(Brazil, Russia, India, China
and South Africa)
BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. The grouping was originally known as "BRIC" before the inclusion of South Africa in 2010. The BRICS members are all developing or newly industrialised countries, but they are distinguished by their large, fast-growing economies and significant influence on regional and global affairs; all five are G-20 members. As of 2013, the five BRICS countries represent almost 3 billion people, with a combined nominal GDP of US$16.039 trillion, and an estimated US$4 trillion in combined foreign reserves. Presently, South Africa holds the chair of the BRICS group, having hosted the group's fifth summit in 2013. The BRICS have received both praise and criticism from numerous quarters.
The foreign ministers of the initial four BRIC states (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) met in New York City in September 2006, beginning a series of high-level meetings. A full-scale diplomatic meeting was held in Yekaterinburg, Russia, on 16 May 2008.
First BRIC summit
The BRIC grouping's first formal summit, also held in Yekaterinburg, commenced on 16 June 2009, with Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Dmitry Medvedev, Manmohan Singh, and Hu Jintao, the respective leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China, all attending. The summit's focus was on means of improving the global economic situation and reforming financial institutions, and discussed how the four countries could better co-operate in the future. There was further discussion of ways that developing countries, such as the BRIC members, could become more involved in global affairs.
In the aftermath of the Yekaterinburg summit, the BRIC nations announced the need for a new global reserve currency, which would have to be "diversified, stable and predictable". Although the statement that was released did not directly criticise the perceived "dominance" of the US dollar – something that Russia had criticised in the past – it did spark a fall in the value of the dollar against other major currencies.
Entry of South Africa
In 2010, South Africa began efforts to join the BRIC grouping, and the process for its formal admission began in August of that year. South Africa officially became a member nation on 24 December 2010, after being formally invited by the BRIC countries to join the group. The group was renamed BRICS – with the "S" standing for South Africa – to reflect the group's expanded membership. In April 2011, the President of South Africa, Jacob Zuma, attended the 2011 BRICS summit in Sanya, China, as a full member.
The BRICS Forum, an independent international organisation encouraging commercial, political and cultural cooperation between the BRICS nations, was formed in 2011. In June 2012, the BRICS nations pledged $75 billion to boost the lending power of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). However, this loan was conditional on IMF voting reforms. In late March 2013, during the fifth BRICS summit in Durban, South Africa, the member countries agreed to create a global financial institution which they intended to rival the western-dominated IMF and World Bank. After the summit, the BRICS stated that they planned to finalise the arrangements for this new development bank by 2014. However, disputes relating to burden sharing and location have slowed down the agreements.
- At the BRICS leaders meeting in St. Petersburg in September, China committed $41 billion towards the pool; Brazil, India and Russia $18 billion each; and South Africa $5 billion . China, holder of the world's largest foreign exchange reserves and who is to contribute the bulk of the currency pool, wants a greater managing role, said one BRICS official. China also wants to be the location of the reserve.
- "Brazil and India want the initial capital to be shared equally. We know that China wants more," said a Brazilian official. "However, we are still negotiating, there are no tensions arising yet."
- On 11th October 2013, Russia's Finance Minister Anton Siluanov said that a decision on creating a $100 billion fund designated to steady currency markets would be taken in early 2014. The Brazilian finance minister, Guido Mantega stated that the fund would be created by March 2014.
The grouping has held annual summits since 2009, with member countries taking turns to host. Prior to South Africa's admission, two BRIC summits were held, in 2009 and 2010. The first five-member BRICS summit was held in 2011. The most recent BRICS summit took place in Durban, South Africa, in March 2013.
|1st||16 June 2009||Yekaterinburg||Dmitry Medvedev (President)|
|2nd||15 April 2010||Brasília||Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (President)|
|3rd[a]||14 April 2011||Sanya||Hu Jintao (President)|
|4th||29 March 2012||New Delhi||Manmohan Singh (Prime Minister)|
|5th||26–27 March 2013||Durban||Jacob Zuma (President)|
|6th||TBC July 2014||Fortaleza||Dilma Rousseff (President)|
|7th||2015||Ufa||Vladimir Putin (President)|
|^a First summit to include South Africa alongside the original BRIC countries.|
|Country||Population||GDP (nominal)||HFCE||Government spending||Exports||Imports||GDP per capita (PPP)||Literacy rate||Life expectancy (years, avg.)||HDI|
|Brazil||201,046,886||$2,695.9 bn||$1,266.3 bn||$846.6 bn||$256.0 bn||$238.8 bn||$13,623||93.5%||74.6||.730 (high)|
|Russia||143,451,702||$2,021.9 bn||$671.6 bn||$414.0 bn||$542.5 bn||$358.1 bn||$17,708||99.6%||69.7||.788 (high)|
|India||1,210,193,422||$1,824.8 bn||$737.9 bn||$281.0 bn||$309.1 bn||$500.3 bn||$3,829||74.04%||64.2||.554 (medium)|
|China||1,354,040,000||$8,227.0 bn||$1,835.3 bn||$2,031.0 bn||$2,021.0 bn||$1,780.0 bn||$9,161||92.2%||72.7||.699 (medium)|
|South Africa||51,770,560||$384.3 bn||$173.8 bn||$95.27 bn||$101.2 bn||$106.8 bn||$11,375||86.4%||51.2||.629 (medium)|
In 2012, Hu Jintao, who at the time was President of China, described the BRICS countries as defenders and promoters of developing countries and a force for world peace. However, some analysts have highlighted potential divisions and weaknesses in the grouping, including significant economic instabilities, disagreements between the members over UN Security Council reform, and India and China's disputes over territorial issues.
- Economic Cooperation Organization
- Emerging and growth-leading economies
- Group of Two
- Group of 77
- IBSA Dialogue Forum, a tripartite grouping of India, Brazil and South Africa
- List of potential superpowers
- MIKT, an acronym referring to the emerging economies of Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey
- Next Eleven
- TIMBI, an acronym referring to Turkey, India, Mexico, Brazil and Indonesia.
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