with his background - explains the course of action White took. There is no question of treachery, in the accepted sense of betraying one's country's secrets to an enemy. But there can be no doubt that, in passing classified information to the Soviets, White knew he was betraying his trust, even if he did not thereby think he was betraying his country.[58]

In 2004, Stephen Schlesinger wrote,"Among historians, the verdict about White is still unresolved, but many incline toward the view that he wanted to help the Russians but did not regard the actions he took as constituting espionage."[59]

In 2012, Bruce Craig wrote, "Taken individually, one could argue that some of the documents indicate that White may have not always have been aware that his information was being passed on to Moscow, but taken collectively, [Andrew] Vassiliev’s documentation leaves little wiggle room for White’s defenders to continue to assert that he was not involved in an activity that, at least by present day legal standards, constitute espionage."[60] David Chambers wrote, "Perhaps White had ends of his own, too... Perhaps he used his position to foster the Soviet Union — then a new, budding American ally, recognized only in 1933 — beyond New Deal policy."[39]

In 2013, Benn Steil wrote:

White almost certainly, and over many years, gave confidential and classified U.S. government information–in original, transcribed, and oral form–to individuals whom he knew would ultimately transmit it to the Soviet government... Yet the economics White advocated were hardly Marxist. They were by this time what would be described as thoroughly Keynesian... As for White’s domestic politics, these were mainstream New Deal progressive, and there is no evidence that he admired communism as a political ideology. It is this chasm between what is known publicly of White’s economic and political views, on the one hand, and his clandestine behavior on behalf of the Soviets, on the other, that accounts for the plethora of unpersuasive profiles of the man that have emerged.[61]

White's daughters still strongly maintain his innocence.[62][63][64] As daughter Joan White Pinkham has explained:

Those who would defend White's reputation are faced with the notoriously difficult task of proving a negative....{He] served his country loyally and with distinction."[63]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kubek, Anthony (Fall 1989; Vol. 9, No. 3). "The Morgenthau Plan and the Problem of Policy Perversion". The Journal of Historical Review. Institute for Historical Review. p. 287. Retrieved 16 October 2013. 
  2. ^ John Earl Haynes; Alexander Vassiliev (2009). Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America. Yale University Press. pp. 259–60. 
  3. ^ Benn Steil, "Red White," Foreign Affairs, (Mar/Apr 2013) Vol. 92, Issue 2.
  4. ^ a b Craig, Bruce (2004). Treasonable Doubt: The Harry Dexter White Spy Case. University Press of Kansas. pp. 17, 245. ISBN 978-0-7006-1311-3. 
  5. ^ a b "One Man's Greed", Time, 1953-11-23, retrieved 2006-10-03 
  6. ^ Steil, Benn (2013), The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order, Princeton University Press, p. 55
  7. ^ Dietrich, John (2002), The Morgenthau Plan: Soviet Influence on American Postwar Policy, New York: Algora Publishing, p. 17, ISBN 1-892941-90-2, OCLC 49355870 
  8. ^ Schecter, Jerrold; Leona Schecter (2002), Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History, Washington, DC: Brassey's, ISBN 1-57488-327-5, OCLC 48375744 
  9. ^ Frederick H. Gareau "Morgenthau's Plan for Industrial Disarmament in Germany" The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 2 (Jun., 1961)
  10. ^ Donald Markwell, John Maynard Keynes and International Relations: Economic Paths to War and Peace, Oxford University Press, 2006
  11. ^ White, Harry Dexter (1945-11-30). Untitled paper advocating "continued Peace and friendly relations with Russia". Princeton University collection. 
  12. ^ Isaac Don Levine's Notes of the Meeting
  13. ^ John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), p.90-91
  14. ^ Robert Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes:Fighting for Britain, 1937-1946, Macmillan, London 2000 p.256
  15. ^ Weinstein, Allen (1978). Perjury: The Hiss–Chambers Case. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 346. ISBN 0-394-49546-2. 
  16. ^ FBI file: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, October 21, 1946, p. 78-79 (PDF pp. 86-87)
  17. ^ Hoover to Vaughan, November 8, 1945, FBI Silvermaster file, Vol. 16, PDF pp. 98, 99, 100. Cf. Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, eds., Venona: Soviet Espionage and the American Response, 1939-1957 (Washington, D.C.: National Security Agency/Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), Document 15, pp. 69, 70, 71
  18. ^ [1], p. 47 (PDF p. 45)
  19. ^ http://education-research.org/PDFs/SOVIET%20REPORT.pdf
  20. ^ FBI memo: Harry Dexter White, PDF p. 54
  21. ^ Harry Dexter White, PDF pp. 24-52
  22. ^ Robert Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes: Fighting for Britain, 1937-1946, Macmillan, London 2000 p. 257
  23. ^ Robert G. Whalen (December 12, 1948). "Hiss and Chambers: Strange Story of Two Men". The New York Times. 
  24. ^ "Elizabeth Bentley Deposition, FBI Silvermaster file" (PDF), FBI's FOIA Website, 1948-07-31, archived from the original on 2007-03-06, retrieved 2006-10-03 
  25. ^ a b James C. Van Hook, "Treasonable Doubt: The Harry Dexter White Spy Case," Studies in Intelligence," Vol. 49, No. 1, 2005
  26. ^ a b Radosh, Ronald (February 24, 2003), "The Truth-Spiller", National Review, retrieved 2008-07-30, "... Bentley accused of providing stolen U.S. currency plates to the Soviets. (The plates were used to print unlimited amounts of occupation currency in the eastern zone of postwar Germany, sparking a black market and serious inflation throughout the occupied country.)" 
  27. ^ Henry Morgenthau, The Morgenthau Diaries, Book 732, pp. 97-99.
  28. ^ Bentley 1951, p. 141
  29. ^ Testimony of Elizabeth Bentley, S. Prt. 107-84 - Executive Sessions of the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Government Operations (McCarthy Hearings 1953-54), Vol. 4, p. 3427
  30. ^ Olmsted 2002, p. 186
  31. ^ Michael Warner, Red Spy Queen: A Biography of Elizabeth Bentley, Studies in Intelligence, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2003
  32. ^ John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), p.96
  33. ^ Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (London: Basic Books, 1999) ISBN 978-0-465-00310-5, p. 129
  34. ^ (Olmstead 2002, p. 45)
  35. ^ Schecter, Jerrold L. (2003), Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History, Potomac Books, p. 122, ISBN 1-57488-522-7 
  36. ^ Testimony of Whittaker Chambers before the House Committee on Un-American Activities, 1948-08-03, retrieved 2006-10-03 
  37. ^ FBI Memorandum identifying Harry Dexter White as agent Jurist
  38. ^ Chambers, Whittaker (1952), Witness, New York: Random House, pp. 383–384, 414–416, 419–421, 429–432, 510–512, et al., LCCN 52005149 
  39. ^ a b Chambers, David (21 May 2012). "The Baffling Harry White". History News Network (HNN). Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  40. ^ "Categorical Denial", Time (magazine), August 30, 1948, retrieved 2008-07-30, "Shortly after he had finished testifying before Congress, suffering from a bad heart, Harry White left Washington for a rest on his New Hampshire farm. He had just arrived there when he was stricken by another heart attack. Two days later, death came to Harry Dexter White, 56." 
  41. ^ Victor Nevasky, Letters From Readers: "Harry Dexter White," Commentary, April 1988, p. 10 (Cf. David Rees, Harry Dexter White: A Study in Paradox (Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1973), ISBN 978-0-698-10524-9)
  42. ^ Harry Dexter White, Accused In Spy Inquiry, Dies at 56, United Press in Washington Post, August 18, 1948, retrieved 2008-04-04, "Harry Dexter White, former Assistant Secretary of the Treasury accused of Soviet espionage activity during the current spy hearings at Washington, died unexpectedly at his Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire, summer home late yesterday, it was disclosed today." 
  43. ^ Willard Edwards, "Hiss spy paper linked to late treasury aid," Chicago Daily Tribune, 29 November 1949, pp. 1-2
  44. ^ "Records of the Morgenthau Diary Study, 1953-65", Guide to the Records of the U.S. Senate at the National Archives (Record Group 46) (The Center for Legislative Archives), retrieved 2006-10-03 
  45. ^ "The White Case Record", Time, 1953-11-30, retrieved 2006-10-03 
  46. ^ Moynihan, Daniel Patrick (1997), "Chairman's Forward" (PDF), Moynihan Commission on Government Secrecy, retrieved August 21, 2012 
  47. ^ Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, eds., VENONA: Soviet Espionage and the American Response, 1939-1957 (Washington, D.C.: National Security Agency/Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), xxiv.
  48. ^ 1251 KGB New York to Moscow, 2 September 1944, p. 2
  49. ^ 83 KGB New York to Moscow, 18 January 1945, p.1
  50. ^ Robert J. Hanyok, "Eavesdropping on Hell: Historical Guide to Western Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust, 1939-1945" (Washington, DC: Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 2005, 2nd Ed.), p. 119 (PDF page 124)
  51. ^ FBI Memorandum identifying Harry Dexter White as agent Jurist, 1950-10-16, retrieved 2006-10-03 
  52. ^ Andrew, Christoper; Vasili Mitrokhin (1999), The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB, New York: Basic Books, p. 106, ISBN 0-465-00310-9 
  53. ^ Robert Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes:Fighting for Britain, 1937-1946, Macmillan, London 2000 p.261
  54. ^ a b Haynes, John Earl; Harvey Klehr (2000), Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America, New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 142–145, ISBN 0-300-08462-5, OCLC 44694569 
  55. ^ "FBI Documents of Historic Interest re Venona That Are Referenced in Daniel Moynihan's Book "Secrecy"" (PDF), FBI's FOIA Website: 17, retrieved 2006-10-03 
  56. ^ "Appendix A; SECRECY; A Brief Account of the American Experience" (pdf), Report Of The Commission On Protecting And Reducing Government Secrecy (United States Government Printing Office), 1997: A–37, retrieved 2006-10-03 
  57. ^ Weinstein, Allen; Alexander Vassiliev (1999). The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America--The Stalin Era. New York: Modern Library. ISBN 0-375-75536-5. OCLC 43680047. 
  58. ^ Robert Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes:Fighting for Britain, 1937-1946, Macmillan, London 2000 p.265
  59. ^ Schlesinger, Stephen E. (2004), Act of Creation: the Founding of the United Nations: A story of Superpowers, Secret Agents, Wartime Allies and Enemies, and Their Quest for a Peaceful World, Cambridge, MA: Westview, Perseus Books Group, p. 108, ISBN 0-8133-3275-3 
  60. ^ Craig, Bruce (12 April 2012). "Setting the Record Straight: Harry Dexter White and Soviet Espionage". History News Network (HNN). Retrieved 25 February 2013. 
  61. ^ Steil, Benn (2013). The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order. Princeton University Press. pp. 4, 23. ISBN 9780691149097. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 
  62. ^ Pinkham, Joan White; Ruth Levitan (11 November 1990). "In McCarthy Era, TV Networks Cowered; 'The White Case'". New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 
  63. ^ a b Pinkham, Joan White (22 November 1998). "Defending Their Father". New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 
  64. ^ Pinkham, Joan White (22 April 2012). "A Case From the Cold War". New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 

External sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Primary sources[edit]