Hiriq

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"Chiriq" redirects here. For the citadel in northwestern Iran, see Chehriq.
Ḥiriq
ִ
IPA Hebrew: i
Yiddish: ɪ
Transliteration i
English approximation Hebrew: ski
Yiddish: skip
Ḥiriq Example
נִקּוּד
The word niqqud in Hebrew. The first vowel (the dot underneath the letter) is a ḥiriq itself.
Ḥiriq male Example
תִּינוֹק
The word "baby" in Hebrew with niqqud. Notice the additional Yud י.
Other Niqqud
Shva · Hiriq · Zeire · Segol · Patach · Kamatz · Holam · Dagesh · Mappiq · Shuruk · Kubutz · Rafe · Sin/Shin Dot

Hiriq (Hebrew: חִירִיק ḥiriq  IPA: [χiˈʁik]) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a dot  ִ  underneath the letter. In Modern Hebrew, it indicates the phoneme /i/ which is the same as the "ee" sound in the English word deep and is transliterated with "i". In Yiddish, it indicates the phoneme /ɪ/ which is the same as the "i" sound in the English word skip and is transliterated with "i".

In Israeli writing a ḥiriq is often promoted to ḥiriq male (Hebrew: חִירִיק מָלֵא IPA: [χiˈʁik maˈle]) for the sake of disambiguation (see ktiv male). A ḥiriq male in Hebrew spelling is a ḥiriq under the preceding yud ִי, while in Yiddish orthography the ḥiriq is placed under the yud יִ. In writing without niqqud, the ḥiriq is omitted leaving only the yud י. The usage of a consonant (in this case yud) to indicate a vowel comes from mater lectionis.

Pronunciation[edit]

The following table contains the pronunciation and transliteration of the different Hiriqs in reconstructed historical forms and dialects using the International Phonetic Alphabet. The pronunciation in IPA is above and the transliteration is below.

The letter Bet (ב) used in this table is only for demonstration. Any letter can be used.

Symbol Name Pronunciation
Israeli Ashkenazi Sephardi Yemenite Tiberian Reconstructed
Mishnaic Biblical
בִ Hiriq [i] [i] [i]  ? [i, iː]  ?  ?
בִי Ḥiriq male
(Also called, Ḥiriq Yud)
[i] [iː] [iː]  ? [iː]  ?  ?

Vowel Length comparison[edit]

These vowels lengths are not manifested in Modern Hebrew. In addition, the short i is usually promoted to a long i in Israeli writing for the sake of disambiguation.

Vowel comparison table
Vowel Length IPA Transliteration English
approximation
Long Short Very Short
ִי ִ n/a [i] i ski
Yiddish orthography style
Vowel IPA Transliteration English
approximation
No length distinction
יִ [ɪ] i skip

Note: In Yiddish orthography only, the glyph, yud-ḥiriq (), pronounced /i/, can be optionally used, rather than typing yud then ḥiriq (יִ). In Hebrew spelling this would be pronounced /ji//i/ is written ḥiriq then yud (ִי).

Computer encoding[edit]

Glyph Unicode Name
ִ U+05B4 HIRIQ

See also[edit]