In politics, humanitarian aid, and social science, hunger is a condition in which a person, for a sustained period, is unable to eat sufficient food to meet basic nutritional needs.
Throughout history, a large proportion of the world's population have experienced frequent severe hunger. In many cases, this resulted from food supply disruptions caused by war, plagues, or adverse weather. For the first few decades after World War II, technological progress and enhanced political cooperation suggested it might be possible to substantially reduce the number of people suffering from hunger. While progress was uneven, by 2000 the threat of extreme hunger subsided for many of the world's people.
Until 2006, the average international price of food had been largely stable for several decades. In the closing months of 2006, however, prices began to rise rapidly. By 2008, rice had more than tripled in price in some regions, and this severely affected developing countries. Food prices fell in early 2009, but rose to another record high in 2011, and have since decreased slightly. The 2008 worldwide financial crisis further increased the number of people suffering from hunger, including dramatic increases even in advanced economies such as Great Britain, the Eurozone and the United States.
The Millennium Development Goals included a commitment to a further 50% reduction in the proportion of the world's population who suffer from extreme hunger by 2015. As of 2012, this target appeared difficult to achieve, due in part to persistent inflation in food prices. However, in late 2012 the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) stated it is still possible to hit the target with sufficient effort. In 2013, the FAO estimated that 842 million people are undernourished (12% of the global population). Malnutrition is a cause of death for more than 3.1 million children under 5 every year. UNICEF estimates 300 million children go to bed hungry each night; and that 8000 children under the age of 5 are estimated to die of malnutrition every day.
As a physical condition
The physical sensation of hunger is related to contractions of the stomach muscles. These contractions—sometimes called hunger pangs once they become severe—are believed to be triggered by high concentrations of the hormone Ghrelin. The hormones Peptide YY and Leptin can have an opposite effect on the appetite, causing the sensation of being full. Ghrelin can be released if blood sugar levels get low—a condition that can result from long periods without eating. Stomach contractions from hunger can be especially severe and painful in children and young adults.
Hunger pangs can be made worse by irregular meals. People who can't afford to eat more than once a day sometimes refuse one-off additional meals, because if they don't eat at around the same time on the next few days, they may suffer extra severe hunger pangs. Older people may feel less violent stomach contractions when they get hungry, but still suffer the secondary effects resulting from low food intake: these include weakness, irritability and decreased concentration. Prolonged lack of adequate nutrition also causes increased susceptibility to disease and reduced ability for the body to self heal.
Malnutrition, famine, starvation, appetite
- Malnutrition is a general term for a condition caused by inadequate dietary intake and/or disease; it can occur in conjunction with both under and over consumption of calories and/or micro-nutrients.
- Famine is a widespread scarcity of food that may apply to any fauna species; the phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality.
- Starvation describes a "state of exhaustion of the body caused by lack of food." This state may precede death.
- Appetite is a natural desire to satisfy a bodily need, especially for food.
The annual FAO, WFP and IFAD The State of Food Insecurity in the World reports provide a statistical overview on hunger, and are usually considered the main reference in this regard (e.g., for the Millennium Development Goals). However, it is important to note that they have several caveats. First, undernourishment is defined solely in terms of dietary energy availability (i.e., disregarding micro-nutrients such as vitamins or minerals). Second, it uses the energy requirements for minimum activity levels as a benchmark, whereas many hungry people most likely face hard manual labour. Third, the numbers do not reflect short-term undernourishment (e.g., from food price shocks), unless they change long-term food consumption.
In October 2012, the FAO published a report saying that their earlier 2009 estimate that one Billion people were suffering from chronic hunger was over stated, due to flawed methodology resulting from the pressure they were under to quickly estimate the effects of the financial crisis on hunger. They also said the number of people currently suffering from chronic hunger is close to 842 million.
|Number (million) of undernourished people (global)||1,000||919||898||867||868|
|Percentage of undernourished people (global)||19%||15%||14%||13%||12%|
The fight against hunger
Throughout history, the need to aid those suffering from hunger has been commonly, though not universally, recognized.
The philosopher Simone Weil wrote that feeding the hungry when you have resources to do so is the most obvious of all human obligations. She says that as far back as Ancient Egypt, many believed that people had to show they had helped the hungry in order to justify themselves in the afterlife. Weil writes that Social progress is commonly held to be first of all, "...a transition to a state of human society in which people will not suffer from hunger."  Social historian Karl Polanyi wrote that before markets became the world's dominant form of economic organization in the 19th century, most human societies would either starve all together or not at all, because communities would invariably share their food.
Prior to 1945, the only major academic and political attention given to hunger came during the Great Depression. As many individuals struggled for food, the same agricultural industries were suddenly producing large surpluses as means of increased production to counter the drop in demand from the European markets. This increased output was meant to ease the growing debt levels, however domestic demand could not keep up with prices. Instead, a paradox ensued, often called "the paradox of want amid plenty." Agricultural surpluses and large demand simply did not fit together, causing the Hoover administration to buy large amounts of product, such as grain, to stabilize prices. Initially refusing to further compromise the distressed price levels, political pressure from starving families across the country forced Congress to reconsider. With large deposits of grain already wasting away in government possession, the only political move left was to begin a process of donations to the hungry from the Farm Board. Instead of hunger being a reason for the allocation of large grain surpluses, waste became the eventual driving force.
From the first age of globalization, which began in the 19th century, it became more common for people to consider problems like hunger in global terms. However, as early globalization largely coincided with the high peak of influence for classical liberalism, there was relatively little call for politicians to address world hunger.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the view that politicians ought not to intervene against hunger was increasingly challenged by campaigning journalists, with some academics and politicians also calling for or organizing intervention against world hunger, such as U.S. President Woodrow Wilson.  
Politics of hunger
After World War II, a new international politico-economic order came into being, which was later described as Embedded liberalism.
For at least the first decade after the war, the United States, by far the period's most dominant national actor, was strongly supportive of efforts to tackle world hunger and to promote international development. It heavily funded the United Nation's development programmes, and later the efforts of other multilateral organizations like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB).
The newly established United Nations became a leading player in co-ordinating the global fight against hunger. The UN has three agencies that work to promote food security and agricultural development: the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). FAO is the world’s agricultural knowledge agency, providing policy and technical assistance to developing countries to promote food security, nutrition and sustainable agricultural production, particularly in rural areas.
WFP’s key mission is to deliver food into the hands of the hungry poor. The agency steps in during emergencies and uses food to aid recovery after emergencies. Its longer term approaches to hunger helps the transition from recovery to development. IFAD, with its knowledge of rural poverty and exclusive focus on poor rural people, designs and implements programmes to help those people access the assets, services and opportunities they need to overcome poverty.
Following successful post WWII reconstruction of Germany and Japan, the IMF and WB began to turn their attention to the developing world. A great many civil society actors were also active in trying to combat hunger, especially after the late 1970s when global media began to bring the plight of starving people in places like Ethiopia to wider attention. Most significant of all, especially in the late 1960s and 70s, the Green revolution helped improved agricultural technology propagate throughout the world.
The United States began to change its approach to the problem of world hunger from about the mid 1950s. Influential members of the administration became less enthusiastic about methods they saw as promoting an over reliance on the state, as they feared that might assist the spread of communism.
By the 1980s, the previous consensus in favour of moderate government intervention had been displaced across the western world. The IMF and World Bank in particular began to promote market-based solutions. In cases where countries became dependent on the IMF, they sometimes forced national governments to prioritize debt repayments and sharply cut public services. This sometimes had a negative effect on efforts to combat hunger.
Organizations such as Food First raised the issue of food sovereignty and claimed that every country on earth (with the possible minor exceptions of some city-states) has sufficient agricultural capacity to feed its own people, but that the "free trade" economic order, which from the late 1970s to about 2008 had been associated with such institutions as the IMF and World Bank, had prevented this from happening.
The World Bank itself claimed it was part of the solution to hunger, asserting that the best way for countries to break the cycle of poverty and hunger was to build export-led economies that provide the financial means to buy foodstuffs on the world market. However, in the early 21st century the World Bank and IMF became less dogmatic about promoting free market reforms. They increasingly returned to the view that government intervention does have a role to play, and that it can be advisable for governments to support food security with policies favourable to domestic agriculture, even for countries that do not have a Comparative advantage in that area. As of 2012, the World Bank remains active in helping governments to intervene against hunger.
Until at least the 1980s—and, to an extent, the 1990s—the dominant academic view concerning world hunger was that it was a problem of demand exceeding supply. Proposed solutions often focused on boosting food production, and sometimes on birth control. There were exceptions to this, even as early as the 1940s, Lord Boyd-Orr, the first head of the UN's FAO, had perceived hunger as largely a problem of distribution, and drew up comprehensive plans to correct this. Few agreed with him at the time, however, and he resigned after failing to secure support for his plans from the US and Great Britain. In 1998, Amartya Sen won a Nobel Prize in part for demonstrating that hunger in modern times is not typically the product of a lack of food. Rather, hunger usually arises from food distribution problems, or from governmental policies in the developed and developing world. It has since been broadly accepted that world hunger results from issues with the distribution as well as the production of food. Sen's 1981 essay Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation played a prominent part in forging the new consensus.
In 2007 and 2008, rapidly increasing food prices caused a global food crisis, increasing the numbers suffering from hunger by over a hundred million. Food riots erupted in several dozen countries; in at least two cases, Haiti and Madagascar, this led to the toppling of governments. A second global food crisis unfolded due to the spike in food prices of late 2010 and early 2011. Fewer food riots occurred, due in part to greater availability of food stock piles for relief. However, several analysts argue the food crisis was one of the causes of the Arab Spring.
Efforts since the global 2008 crisis
In the early 21st century, there was relatively little awareness of hunger from leaders of advanced nations such as those that form the G8. Prior to 2009, efforts to fight hunger were mainly undertaken by governments of the worst affected countries, by civil society actors, and by multilateral and regional organizations. In 2009, Pope Benedict published his third encyclical, Caritas in Veritate, which emphasised the importance of fighting against hunger. The encyclical was intentionally published immediately before the July 2009 G8 Summit to maximise its influence on that event. At the Summit, which took place at L'Aquila in central Italy, the L'Aquila Food Security Initiative was launched, with a total of US$22 billion was committed to combat hunger.
Food prices did fall sharply in 2009 and early 2010, though analysts credit this much more to farmers increasing production in response to the 2008 spike in prices, than to the fruits of enhanced government action. However, since the 2009 G8 summit, the fight against hunger has remained a high profile issue among the leaders of the worlds major nations, and was a prominent part of the agenda for the 2012 G-20 summit.  
In April 2012, the Food Assistance Convention was signed, the world's first legally binding international agreement on food aid. The May 2012 Copenhagen Consensus recommended that efforts to combat hunger and malnutrition should be the first priority for politicians and private sector philanthropists looking to maximize the effectiveness of aid spending. They put this ahead of other priorities, like the fight against malaria and AIDS. Also in May 2012, U.S. President Barack Obama launched a "new alliance for food security and nutrition"—a broad partnership between private sector, governmental and civil society actors—that aimed to "...achieve sustained and inclusive agricultural growth and raise 50 million people out of poverty over the next 10 years." The UK's prime minister David Cameron held a hunger summit on 12 August, the last day of the 2012 Summer Olympics.
The fight against hunger has also been joined by an increased number of regular people. While folk throughout the world had long contributed to efforts to alleviate hunger in the developing world, there has recently been a rapid increase in the numbers involved in tackling domestic hunger even within the economically advanced nations of the Global North.
This had happened much earlier in North America than it did in Europe. In the US, the Reagan administration scaled back welfare the early 1980s, leading to a vast increase of charity sector efforts to help Americans unable to buy enough to eat. According to a 1992 survey of 1000 randomly selected US voters, 77% of Americans had contributed to efforts to feed the hungry, either by volunteering for various hunger relief agencies such as food banks and soup kitchens, or by donating cash or food. Europe, with its more generous welfare system, had little awareness of domestic hunger until the food price inflation that began in late 2006, and especially as austerity-imposed welfare cuts began to take effect in 2010. Various surveys reported that upwards of 10% of Europe's population had begun to suffer from food insecurity. Especially since 2011, there has been a substantial increase in grass roots efforts to help the hungry by means of food banks, within both the UK and continental Europe.
By July 2012, the 2012 US drought had already caused a rapid increase in the price of grain and soy, with a knock on effect on the price of meat. As well as affecting hungry people in the US, this caused prices to rise on the global markets; the US is the world's biggest exporter of food. This led to much talk of a possible third 21st century global food crisis. The Financial Times reported that the BRICS may not be as badly affected as they were in the earlier crises of 2008 and 2011. However, smaller developing countries that must import a substantial portion of their food could be hard hit. The UN and G20 has begun contingency planning so as to be ready to intervene if a third global crisis breaks out. By August 2013 however, concerns had been allayed, with above average grain harvests expected from major exporters, including Brazil, Ukrain and the U.S. 2014 also saw a good worldwide harvest, leading to speculation that grain prices could soon begin to fall.
In an April 2013 summit held in Dublin concerning Hunger, Nutrition, Climate Justice, and the post 2015 MDG framwework for global justice, Ireland's President Higgins said that only 10% of deaths from hunger are due to armed conflict and natural disasters, with ongoing hunger being both the "greatest ethical failure of the current global system" and the "greatest ethical challenge facing the global community." $4.15 billion of new commitments were made to tackle hunger at a June 2013 Hunger Summit held in London, hosted by the governments of Britain and Brazil, together with The Children's Investment Fund Foundation.
In the United States
Although the United States Department of Agriculture reported in 2012 that an estimated 85.5 percent of households in the country are food secure, millions of people in America struggle with the threat of hunger or experience hunger on a daily basis. The USDA defines food security as the economic condition of a household where in which there is reliable access to an sufficient amount of food so all household members can lead a healthy productive life. Hunger is most commonly related to poverty since a lack of food helps perpetuate the cycle of poverty. Most obviously, when individuals live in poverty they lack the financial resources to purchase food or paid for unexpected events, such as a medical emergency. When such emergencies arise, families are forced to cut back on food spending so they can meet the financial demands of the unexpected emergency. There is not one single cause of hunger but rather a complex interconnected web of various factors. Some of the most vulnerable populations to hunger are the elderly, children, people from a low socioeconomic status, and minority groups; however, hunger's impact is not limited to these individuals.
The largest nonprofit food relief organization in the United States, Feeding America, feeds 46.5 million citizens a year to address the nation's food insecurity issue. This equates to one in seven Americans requiring their aid in a given year. An organization that focuses on providing food for the elderly population is Meals on Wheels, which is a nonprofit that delivers meals to seniors' homes. The government also works towards providing relief through programs such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) which was formerly known to the public as Food Stamps. Another well known government program is the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) which provides free or reduced lunches to students who qualify for the program.
The number of Americans suffering from hunger rose after the 2008 financial crisis, with children and working adults now making up a large proportion of those affected. In 2012, Gleaners Indiana Food bank reported that there were now 50 million Americans struggling with food insecurity (about 1 in 6 of the population), and that the number of folks seeking help from food banks had increased by 46% since 2005. According to a 2012 study by UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, even married couples who both work but have low incomes sometimes require the aid of food banks.
Hunger and gender
In both developing and advanced countries, parents sometimes go without food so they can feed their children. Women, however, seem more likely to make this sacrifice than men. World Bank studies consistently find that about 60% of those who are hungry are female. The apparent explanation for this imbalance is that, compared to men, women more often forgo meals to feed their children.
Older sources sometimes claim this phenomenon is unique to developing countries, due to greater sexual inequality. More recent findings suggested that mothers often miss meals in advanced economies too. For example, a 2012 study undertaken by Netmums in the UK found that one in five mothers sometimes misses out on food to save their children from hunger.
In several periods and regions, gender has also been an important factor determining whether or not victims of hunger would make suitable examples for generating enthusiasm for hunger relief efforts. James Vernon, in his Hunger: A Modern History, wrote that in Britain before the 20th century, it was generally only women and children suffering from hunger who could arouse compassion. Men who failed to provide for themselves and their families were often regarded with contempt.
This changed after World War I, where thousands of men who had proved their manliness in combat found themselves unable to secure employment. Similarly, female gender could be advantageous for those wishing to advocate for hunger relief, with Vernon writing that being a woman helped Emily Hobhouse draw the plight of hungry people to wider attention during the Second Boer War.
- Category:Hunger relief organizations
- Fome Zero (Hunger 0)
- Global Hunger Index
- Hunger in the United Kingdom
- National Security Study Memorandum 200 (1974)
- Right to food
Notes and references
- Ernest C. Madu. "Investment and Development Will Secure the Rights of the Child".
- David Model (2012-10-30). "Britain's hidden hunger". BBC. Retrieved 2012-11-04.
- Howard Wilcox Haggard (1977). Diet and Physical Efficiency. Arno Press. ISBN 0405101716.
- Carol Kop (2009-02-11). "The Hunger Hormone". CBS News. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- FAO, WFP and IFAD. 2012. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012 FAO, Retrieved 4 December 2012
- FAO Hunger Portal FAO, Retrieved 4 December 2012
- "842 million people suffer from chronic hunger around the world". Bloomberg Businessweek. 2012-10-09. Retrieved 2012-12-06.
- As an example of historical opposition to food aid, during the Hungry Forties, English Laissez-faire advocates were largely successful in preventing it being deployed by Great Britain to relief the Irish famine -see for example the section on "Ideology and relief"' in Chpt. 2 of The Great Irish Famine by Cormac Ó Gráda. For a detailed description of how views opposed to hunger relief became dominant within Great Britain's policy making circles during the 19th century, and also their subsequent displacement, see Hunger: A Modern History (2007) by James Vernon, esp. Chpts. 1–3. In 2012, advocates of small government spoke out against the US food stamp programme, saying it discourages people from fending for themselves, in the same way as it is not always a good idea to feed hungry wild animals. ( See Food stamp debate brings out the haters published by the Star Telegram. )
- Simone Weil (2002 - orig. written 1942). The Need for Roots. Routledge. p. 6. ISBN 0-415-27102-9. Check date values in:
- Karl Polanyi (2002 - orig. published 1942). "chpt. 4". The Great Transformation. Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-5643-1. Check date values in:
- Janet Poppendieck (1995). "2". Eating Agendas. Aldine Transaction. ISBN 978-0-202-30508-0.
- For further info see Hunger in the United Kingdom#Attitudes towards hunger relief.
- There were many exceptions. For example, in Hunger: A Modern History (2007), James Vernon describes dozens of 18th and 19th century campaigners who spoke in favor of hunger relief.
- David Grigg (1981). "The historiography of hunger: changing views on the world food problem 1945–1980". Transaction of the Institute of British Geographers. NS. 6 , No 3: 279–292.
Before 1945 very little academic or political notice was taken of the problem of world hunger, since 1945 there has been a vast literature on the subject.
- Charles Creighton (1891 (republished 2010)). "Chapt. 1". History of Epidemics in Britain. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 114494760X. Check date values in:
- James Vernon (2007). "Chpts. 1-3". Hunger: A Modern History. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674026780.
- William A Dando, ed. (2012). "passim, see esp Introduction; Historiography of Food, Hunger and famine; Hunger and Starvation". Food and Famine in the 21st Century: Vol 1, Topics and Issues. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1598847309.
- John R. Butterly and Jack Shepherd (2010). Hunger: The Biology and Politics of Starvation. Dartmouth College. ISBN 1584659262.
- UK 'aid' is financing a corporate scramble for Africa, Miriam Ross, The Ecologist, 2014.04.03
- Fred Magdoff, Twenty-First-Century Land Grabs - Accumulation by Agricultural Dispossession, Monthly Review, 2013, Volume 65, Issue 06 (November)
- Rahul Goswami, For Whom Do the FAO and Its Director-General Work?, Monthly Review Magazine, 2012.12.04
- Joseph Stiglitz (7 May 2011). "The IMF's change of heart". Aljazeera. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- "Food Price Volatility a Growing Concern, World Bank Stands Ready to Respond". World Bank. 2012-03-30. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
- Javier Blas (2012-06-18). "Food prices: Leaders seek a long-term solution to hunger pains". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2012-07-31. (registration required (. ))
- Andrew Bowman (2012-07-27). "Food crisis: how do the Brics fare?". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2012-07-31. (registration required (. ))
- Guy Dinmore in L'Aquila (2009-07-10). "G8 to commit $20bn for food security". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2009-11-15. (registration required (. ))
- Guy Dinmore in Rome (2009-07-07). "Pope condemns capitalism's ‘failures'". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2009-07-07. (registration required (. ))
- Joanna Rea (2012-05-25). "2012 G8 summit – private sector to the rescue of the world's poorest?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
- FAO Food Price Index FAO, Retrieved 4 December 2012
- Outcome of the 2012 Copenhagen Consensus
- G8 Action on Food Security and Nutrition 2012 statement hosted by the US Department of State
- Remarks by President concerning the launch of the new alliance for food security and nutrition
- Janet Poppendieck (1999). "Introduction, Chpt 1". Sweet Charity?: Emergency Food and the End of Entitlement. Penguine. ISBN 0140245561.
- "A million hungry children in the UK". Yahoo!. 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
- Charlie Cooper (2012-04-06). "Look back in hunger: Britain's silent, scandalous epidemic". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-04-16.
- Rowenna Davis (2012-05-12). "The rise and rise of the food bank". New Statesman. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
- "HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY IN THE GLOBAL NORTH: CHALLENGES AND RESPONSIBILITIES REPORT OF WARWICK CONFERENCE". Warwick University. 2012-07-06. Retrieved 2012-08-28.
- Gregory Meyer (2012-07-30). "US drought: Stuck on dry land : Heatwave threatens new global food crisis". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2012-07-31. (registration required (. ))
- Javier Bains (2012-08-12). "G20 plans response to rising food prices". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2012-08-15. (registration required (. ))
- Gregory Meyer in New York and Samantha Pearson in São Paulo (2013-08-13). "Bumper grain crop to weigh on prices". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2013-08-24. (registration required (. ))
- Gregory Meyer (September 23, 2014). "Commodities: Cereal excess". The Financial Times. Retrieved October 14, 2014. (registration required (. ))
- Michael D. Higgins (15 April 2013). 20130415 Hunger • Nutrition • Climate Justice - Michael D Higgins Speech. EU. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- "Africa: Children's Investment Fund Foundation (CIFF) Leads Transformation of Global Nutrition Agenda with $787 million Investment". AllAfrica. 2013-06-08. Retrieved 2013-06-09.
- Luke Cross (2013-06-08). "Hunger Summit secures £2.7bn as thousands rally at Hyde Park". Metro. Retrieved 2013-06-09.
- Coleman-Jensen, A; Nord, M; Singh, A (2013). "Household Food Security in the United States in 2012". U.S. Department of Agriculture.
- Borger, C; Gearing, M; Macaluso, T; Mills, G; Montaquila, J; Weinfield, N; Zedlewski, S (2014). "Hunger in America 2014: Executive Summary". Feeding America.
- Valentine, Vikki. "Q & A: The Causes Behind Hunger in America". NPR. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
- Gleaners Indiana Food bank Retrieved 2012-07-18
- Alex Ferreras (2012-07-11). "Thousands More in Solano, Napa Counties are Turning to Food Banks". Retrieved 2012-07-11.
- John Turner (2012-09-20). "Poverty and hunger in America". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- Miriam Ross, (2012-03-08). "555 million women go hungry worldwide". World Development Movement. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
- "Mums missing meals to feed kids". The Daily Telegraph. 2012-02-16. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
- Hunger an unnatural history(2006) by Sharman Apt Russell - rather than focus on the politics and economics of hunger, this work discusses the psychological effect on individuals and also explores the topic from an anthropological perspective.
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