Stroud

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Coordinates: 51°44′38″N 2°12′54″W / 51.744°N 2.215°W / 51.744; -2.215

Stroud
Stroud from the air.jpg
Stroud from the air
Stroud is located in Gloucestershire
Stroud
Stroud
 Stroud shown within Gloucestershire
Population 12,690 (parish) [1]
OS grid reference SO851051
Civil parish Stroud
District Stroud
Shire county Gloucestershire
Region South West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town STROUD
Postcode district GL5
Dialling code 01453
Police Gloucestershire
Fire Gloucestershire
Ambulance Great Western
EU Parliament South West England
UK Parliament Stroud
List of places
UK
England
Gloucestershire
Stroud
Climate chart (explanation)
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Source: Selsley Weather (Average, 2005-2009)

Stroud is a market town and civil parish in the county of Gloucestershire, England. It is the main town in Stroud District.

Situated below the western escarpment of the Cotswold Hills at the meeting point of the Five Valleys, the town is noted for its steep streets, independent spirit and cafe culture.[2] The Cotswold Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty surrounds the town, and the Cotswold Way path passes by it to the west.

Although not formally part of the town, the parishes of Rodborough and Cainscross lie adjacent to Stroud and are often considered part of it.

Stroud acts as a centre for surrounding villages and small market towns including Amberley, Bisley, Chalford, Dudbridge, Dursley, Minchinhampton, Nailsworth, Oakridge, Painswick, Sheepscombe, Slad, Stonehouse, Thrupp and Woodchester.

History[edit]

Stroud is known for its involvement in the Industrial Revolution.[3] It was a cloth town; woollen mills were powered by the small rivers which surge through the five valleys, and supplied by Cotswold sheep which grazed on the hills above. Particularly noteworthy was the production of military uniforms in the colour Stroudwater Scarlet.[4][5] The area was made home by a sizable Huguenot community in the 17th century, fleeing persecution in Catholic France,[6] followed by a significant Jewish presence in the 19th century, linked to the tailoring and cloth industries.[7]

Stroud was an industrial and trading location in the nineteenth century, and so needed transport links. It first had a canal network in the form of the Stroudwater Navigation and the Thames & Severn Canal, both of which survived until the early 20th century. Restoration of these canals as a leisure facility is well underway by a partnership of Stroud District Council and the Cotswold Canals Trust[8] with a multi-million pound Lottery grant. Stroud railway station (on the GloucesterSwindon the Golden Valley Line) was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel.

High Street, the main shopping street

Though there is much evidence of early historic settlement and transport, Stroud parish was originally part of Bisley, and only began to emerge as a distinct unit by the 13th century, taking its name from the marshy ground at the confluence of the Slad Brook and the River Frome called "La Strode" and was first recorded in 1221. The church was built by 1279, and it was assigned parochial rights by the rectors of Bisley in 1304, often cited as the date of Stroud's foundation.

Historic buildings and places of interest in the area include the neolithic long barrows (Uley Long Barrow) at Uley, Selsley Common and Nympsfield to the west; Roman era remains at Frocester, West Hill near Uley, and Woodchester; the medieval buildings at Beverston Castle; and the outstanding Tudor houses at Newark Park and Owlpen Manor. Woodchester Mansion is a masterpiece of the Gothic Revival by local architect Benjamin Bucknall.

From 1837 to 1841, Stroud's MP was Lord John Russell of the Whig party who was later to become Prime Minister. Russell was an important politician, responsible for passing acts of parliament such as the Public Health Act of 1848, but he is mainly remembered as one of the chief architects of the Reform Act 1867. This act, also known as the Second Reform Act, gave the vote to every urban male householder, not just those of considerable means. This resulted in the electorate being increased by 1.5 million voters. Lord Russell is remembered in the town by two street names, John Street and Russell Street, as well as in the name of the Lord John public house.

Demography[edit]

As of the 2001 UK census, Stroud civil parish had a total population of 12,690.[9] For every 100 females, there were 96.4 males. Ethnically, the population is predominantly white (98.2%).[10] 20.6% of the population were under the age of 16 and 8.3% were aged 75 and over; the mean age of the people of the urban area was 39.5. 92.6% of residents described their health as "fair" or better, similar to the average of 92.8% for the wider district.[11][12] The average household size was 2.4.[13] Of those aged 16–74, 24.5% had no academic qualifications,[14] lower than the national average of 28.9%.[12] Of those aged 16–74, 2.6% were unemployed and 28.4% were economically inactive.[15]

Character and amenities[edit]

Stroud has a significant artistic community that dates back to the early part of the twentieth century. Jasper Conran called Stroud 'the Covent Garden of the Cotswolds',[16] the Daily Telegraph referred to it as 'the artistic equivalent of bookish Hay-on-Wye'[17] while the London Evening Standard likened the town to 'Notting Hill with wellies'.[18]

Kite aerial photo of Stroud Leisure Centre

The town was one of the birthplaces of the Organic food movement and was home to Britain's first fully organic café, Woodruffs.[19] The Biodynamic Agricultural Association is based in the town.[20] For many years Stroud has hosted a fringe festival on the second weekend in September. A new committee took over in early 2009 and now runs the fringe on the first weekend in September each year, to coincide with the Stroud Festival Fortnight, including the walking and food festivals. The town also hosts an annual Vintage Fashion, Textile and Accessories Festival, and the sixth annual International Textile Festival was held in May 2011. This is the U.K's only festival to celebrate the diverse culture of textiles.[21]

The Stroudwater Textile Trust was founded in 1999 to link the past and present of textiles in the Five Valleys and to manage the opening of several mills in which historic textile machinery, including a working waterwheel, has been restored and is demonstrated. The Trust has produced a DVD, Rivers of Cloth, using archive film and interviews to be released in early 2011 and a photographic survey of surviving woollen mills is being undertaken for a book, Wool and Water, to be published in 2012.

Subscription Rooms

Stroud has a strong community of independent shops and cafés, which provide the mainstay of the retail experience in the town. Alongside this, the town centre has witnessed two controversial developments in the form of a new cinema (which replaced the bus station) and a branch of McDonald's which, when plans were unveiled in 2004, came against opposition from locals.

The Subscription Rooms in the heart of the town centre provides a venue for a wide variety of entertainment and also houses the local Tourist Information Centre. There is also a small theatre, the Cotswold Playhouse, which is home to the amateur Cotswold Players; it occasionally plays host to visiting professional companies.

On the fringes of the town are Stratford Park, originally the park of a small local weaver, now home to a leisure centre with an indoor and outdoor swimming pool, and the Museum in the Park, a museum of the history and culture of the Stroud valleys.

Campaigns[edit]

Stroud citizens have a history of protest going back to the Stroudwater Riots of 1825.[22][23] In the late 1970s Stroud Campaign Against The Ringroad prevented Gloucestershire County Council's attempt to introduce new traffic plans. A few years later Stroud District Council tried to demolish 18th century buildings in the town centre. Stroud High Street Action Group, with some rooftop protests and a high court judgement, demonstrated against this. The restored buildings are now a feature of the High Street. After a short occupation a compromise was reached in the demolition of buildings in Cornhill with many being saved, including one identified as a medieval house. This campaign led to the formation of the Stroud Preservation Trust. which has been instrumental in saving many of the town's oldest buildings like Withey's house, the Brunel Goods Shed and the Hill Paul building.[24]

Stroud Save The Trees Campaign came to national prominence in August 1989 when Stroud District Council tried to implement a road-widening scheme by a midnight raid on thirteen trees it wished to fell within the perimeter of Stratford Park. However local people got wind of the 'secret' and were there first to protect the trees. After a stand-off that lasted till dawn the police called off the operation on the grounds of public safety. The following year instead of road-widening the first 'traffic calming' in the county was installed. The trees remain to this day.

The restored Hill Paul building

A few years later Stroud District Council planned to fell the only mature tree in the town centre - the hornbeam on the Subscription rooms forecourt. A quickly mobilised citizenry persuaded them otherwise and the hornbeam survived.

In 2000 Stroud District Council gave permission for the Victorian landmark Hill Paul building to be demolished. After thwarting demolition, local activists formed a company and sold enough shares at £500 each to take an option on the building, which they passed on to a local developer. The building has now been restored and converted into apartments (see photo on the right).[25][26]

The Save Stroud Hospitals Taskforce has been campaigning since spring 2006 against a range of cuts to health services in and around Stroud, with thousands of people taking part in street demonstrations. Stroud Maternity Hospital was saved in September 2006.[27]

The Uplands Post Office branch in Stroud was one of 26 in the county to shut as part of a nationwide programme to cut losses. Following local opposition, the Post Office agreed to talks with civic chiefs to look at how it could reopen. The town council agreed to provide £10,000 of funding for the service in 2008 and up to £25,000 for 2009. In November 2008 it was confirmed that Stroud has become only the second place in Britain to save one of its Post Offices.[28]

However, despite the protests, Tesco opened a store near Stratford park in 1989, McDonald's built a fast food restaurant at Rowcroft in 2005 and soon after, the bus station was replaced with a cinema.

In September 2010 the BNP scrapped plans to move their national media centre to Stroud after protests by local residents.[29]

In February 2012 NHS managers agreed to halt plans for Stroud General Hospital to be run by a social enterprise after local residents mounted a legal challenge in the High Court.[30]

Business[edit]

There is still a small textile industry (the green baize cloth used to cover snooker tables and the cloth covering championship tennis balls is made here), but today, the town functions primarily as a centre for light engineering and small-scale manufacturing, and a provider of services for the surrounding villages. Stroud is a Fairtrade Town.

The Stroud and Swindon Building Society had its headquarters here until it merged with the Coventry Building Society on 1 September 2010. The building is now the headquarters of the renewable energy provider Ecotricity.

Damien Hirst owns a factory in Stroud which produces his art.[31]

In September 2009, the Stroud Pound Co-operative launched the Stroud Pound[32] as an attempt to reinforce the local economy and encourage more local production. The currency's design follows that of the Chiemgauer, in being backed on a one-for-one basis by the national currency, having a charge for redemption which is donated to local charities, and including a system of demurrage to encourage rapid circulation.

Farmers' market[edit]

Bread loaves in the farmers' market

A farmers' market, launched by Jasper Conran and Isabella Blow on 3 July 1999,[33] takes place every Saturday at the Cornhill market. It was nominated for the national Farmers' Market of the Year in 2001 and won it in 2007 and 2013. It also won the Cotswold Life magazine award for the best farmers' market in Gloucestershire in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2010. The market featured in an episode of BBC TV's The Hairy Bikers' Food Tour of Britain in September 2009, and won the Best Food Market award at the BBC Food & Farming Awards 2010.[34] It is certified by FARMA.

In addition to the farmers' market there is a smaller market held in The Shambles, an area adjacent to the steep High Street. John Wesley preached from a butcher's block in The Shambles on 26 June 1742.[35] opposite one of the oldest existing buildings in Stroud, the Old Town Hall. Originally called the Market-house, this was built in 1594[36] and is still in occasional use today.

Education[edit]

School of Science and Art

History[edit]

"There was a school at Stroud in 1576 but the schoolmaster, who did not have a licence and failed to teach the catechism, was then dismissed..."[37]

Primary schools[edit]

There are six primary schools in the town:

Schools in surrounding areas include

  • Rodborough Community Primary school
  • St Matthew's St Matthew's School (Cainscross)
  • Cashes Green Primary school (Cainscross)
  • Foxmoor Primary School (Cainscross)
  • Whiteshill Community Primary school
  • Randwick CE Primary school

Further schools include Amberley Parochial School, Nailsworth School and Woodchester School.

Secondary schools[edit]

There are three secondary schools in Stroud.

Archway Comprehensive School[38] is a County Council maintained school which offers an 11 to 18 education for children in Stroud, Rodborough and Cainscross.

There are also two state funded selective schools, Marling School and Stroud High School. These former Grant Maintained and Foundation schools became Academies in 2011. Both schools can trace their history back to the founding of Marling School in 1889 and Stroud High School which was founded in 1904 as the Girls' Endowed School. They continued to be grammar schools long after the comprehensive school became the norm in secondary education, and their future was the subject of long-running controversy.[39] The two schools now share a mixed sixth form, called the Marling School Sixth Form and Stroud High School Sixth Form, which works in a three-way consortium with Archway Sixth Form and South Gloucestershire and Stroud College and attracts pupils from many surrounding schools.

Other secondary schools in the locality include Maidenhill School in Stonehouse, and Thomas Keble School in Eastcombe and the private Wycliffe College in Stonehouse

Kite aerial photo of Thomas Keble School
Kite aerial photo of Marling School June 2010
Kite aerial photo of South Gloucestershire and Stroud College

Tertiary education[edit]

Tertiary education in the town is provided by South Gloucestershire and Stroud College

Transport[edit]

Public bus transport in Stroud is run by Stagecoach, operating from its depot on London Road, and Cotswold Green.

The town is also served by First Great Western trains from Stroud railway station, with frequent services to Gloucester, Cheltenham, Swindon, Reading and London. The railway link was established in 1845. Up to then, Stroud had its own time which was set by a sundial at the top of Gloucester Street. There was also an observatory across the road from the hospital where now is a car park. As Stroud time was roughly 9 minutes behind GMT and people kept missing the train, a railway clock was put up in 1858 at the bottom of High Street. It was later moved across King Street to the top of Gloucester Street. The clock fell into disrepair over the years. It was finally saved by Captain Michael Maltin, who restored the clock in 1984 and found a new home for it in the Stroud library.

The A46 road links Stroud to Gloucester in the north and Bath to the south, with the A419 connecting Stroud to Cirencester in one direction and the M5 motorway at Junction 13 in the other.

National Express coaches serve the town on routes 327 (Bath Spa - Scarborough) and 445 (Hereford - London Victoria). Stroud also lies on the traffic-free section of Sustrans National Cycle Network Route 45.

Stroud was connected to the canal system when the Stroudwater Navigation opened in 1779. It then became part of a through canal route from Bristol to London when the Thames and Severn Canal added a route over the Cotswolds in 1789. The canal closed in 1954 but the Cotswold Canals Trust is leading a project to reopen the entire length of the trans Cotswold route. A visitor centre and restored lock are located in the town.

Literature[edit]

Novelists Sue Limb, Jilly Cooper and Katie Fforde, children's authors Jamila Gavin, John Dougherty and Cindy Jefferies, poet Jenny Joseph, plus national newspaper journalists like The Guardian's food critic Matthew Fort following in the footsteps of the Rev. W. Awdry, and W H Davies have made the Stroud area their home. Two of its most famous sons are the authors Laurie Lee, whose most notable creation Cider with Rosie is set in the nearby Slad valley, and Booker Prize-winning author Alan Hollinghurst. Poets such as Dennis Gould, Jeff Cloves, Philip Rush, Ted Milton, Michael Horovitz, Frances Horovitz and Adam Horovitz have grown up, lived and/or live in the area.

Sport[edit]

Stroud Rugby Club, founded in 1873, play in the Western Counties North league. Their home ground is Fromehall Park, near the town centre.

Stroud Cricket Club is over 150 years old and plays its home games at Farmhill. The club has three senior teams, with the first eleven playing its cricket in the South West Premier league.

Since 1982 Stroud Athletic Club has organised an annual half marathon which takes place in October. Nearly 2,500 runners, from all over the country, entered in 2007. Members of the club include the UK number one Olympic Marathon runner Dan Robinson.

Stroud Swimming Club was officially formed in 1978, but can trace its origins back to 1905 when it was known as Stroud Swimming and Water Polo Club. In 2006 and 2007 club members made up two-thirds of the County team that finished in silver and bronze places respectively in the National Open Water Championships.[citation needed]

Stroud Hockey Club was founded in 1928 and has produced some top-class hockey players including Simon Mason. The club has three men's teams, two women's teams and a boys Badgers and a girls Vixens team for rising club stars. The club's home ground is at Stratford Park Leisure Centre, with training on Tuesday evenings during the season.

Politics and media[edit]

In the 2010 General Election, Conservative Neil Carmichael became Member of Parliament for the Stroud constituency after defeating Labour's David Drew, who had held the seat since 1997, by 1,299 votes. Stroud was a Marginal seat which the Conservatives had targeted in the 2010 Election, as was the neighbouring Gloucester (UK Parliament constituency) - Gloucestershire currently has no Labour seats.

In 2008 Stroud Town Council comprised 11 Green Party councillors, with 5 independents, 1 Conservative and 1 Liberal Democrat.[40]

In March 2008, a community radio station, Stroud FM, was launched in the town, broadcasting 24 hours a day on 107.9FM. The station, staffed by volunteers and funded by donations, focussed on local news and music, as well as national and international music, but closed in February 2014 due to a lack of funds. Both BBC Radio Gloucestershire and Heart (Gloucester) have dedicated FM transmitters serving the town.

There are three local newspapers covering the town, the daily Gloucester Citizen and the Weekly Stroud Life published by Gloucestershire Media (part of the Northcliffe Group) and the Stroud News & Journal and is published by Newsquest Media (Southern) Limited, part of the American Gannett Company.

Stroud Life launched in 2008. Most of its distribution is free direct to homes, but a significant share (about one-third) is sold through the news trade.[41] The Stroud News and Journal was formed by a merger in 1959 of the Stroud Journal (started in 1854 as a Liberal supporting Newspaper) and the Stroud News (started in 1867 and generally supported Conservative and Unionist interests).

Crime[edit]

Figures from the local police force and the local Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership[42] indicate that Stroud has a significantly lower level of crime per head of population than the national average.

Crime rates in Stroud (per 1000 population) 2005-2006[43]
Offence Locally Nationally
Robbery .31 1.85
Theft of a motor vehicle 2.39 4.04
Theft from a motor vehicle 7.11 9.59
Sexual offences .79 1.17
Violence against a person 13.36 19.97
Burglary 3.19 5.67

Notable people[edit]

The town's most notable natives and residents are mainly authors, artists and actors:

Authors[edit]

Artists[edit]

Actors[edit]

Musicians[edit]

Plaque to John Canton on the Old Town Hall in the Shambles

Public relations[edit]

  • Mark Borkowski founder of Borkowski PR and author of several books was born in Stroud in 1959.[65]

Sports[edit]

Historians[edit]

Engineering and manufacturing[edit]

  • Edwin Beard Budding (1795–1846), inventor of the lawnmower and adjustable spanner, born and died in Stroud[73]
  • Arnold Redler (1875–1958), founder of the conveying company Redler Limited in Stroud in 1920 and inventor of the en-masse conveyor[74]

Scientists[edit]

Twin towns[edit]

Song about Stroud[edit]

  • "Stroud, The Town of Make Believe" by Blurt, on the album Kenny Rogers' Greatest Hit

References[edit]

  1. ^ UK 2001 census data for Stroud Civil Parish. Source: Neighbourhood Statistics.
  2. ^ More for lovers of cafe culture Stroud News and Journal
  3. ^ [1] Hansard 17 Jun 1997 : Column 185 Retrieved 13 September 2009
  4. ^ "History Of The Industrial Stroud Valleys" (PDF). 
  5. ^ British South West wool industries and manufactured tradecloths Wrapping The Globe
  6. ^ The Huguenots - Their Settlements, Churches and Industries in England by Samuel Smiles
  7. ^ The Jewish Community Of Stroud, 1877-1908 Jewish Community and Records UK, Harold Pollins 1996. Retrieved November 2006.
  8. ^ "Cotswold Canals Trust". 
  9. ^ "KS01: Usual residential population". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  10. ^ "KS06: Ethnic group". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  11. ^ "KS08: Health and provision of unpaid care". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  12. ^ a b "Neighbourhood statistics: Stroud Local Authority". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  13. ^ "KS16: Household spaces and accommodation type". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  14. ^ "KS13: Qualifications and students". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  15. ^ "KS09a: Economic activity". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  16. ^ "Stroud Town Centre". 
  17. ^ Made in Gloucestershire BBC Gloucestershire
  18. ^ Notting Hill.. with wellies[dead link] Highbeam Research
  19. ^ [2][dead link] Wild in the Cotswolds
  20. ^ Biodynamic Association and Demeter in the UK Biodynamic Agricultural Association
  21. ^ International textile festival gives English town a boost BBC News
  22. ^ Stroudwater Riots of 1825 by John Loosley (Author), Ian Mackintosh (Author), Jane Ford (Illustrator) Publisher: Stroud Museum Association (1 Jun 1993) ISBN 0-9521149-0-9 ISBN 978-0-9521149-0-1
  23. ^ The Cloth Industry in the West of England from 1640 to 1880 By Julia De Lacy Mann Published by Clarendon Press, 1971 ISBN 978-0-86299-447-1 ISBN 0-86299-447-0
  24. ^ Towns and villages of England - Stroud : Peter Walmsley. Pub. Alan Sutton 1994 ISBN 0-7509-0589-1
  25. ^ "Digital Stroud". 
  26. ^ The Vernacular Architecture and Buildings of Stroud and Chalford By Nigel McCullagh Paterson Pub:Trafford Publishing, 2006 ISBN 1-4120-9951-X, ISBN 978-1-4120-9951-6. 
  27. ^ Final decision on Weavers Croft Save Stroud Hospitals
  28. ^ Post office saved in town BBC News
  29. ^ Stroud News & Journal : BNP scraps plans for media office in Stroud following opposition
  30. ^ NHS managers agree to halt plans for Stroud General Hospital
  31. ^ Damien Hirst: Jumping the Shark
  32. ^ Gloucestershire town gets its own currency
  33. ^ "Fresh n Local". 
  34. ^ Food and Farming Awards 2010
  35. ^ Stroud, Gloucestershire, England. Genealogy Glosgen
  36. ^ Notes and Recollections of Stroud: Paul Hawkins Fisher: ISBN 0-904387-06-2
  37. ^ Stroud: Education, A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 11: Bisley and Longtree Hundreds (1976), pp. 141-144.
  38. ^ Archway School
  39. ^ The History of Marling School
  40. ^ Green-run council saves post office in national first The Green Party
  41. ^ [3] British Newspapers Online
  42. ^ Stroud Crime Statistics
  43. ^ Stroud crime statistics findaproperty.com
  44. ^ Sibley, Brian (22 March 1997). "The Independent : Obituary". London. Retrieved 24 May 2010. 
  45. ^ "British Council". 
  46. ^ "Newsquest - Iran lifts strict religious veil". 
  47. ^ Fort, Matthew (30 September 2006). "Around Britain with a fork". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 24 May 2010. 
  48. ^ "In the hot seat: Katie Fforde". 
  49. ^ "Slad heartbeat". Retrieved 4 May 2012. 
  50. ^ "London Review of Books". 
  51. ^ "Art Directory". 
  52. ^ "Times Online - Life & Style". The Times (London). 24 August 2003. Retrieved 24 May 2010. 
  53. ^ "Biography Research Guide". 
  54. ^ "Thoughts on the Aesthetic Experience and On Creativity". 
  55. ^ "Selected Works by Noble and Webster". 
  56. ^ Rees, Jasper (20 May 2007). "Times Online : Tim McInnerny Interview". The Times (London). Retrieved 24 May 2010. 
  57. ^ "Bnet". Sunday Mirror. 3 January 1999. 
  58. ^ "Stroud News and Journal - Stroud's Benidorm star Geoffrey dies suddenly aged 71". 
  59. ^ Letter to The Guardian 20/12/08
  60. ^ Brakes interview Pi Magazine September 27, 2007
  61. ^ Violently happy The Guardian 22 June 2007
  62. ^ Sade emerges from her country retreat Sunday Times January 31, 2010
  63. ^ Pendragon return to Stroud for Prog Rock gig
  64. ^ BAFTA winner Emily headlines Easter fest
  65. ^ "Profiles:The PR guru from Stroud". BBC. April 2009. Retrieved 2011-01-13. 
  66. ^ Hignell claims BBC award Stroud Life
  67. ^ "Eddie the Eagle to return to the Winter Olympics | News". This is Gloucestershire. 2009-11-27. Retrieved 2010-08-13. 
  68. ^ "Stroud News and Journal - Nelson grateful for Hockaday's help". 
  69. ^ "The fabled Fred; News". The Spectator - The Fabled Fred. 
  70. ^ Emily Pidgeon (Stroud) 2009 National U23 5000m Champion
  71. ^ South West Snooker Academy
  72. ^ "The Times Higher Education - My revolting past: pipes, tweed and velveteen jeans". 
  73. ^ "Parks & Gardens UK : People at the cutting edge: lawnmower designers". 
  74. ^ "En Masse Conveying". 
  75. ^ "Bitannica Online". 
  76. ^ "Britannica Online". 

External links[edit]

Following the Cotswold Way
Towards
Bath
Towards
Chipping Campden
14 km (9 miles) to
Dursley
~13 km (8 miles) to
Painswick