Harry Price

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Harry Price
Harry price by william hope.jpg
A photograph of Harry Price, taken by paranormal hoaxer William Hope in 1922
Born (1881-01-17)17 January 1881
United Kingdom
Died 29 March 1948(1948-03-29) (aged 67)
Occupation Psychic Researcher
Organization Magic Circle
National Laboratory of Psychical Research
American Society for Psychical Research
University of London Council for Psychical Investigation
The Ghost Club

Harry Price (17 January 1881 – 29 March 1948) was a British psychic researcher and author, who gained public prominence for his investigations into psychical phenomena and his exposing of fake Spiritualists. He is best known for his well-publicized investigation of the purportedly haunted Borley Rectory in Essex, England.

Early life[edit]

Although Price claimed his birth was in Birmingham, he was actually born in London in Red Lion Square[1] on the site of the South Place Ethical Society's Conway Hall.[2][3] He was educated in New Cross, first at Waller Road Infants School and then Haberdashers' Aske's Hatcham Boys School.[4] At 15, Price founded the Carlton Dramatic Society [5] and wrote plays, including a drama, about his early experience with a poltergeist [6] which he said took place at a haunted manor house in Shropshire.[7]

A few years later, Price came to the attention of the press when he claimed an early interest in space-telegraphy. He set up a receiver and transmitter between Telegraph Hill, Hatcham and St Peter's Church Brockley and captured a spark on a photographic plate, though according to the most recent biography of Price by Richard Morris[disambiguation needed], this was nothing more than Harry writing a press release saying he had done the experiment, as nothing was verified. The young Price also had an avid interest in coin collecting and wrote several articles for The Askean, the magazine for Haberdashers' School. In his autobiography, Search for Truth, written between 1941 and 1942, Price claimed he was involved with archaeological excavations in Greenwich Park, London but in earlier writings on Greenwich he denied any involvement in the excavation.[8]

From around May 1908 Price continued his interest in archaeology at Pulborough, Sussex where he had moved prior to marrying Constance Mary Knight that August. As well as working for paper merchants Edward Saunders & Sons as a salesman, he wrote for two local Sussex newspapers the West Sussex Gazette and the Southern Weekly News where he wrote about his remarkable propensity for discovering 'clean' antiquities. One of these, a silver ingot, was stamped around the time of the last Roman emperor Honorius. A few years later, another celebrated Sussex archaeologist Charles Dawson found a brick at Pevensey Fort in Sussex which was purportedly made in Honorius' time. In 1910 Professor E. J Haverfield of Oxford University, the country's foremost expert on Roman history and a Fellow of the Royal Academy announced it a fake.[9] A report for the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries (number 23, pages 121-9) in the same year reported that:

'...the double axe type of silver ingot was well known and dated from late Imperial times but the one recovered from Sussex was an inferior copy of one found at the Tower of London, with alterations to give it an air of authenticity. Both the shape and lettering betrayed its origin.'

Interest in magic and conjuring[edit]

In his autobiography, Search for Truth, Price said the “Great Sequah” in Shrewsbury was "entirely responsible for shaping much of my life’s work",[4] and led to him acquiring the first volume of what would become the Harry Price Library, Price later became an expert amateur conjurer, joined the Magic Circle in 1922 and maintained a lifelong interest in stage magic and conjuring. His expertise in sleight-of-hand and magic tricks stood him in good stead for what would become his all consuming passion, the investigation of paranormal phenomena.

Psychical research[edit]

A photograph by William Hope showing Price with a Spirit

Price joined the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) in 1920 and because of his knowledge in conjuring had debunked fraudulent mediums but in direct contrast to skeptics such as Harry Houdini, Price endorsed some mediums that he believed were genuine.[10][11] Price's first major success in psychical research came in 1922 when he exposed the 'spirit' photographer William Hope.[12][13] In the same year he travelled to Germany together with Eric Dingwall and investigated Willi Schneider,[14] at the home of Baron Albert von Schrenck-Notzing in Munich.[15] In 1923, Price exposed the medium Jan Guzyk, according to Price the "man was clever, especially with his feet, which were almost as useful to him as his hands in producing phenomena."[16]

Price wrote the photographs depicting the ectoplasm of the medium Eva Carrière taken with Schrenck-Notzing look artificial and two-dimensional made from cardboard and newspaper portraits and that there were no scientific controls as both her hands were free. In 1920 Carrière was investigated by psychical researchers in London. An analysis of her ectoplasm revealed it to be made of chewed paper. She was also investigated in 1922 and the result of the tests were negative.[17] In 1925, Price investigated Maria Silbert and caught her using her feet and toes to move objects in the séance room.[18] He also investigated the "direct voice" mediumship of George Valiantine in London. In the séance Valiantine claimed to have contacted the "spirit" of the composer Luigi Arditi who spoke Italian. Price wrote down every word that was attributed to Arditi and they were found to be word-for-word matches in an Italian phrase-book.[19]

Price formed an organization in 1926 called the National Laboratory of Psychical Research as a rival to the Society for Psychical Research.[20] Price had a number of disputes with the SPR, most notably over the mediumship of Rudi Schneider.[21] Price paid mediums to test them, the SPR criticized Price and disagreed about paying mediums for testing.[22]

Price made a formal offer to the University of London to equip and endow a Department of Psychical Research, and to loan the equipment of the National Laboratory and its library. The University of London Board of Studies in Psychology responded positively to this proposal. In 1934, the National Laboratory of Psychical Research, which held Price's collection, was reconstituted as the University of London Council for Psychical Investigation with C. E. M. Joad as Chairman and with Price as Honorary Secretary and Editor, although it was not an official body of the University.[23] In the meanwhile, in 1927, Price joined the Ghost Club, of which he remained a member until it (temporarily) closed in 1936.

In 1927, Price claimed that he had come into possession of Joanna Southcott's box, and arranged to have it opened in the presence of one reluctant prelate (the Bishop of Grantham, not a diocesan bishop but a suffragan of the diocese of Lincoln): it was found to contain only a few oddments and unimportant papers, among them a lottery ticket and a horse-pistol. His claims to have had the true box have been disputed by historians and by followers of Southcott.[24][25] Price exposed Frederick Tansley Munnings who claimed to produce the independent "spirit" voices of Julius Caesar, Dan Leno, Hawley Harvey Crippen and King Henry VIII. Price invented and used a piece of apparatus known as a voice control recorder and proved that all the voices were those of Munnings. In 1928, Munnings admitted fraud and sold his confessions to a Sunday newspaper.[26]

Price was friends with other debunkers of fraudulent mediums including Harry Houdini and the journalist Ernest Palmer.[27][28]

The Brocken experiment

In 1933, Frank Decker was investigated by Price at the National Laboratory of Psychical Research.[29] Under strict scientific controls that Price contrived, Decker failed to produce any phenomena at all.[30] Price's psychical research continued with investigations into Karachi's Indian rope trick and the fire-walking abilities of Kuda Bux in 1935. He was also involved in the formation of the National Film Library (British Film Institute) becoming its first chairman (until 1941) and was a founding member of the Shakespeare Film Society. In 1936, Price broadcast from a supposedly haunted manor house in Meopham, Kent for the BBC and published The Confessions of a Ghost-Hunter and The Haunting of Cashen's Gap. This year also saw the transfer of Price's library on permanent loan to the University of London (see external links below), followed shortly by the laboratory and investigative equipment. In 1937, he conducted further televised experiments into fire-walking with Ahmed Hussain at Carshalton and Alexandra Palace, and also rented Borley Rectory for one year. The following year, Price re-established the Ghost Club, with himself as chairman, modernising it and changing it from a spiritualist association to a group of more or less open-minded sceptics that gathered to discuss paranormal topics. He was also the first to admit women to the club.

In the same year, Price conducted experiments with Rahman Bey who was "buried alive" in Carshalton. He also drafted a Bill for the regulation of psychic practitioners. In 1939, he organised a national telepathic test in the periodical John O'London's Weekly. During the 1940s, Price concentrated on writing and the works The Most Haunted House in England, Poltergeist Over England and The End of Borley Rectory were all published.

Famous cases[edit]

William Hope[edit]

On 4 February 1922, Price with James Seymour, Eric Dingwall and William Marriott had proven the spirit photographer William Hope was a fraud during tests at the British College of Psychic Science. Price wrote in his SPR report "William Hope has been found guilty of deliberately substituting his own plates for those of a sitter... It implies that the medium brings to the sitting a duplicate slide and faked plates for fraudulent purposes."[31]

Price secretly marked Hope's photographic plates, and provided him with a packet of additional plates that had been covertly etched with the brand image of the Imperial Dry Plate Co. Ltd. in the knowledge that the logo would be transferred to any images created with them. Unaware that Price had tampered with his supplies, Hope then attempted to produce a number of Spirit photographs. Although Hope produced several images of spirits, none of his materials contained the Imperial Dry Plate Co. Ltd logo, or the marks that Price had put on Hope's original equipment, showing that he had exchanged prepared materials containing fake spirit images for the provided materials.[32]

Price later re-published the Society's experiment in a pamphlet of his own called Cold Light on Spiritualistic "Phenomena" - An Experiment with the Crewe Circle. Due to the exposure of Hope and other fraudulent spiritualists, Arthur Conan Doyle led a mass resignation of eighty-four members of the Society for Psychical Research, as they believed the Society was opposed to spiritualism.[33] Doyle threatened to have Price evicted from his laboratory and claimed if he persisted to write "sewage" about spiritualists, he would meet the same fate as Houdini.[34] Doyle and other spiritualists attacked Price and tried for years to have Price take his pamphlet out of circulation. Price wrote "Arthur Conan Doyle and his friends abused me for years for exposing Hope."[35]

Eileen Garrett[edit]

On October 7, 1930 it was claimed by spiritualists that Eileen J. Garrett made contact with the spirit of Herbert Carmichael Irwin at a séance held with Price at the National Laboratory of Psychical Research two days after the R101 disaster, while attempting to contact the then recently deceased Arthur Conan Doyle, and discussed possible causes of the accident.[36] The event "attracted worldwide attention", thanks to the presence of a reporter.[37] Major Oliver Villiers, a friend of Brancker, Scott, Irwin, Colmore and others aboard the airship, participated in further séances with Garrett, at which he claimed to have contacted both Irwin and other victims.[38] Price did not come to any definite conclusion about Garrett and the séances:

It is not my intention to discuss if the medium were really controlled by the discarnate entity of Irwin, or whether the utterances emanated from her subconscious mind or those of the sitters. "Spirit" or "trance personality" would be equally interesting explanations - and equally remarkable. There is no real evidence for either hypothesis. But it is not my intention to discuss hypotheses, but rather to put on record the detailed account of a remarkably interesting and thought-provoking experiment.[39]

Garrett's claims have since been questioned. The magician John Booth analyzed the mediumship of Garrett and the paranormal claims of R101 and considered her to be a fraud. According to Booth Garrett's notes and writings show she followed the building of the R101 and she may have been given aircraft blueprints from a technician from the airdrome.[40] However, the researcher Melvin Harris who studied the case wrote no secret accomplice was needed as the information described in Garrett's séances were "either commonplace, easily absorbed bits and pieces, or plain gobblede- gook. The so-called secret information just doesn't exist."[36]

Rudi Schneider[edit]

In 1920s and early 1930s Price investigated the medium Rudi Schneider in a number of experiments conducted at the National Laboratory of Psychical Research.[41] Rudi claimed he could levitate objects but according Price a photograph taken on April 28, 1932 showed that Rudi had managed to free his arm to move a handkerchief from the table. After this, many scientists considered Rudi to be exposed as a fraud.[42] Price wrote that the findings of the other experiments should be revised due to the evidence showing how Rudi could free himself from the controls.[41]

After Price had exposed Rudi, various scientists such Karl Przibram and the magician Henry Evans wrote to Price telling him that they agreed that Rudi would evade control during his séances and congratulated Price on the success of unmasking the fraud.[43] In opposition, SPR members who were highly critical of Price, supported Rudi's mediumship and promoted a conspiracy theory that Price had hoaxed the photograph.[44] SPR member Anita Gregory claimed Price had deliberately faked the photograph to discredit SPR research and ruin Rudi's reputation.[45] However, a photographic expert testified that the photograph was genuine.[46] SPR member John L. Randall reviewed the Price and Schneider case and came to the conclusion the photograph was genuine, Price had caught Rudi in fraud.[47]

Helen Duncan[edit]

Helen Duncan with a roll of cheesecloth.

In 1931, the National Laboratory of Psychical Research took on its most illustrious case. £50 was paid to the medium Helen Duncan so that she could be examined under scientific conditions.[48] Price was skeptical of Duncan and had her perform a number of test séances. She was suspected of swallowing cheesecloth which was then regurgitated as "ectoplasm".[49] Price had proven through analysis of a sample of ectoplasm produced by Duncan, that it was made of cheesecloth.[50] Duncan reacted violently at attempts to X-ray her, running from the laboratory and making a scene in the street, where her husband had to restrain her, destroying the controlled nature of the test. Price wrote that Duncan had given her fake ectoplasm to her husband to hide.[51] The ectoplasm of Duncan in another test was analyzed by psychical researchers to be made from egg white. According to Price:

The sight of half-a-dozen men, each with a pair of scissors waiting for the word, was amusing. It came and we all jumped. One of the doctors got hold of the stuff and secured a piece. The medium screamed and the rest of the "teleplasm" went down her throat. This time it wasn't cheese-cloth. It proved to be paper, soaked in white of egg, and folded into a flattened tube... Could anything be more infantile than a group of grown-up men wasting time, money, and energy on the antics of a fat female crook.[51]

Price wrote up the case in Leaves from a Psychist’s Case Book (1933) in a chapter called "The Cheese-Cloth Worshippers".[52] Price in his report published photographs of Duncan in his laboratory that revealed fake ectoplasm made from cheesecloth, rubber gloves and cut-out heads from magazine covers which she pretended to her audience were spirits.[53] Following the report written by Price, Duncan's former maid Mary McGinlay confessed in detail to having aided Duncan in her mediumship tricks, and Duncan's husband admitted that the ectoplasm materializations to be the result of regurgitation.[48] Later Duncan was caught cheating again pretending to be a spirit in the séance room. During Duncan's famous trial in 1944, Price gave his results as evidence for the prosecution. This time Duncan and her traveling companions, Frances Brown, Ernest and Elizabeth Homer were prosecuted and convicted. Duncan was jailed for nine months, Brown for four months and the Homers were bound over.[54]

Brocken experiment[edit]

In 1932, Price travelled to Mount Brocken in Germany with C. E. M. Joad and members of the National Laboratory to conduct a 'black magic' experiment in connection with the centenary of Goethe, involving the transformation of a goat into a young man.[25][55] The "Bloksberg Tryst", involving the transformation of a goat into a young man by the invocation of a maiden, Ura Bohn (better known as the film actress Gloria Gordon), produced a great deal of publicity but not the magical transformation.[55] Price claimed he carried out the experiment "if only to prove the fallacy of transcendental magic."[56]

Gef[edit]

In July 1935 Price and his friend Richard Lambert went to the Isle of Man to investigate the alleged case of Gef the talking mongoose and produced the book The Haunting of Cashen's Gap (1936). In the book they avoided saying that they believed the story but were careful to report it as though with an open mind, the book reports how a hair from the alleged mongoose was sent to Julian Huxley who then sent it to naturalist F. Martin Duncan who identified it as a dog hair.[57] Price suspected the hair belonged to the Iving's sheepdog, Mona.[58]

Price asked Reginald Pocock of the Natural History Museum to evaluate pawprints allegedly made by Gef in plasticene together with an impression of his supposed tooth marks. Pocock could not match them to any known animal, though he conceded that one of them might have been "conceivably made by a dog". He did state that none of the markings had been made by a mongoose.[59] The diaries of James Irving, along with reports about the case, are in Harry Price's archives in the Senate House Library, University of London.[60]

Price visited the Irvings and observed double walls of wooden paneling covering the interior rooms of the old stone farmhouse which featured considerable interior air space between stone and wood walls that "makes the whole house one great speaking-tube, with walls like soundingboards. By speaking into one of the many apertures in the panels, it should be possible to convey the voice to various parts of the house."[61] According to Richard Wiseman "Price and Lambert were less than enthusiastic about the case, concluding that only the most credulous of individuals would be impressed with the evidence for gef."[58]

Borley Rectory[edit]

Price was most famous for his investigation into the Borley Rectory, Essex. The building became known as "the most haunted house in England" after Price published a book about it in 1940. He documented a series of alleged hauntings from the time the rectory was built in 1863. He lived in the rectory from May 1937 to May 1938 and wrote of his experiences in the book.[62]

The psychical researcher John L. Randall wrote there was direct evidence of "dirty tricks" played upon Price by members of the SPR.[47] On October 9, 1931, a past president of the SPR William Henry Salter visited the Borley Rectory in an attempt to persuade the Rector Lionel Foyster, to sever his links with Price and work with the SPR instead.[63] After Price's death in 1948 Eric Dingwall, Kathleen M. Goldney, and Trevor H. Hall, three members of the Society for Psychical Research, two of whom had been Price's most loyal associates, investigated his claims about Borley. Their findings were published in a 1956 book, The Haunting of Borley Rectory, which concluded Price had fraudulently produced some of the phenomena.[64]

The "Borley Report", as the SPR study has become known, stated that many of the phenomena were either faked or due to natural causes such as rats and the strange acoustics attributed to the odd shape of the house. In their conclusion, Dingwall, Goldney, and Hall wrote "when analysed, the evidence for haunting and poltergeist activity for each and every period appears to diminish in force and finally to vanish away."[64] Terence Hines wrote "Mrs. Marianne Foyster, wife of the Rev. Lionel Foyster who lived at the rectory from 1930 to 1935, was actively engaged in fraudulently creating [haunted] phenomena. Price himself "salted the mine" and faked several phenomena while he was at the rectory."[62]

Robert Hastings was one of the few SPR researchers to defend Price.[65] Price's literary executor Paul Tabori and Peter Underwood have also defended Price against accusations of fraud. A similar approach was made by Ivan Banks in 1996.[66][67] Michael Coleman in an SPR report in 1997 wrote Price's defenders are unable to rebut the criticisms convincingly.[68]

Rosalie[edit]

Price claimed to have attended a private séance on December 15, 1937 in which a small six year old girl called Rosalie appeared. Price wrote he controlled the room by placing starch powder over the floor, locking the door and taping the windows before the séance. However, the identity of the sitters, or the locality where the séance was held was not revealed due to the alleged request of the mother of the child.[69] During the séance Price claimed a small girl emerged, she spoke and he took her pulse. Price was suspicious that the supposed spirit of the child was no different than a human being but after the séance had finished the starch powder was undisturbed and none of the seals had been removed on the window. Price was convinced no one had entered the room via door or window during the séance. Price's Fifty Years of Psychical Research (1939) describes his experiences at the sitting and includes a diagram of the séance room.[69]

Eric Dingwall and Trevor Hall wrote the Rosalie séance was fictitious and Price had lied about the whole affair but had based some of the details on the description of the house from a sitting he attended at a much earlier time in Brockley, South London where he used to live.[70] Kathleen Goldney who had criticized Price over his investigation into Borley Rectory wrote after the morning of the Rosalie sitting she found Price "shaken to the core by his experience." Goldney believed Price had told the truth about the séance and informed the Two Worlds spiritualist weekly newspaper that she believed the Rosalie sitting to be genuine.[71]

In 1985, Peter Underwood published an anonymous letter sent to the SPR member David Cohen in the 1960s which claimed to be from a séance sitter who attended the séance. The letter confessed to having impersonated the Rosalie child in the sitting by the request of the father who had owed the mother of the child money.[72]

Reception[edit]

Richard Wiseman has praised Price for his work in debunking fraudulent mediums and investigating paranormal claims. According to Wiseman "Price devoted the scientific study to weird stuff... that both delighted the world's media and infuriated believers and sceptics alike."[73] The stage magician and scientific skeptic James Randi wrote Price accomplished some valuable and genuine research but lived "a strange mixture of fact and fraud."[74]

The psychical researcher Renée Haynes described Price as "one of the most fascinating and storm-provoking figures in psychical research."[75] Mary Roach in her book Spook: Science Tackles the Afterlife (2010) favorably mentioned Price's methods and research in debunking the fraudulent medium Helen Duncan.[76]

Death and legacy[edit]

Price suffered a massive heart attack at his home in Pulborough, West Sussex and died almost instantly on 29 March 1948.[77]

His archives were deposited with the University of London between 1976 and 1978 by his widow. They include his correspondence, drafts of his publications, papers relating to libel cases, reports on his investigations, press cuttings and photographs.[78]

Published works[edit]

  • Revelations of a Spirit Medium, with Eric J. Dingwall, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd, London, 1922.
  • Cold Light on Spiritualistic "Phenomena" - An Experiment with the Crewe Circle, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 1922.
  • Stella C. An Account of Some Original Experiments in Psychical Research, Hurst & Blackett, 1925.
  • Rudi Schneider: A Scientific Examination of his Mediumship, Methuen & Co., 1930.
  • Leaves from a Psychist’s Case Book, Victor Gollancz, 1933.
  • Confessions of a Ghost-Hunter, Putnam & Co., 1936.
  • The Haunting of Cashen's Gap: A Modern "Miracle" Investigated - with R.S. Lambert, Methuen & Co., 1936.
  • Fifty Years of Psychical Research: A Critical Survey Longmans, Green & Co., 1939.
  • The Most Haunted House in England: Ten Years' Investigation of Borley Rectory, Longmans, Green & Co., 1940.
  • Search for Truth: My Life for Psychical Research, Collins, 1942.
  • Poltergeist Over England: Three Centuries of Mischievous Ghosts, Country Life, 1945.
  • The End of Borley Rectory, Harrap & Co., 1946.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hall (1978) pp. 26-27, 36-38
  2. ^ Harry Price: The Psychic detective by Richard Morris, Stroud, 2006
  3. ^ Hall (1978) pp. 25-30
  4. ^ a b Tabori (1950) p. 21
  5. ^ Tabori (1950) p. 22
  6. ^ The Sceptic, performed 2 December 1898 at Amersham Hall
  7. ^ Tabori (1950) p. 25
  8. ^ Hall (1978) pp. 102–113
  9. ^ 'Harry Price: The Psychic detective by Richard Morris, Stroud, 2006
  10. ^ Paul Tabori. (1966). Harry Price: The Biography of a Ghosthunter. Living Books.
  11. ^ Brian Righi. (2008). Ghosts, Apparitions and Poltergeists: An Exploration of the Supernatural through History. Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 978-0738713632
  12. ^ Leaves from a Psychist’s Case Book by Harry Price, Page 213.
  13. ^ Hall (1978) p. 222
  14. ^ Tabori (1950) p. 93
  15. ^ Hall (1978) pp. 136-153
  16. ^ Harry Price. (1942). Search for truth: My Life for Psychical Research. Collins p. 206
  17. ^ Harry Price. (1939). Fifty Years of Psychical Research. Longmans, Green & Co. ISBN 978-0766142428
  18. ^ Lewis Spence. (1991). Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Gale Research Company. p. 1522
  19. ^ Harry Price. (1942). Search For Truth: My Life For Psychical Research. Collins. p. 203
  20. ^ Rene Kollar. (2000). Searching for Raymond. Lexington Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0739101612
  21. ^ James Houran. (2004). From Shaman to Scientist: Essays on Humanity's Search for Spirits. Scarecrow Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0810850545
  22. ^ Jenny Hazelgrove. (2000). Spiritualism and British Society Between the Wars. Manchester University Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-0719055591
  23. ^ Hall (1978) p. 169
  24. ^ Hall (1978) pp. 154-160
  25. ^ a b Ackland, Michael (2004). Henry Handel Richardson: a life. Cambridge University Press. p. 237. ISBN 0-521-84055-4. 
  26. ^ Paul Tabori. (1966). Harry Price: The Biography of a Ghosthunter. Living Books. p. 125
  27. ^ Harry Houdini. (2011 reprint edition). Originally published in 1924. A Magician Among the Spirits. Cambridge University Press. p. 123. ISBN 978-1108027489
  28. ^ Alfred Douglas. (1982). Extra-Sensory Powers: A Century of Psychical Research. Overlook Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0879511609
  29. ^ Paul Tabori. (1966). Harry Price: The Biography of a Ghosthunter. Living Books. p. 132
  30. ^ Stuart Holroyd. (1976). Minds Without Boundaries. Aldus Books. p. 49
  31. ^ Massimo Polidoro. "Photos of Ghosts: The Burden of Believing the Unbelievable by Massimo Polidoro". Csicop.org. Retrieved 2013-12-05. 
  32. ^ Massimo Polidoro. (2001). Final Séance: The Strange Friendship Between Houdini and Conan Doyle. Prometheus Books. pp. 64-65. ISBN 978-1573928960
  33. ^ G. K. Nelson. (2013). Spiritualism and Society. Routledge. p. 159. ISBN 978-0415714624
  34. ^ William Kalush, Larry Ratso Sloman. (2006). The Secret Life of Houdini: The Making of America's First Superhero. Atria Books. pp. 419-420. ISBN 978-0743272087
  35. ^ Massimo Polidoro. (2001). Final Séance: The Strange Friendship Between Houdini and Conan Doyle. Prometheus Books. p. 67. ISBN 978-1573928960
  36. ^ a b Melvin Harris. (2003). Investigating the Unexplained: Psychic Detectives, the Amityville Horror-mongers, Jack the Ripper, and Other Mysteries of the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. pp. 171-182. ISBN 978-1591021087
  37. ^ "R101". Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  38. ^ James Leasor. (2001; first published 1957). The Millionth Chance: The Story of the R.101. London, House of Stratus. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-7551-0048-4.
  39. ^ Harry Price. (1933). Leaves from a Psychist's Case-book. Gollancz. p. 132
  40. ^ John Booth. (1986). Psychic Paradoxes. Prometheus Books. pp. 164–165. ISBN 978-0879753580
  41. ^ a b Lewis Spence. (2003). Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. Kessinger Reprint Edition. p. 806
  42. ^ Harry Price. (2003). Fifty Years of Psychical Research. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-0766142428 (reprint)
  43. ^ Paul Tabori. (1966). Harry Price: The Biography of a Ghosthunter. Living Books. pp. 114-115
  44. ^ Hilary Evans. (1982). Intrusions: Society and the Paranormal. Routledge Kegan & Paul. p. 166. ISBN 978-0710009272
  45. ^ Gregory, A. (1977). Anatomy of a fraud: Harry Price and the medium Rudi Schneider. Annals of Science 34, 449-549.
  46. ^ Harrison, V. (1979). Letter to the Editor. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. 50: 45-46.
  47. ^ a b John L. Randall. (2000). Harry Price: The Case for the Defence. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research (Vol. 64.3, No. 860).
  48. ^ a b Simeon Edmunds. (1966). Spiritualism: A Critical Survey. Aquarian Press.
  49. ^ Harry Price. (1931). Regurgitation and the Duncan Mediumship. (Bulletin I of the National Laboratory of Psychical Research, 120pp with 44 illustrations.)
  50. ^ Marina Warner. (2008). Phantasmagoria: Spirit Visions, Metaphors, and Media into the Twenty-first Century. Oxford University Press. p. 299. ISBN 978-0199239238
  51. ^ a b Paul Tabori. (1966). Harry Price: The Biography of a Ghosthunter. Living books. p. 136
  52. ^ Harry Price. (1933). The Cheese-Cloth Worshippers in Leaves from a Psychist’s Case Book. Gollancz. pp. 201–209.
  53. ^ Paul Kurtz. (1985). A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. p. 599. ISBN 978-0879753009
  54. ^ Helena Normanton. (1945). The Trial of Mrs. Duncan. Edited with a Foreword by C. E. Bechhofer Roberts. Jarrolds Publishers.
  55. ^ a b Hall (1978) pp. 160-170
  56. ^ Paul Tabori. (1966). Harry Price: The Biography of a Ghosthunter. Living Books. p. 227
  57. ^ Rachael, Low (1996). History of British Film. Routledge. pp. 193–194. ISBN 0-415-15650-5. 
  58. ^ a b Richard Wiseman. (2011). Paranormality: Why we see what isn't there. London, UK: Pan Macmillan. p. 185. ISBN 978-0956875655
  59. ^ Willett, Cliff. "The Evidence for Gef: Pt 2 Gef's Pawprints". Gef: The Eighth Wonder of the World. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  60. ^ Raymond Buckland. (2009). The Weiser Field Guide to Ghosts. Weiser Books . p. 26. ISBN 978-1578634514
  61. ^ Harry Price (1936). Confessions of a ghost-hunter. Putnam. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  62. ^ a b Terence Hines. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. pp. 94-95. ISBN 978-1573929790
  63. ^ Ivan Banks. (1996). The Enigma of Borley Rectory. London: Foulsham. p. 92. ISBN 978-0572021627
  64. ^ a b Dingwall, E. J.; Goldney, K. M.; Hall, T. H. (1956). The Haunting of Borley Rectory. Duckworth.
  65. ^ Hastings, R. J. (1969). An Examination of the 'Borley Report. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 55: 66-175.
  66. ^ Paul Tabori, Peter Underwood. (1973). Ghosts of Borley: Annals of the Haunted Rectory. David & Charles. ISBN 978-0715361184
  67. ^ Ivan Banks. (1996). The Enigma of Borley Rectory. Foulsham & Co Ltd. ISBN 978-0572021627
  68. ^ Michael Coleman. (1997). The Flying Bricks of Borley. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. Volume. 61, No. 847.
  69. ^ a b Harry Price. (1939). Rosalie in Fifty Years of Psychical Research. Longmans, Green and Company.
  70. ^ Eric Dingwall, Trevor Hall. (1958). Four Modern Ghosts. Gerald Duckworth.
  71. ^ Philip Paul. (1985). Some Unseen Power: Diary of a Ghost Hunter. Robert Hale Ltd. p. 36. ISBN 978-0709023845
  72. ^ Peter Underwood. (1985). The Ghost Hunters: Who They Are and What They Do. Robert Hale Ltd. ISBN 978-0709021643
  73. ^ Richard Wiseman. (2011). Paranormality: Why we see what isn't there. London, UK: Pan Macmillan. p. 183. ISBN 978-0956875655
  74. ^ James Randi. (1997). Harry Price in An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0312151195
  75. ^ Renée Haynes. (1982). The Society for Psychical Research 1882-1982: A History. London: MacDonald & Co. p. 146. ISBN 978-0356078755
  76. ^ Mary Roach. (2010). Spook: Science Tackles the Afterlife. Canongate Books Ltd. pp. 122-130. ISBN 978-1847670809
  77. ^ Guiley, Rosemary (1994). The Guinness encyclopedia of ghosts and spirits. Guinness Publishing. p. 268. ISBN 0-85112-748-7. 
  78. ^ Collection description of the Harry Price archive

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]