Ibrahim Index of African Governance
Established in 2007, the IIAG is the most comprehensive collection of quantitative data on governance in Africa. Compiled in partnership with experts from a number of the continent's institutions, it provides an annual assessment of governance in every African country. The IIAG provides a framework for citizens, governments, institutions and business to assess the delivery of public goods and services, and policy outcomes, across Africa.
The IIAG provides:
- a framework for stakeholders to assess the delivery of public goods and services, and policy outcomes, in every African country
- a tool with which to govern, highlighting continental, regional, national and thematic governance results
The data are classified within four categories:
- Safety & Rule of Law
- Participation & Human Rights
- Sustainable Economic Opportunity
- Human Development.
The Ibrahim Index of African Governance is the brainchild of the Mo Ibrahim Foundation. The first iteration was produced in 2007 and the second in 2008. The third edition was published in Cape Town on October 5, 2009. The fourth edition was published on 4 October 2010, and launch events were held in Cairo, Accra, Nairobi, Dakar and Johannesburg.
The Ibrahim Index has been used by civil society and government bodies across the continent to monitor governance. One example is in South Africa, where the party in opposition, the Democratic Alliance, used the Ibrahim Index to challenge the government's record on safety and security.
The Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) is an annually published composite index that provides a statistical measure of governance performance in African countries.
Governance is defined by the Mo Ibrahim Foundation as the provision of the political, social and economic public goods and services that a citizen has the right to expect from his or her state, and that a state has the responsibility to deliver to its citizens. This definition is focused on outputs and outcomes of policy. The IIAG governance framework comprises four dimensions (categories):
- Safety & Rule of Law
- Participation & Human Rights
- Sustainable Economic Opportunity
- Human Development
These categories are made up of 14 sub-categories, consisting of 94 indicators. The 2013 IIAG is calculated using data from 32 independent sources. Annual refinements are made to the IIAG, which may be methodological, or based on the inclusion or exclusion of indicators. The entire IIAG data set is therefore retrospectively revised, in accordance with best practices. Comparisons between years should therefore be performed entirely on the 2013 IIAG data set.
The report uses 94 indicators, grouped into four broad categories: safety and rule of law, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunity, and human development.
Safety and rule of law
The 23 indicators in the safety and rule of law category are divided into four subcategories: personal safety, rule of law, accountability and corruption, reliability of police services and national security. Scores in this category range from 4.9 for Somalia to 88.9 for Botswana in 2013.
The personal safety subcategory includes six indicators measuring personal safety in general, levels of violent crime and social unrest, human trafficking, and the degree of domestic political persecution.
The rule of law subcategory includes five indicators measuring the strength of the judicial process and independence of the judiciary, property rights, the orderly transfer of power following a change of government, and whether the country is under UN sanctions.
The accountability and corruption subcategory includes seven indicators measuring corruption in general, transparency and the accountability of public officials, corruption among government and public officials, accountability, transparency, and corruption in rural areas,diversion of public funds and prosecution of abuse of office.
The national security subcategory includes five indicators measuring domestic armed conflict, numbers of internally displaced persons and refugees from the country, government involvement in armed conflict, death due to war (both military and civilian),
Participation and human rights
The 19 indicators in the participation and human rights category are divided into three subcategories: participation, rights, and gender. Scores in this category range from 11.5 for Somalia to 81.7 for Cape Verde in 2013.
The participation subcategory includes five indicators measuring political participation in general, the effective power to govern and level of electoral self-determination, and the extent to which elections are free and fair, both in general and for the most recent executive elections.
The rights subcategory includes seven indicators measuring human rights in general, civil liberties, political and collective rights, freedom of expression and association, and the implementation of international human rights conventions.
The gender subcategory includes seven indicators measuring gender equality, the ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education,the proportion of women who are economically active, legislation on violence against women, equal representation in rural areas, women's economic rights and political rights and the proportion of parliamentary seats held by women.
Sustainable economic opportunity
The 30 indicators in the sustainable economic opportunity category are divided into four subcategories: public management, the business environment, infrastructure, and the rural sector. Scores in this category range from 2.3 for Somalia to 79.7 for Mauritius.
The public management subcategory includes 11 indicators measuring the quality of public administration and budget management,statistical capacity, the rate of inflation, the fiscal policy, Diversification, the proportion of imports covered by foreign exchange reserves, and the ratios of budget deficit or surplus to GDP, revenue to expenditure, the soundness of banks and external debt service to exports.
The business environment subcategory includes six indicators measuring the competitive environment and investment climate (both in general and specifically for rural businesses), the costs of importing and exporting goods,and the extent of bureaucracy.
The infrastructure subcategory includes six indicators measuring the reliability of the electricity supply,roads, rail network, air transport, telephone and IT infrastructure and digital connectivity.
The rural sector subcategory includes seven indicators measuring access to agricultural markets and agricultural land and water, the ease of forming rural organisations, the extent of government support for rural development, and the level of consultation between the government and the rural poor.
The 22 indicators in the human development category are divided into three subcategories: welfare,health, and education. Scores in this category range from 13.1 for the Somalia to 92.2 for Seychelles in 2013.
The welfare subcategory includes nine indicators measuring the welfare regime, social protection & labour, social exclusion, welfare services(health and education), equity of public resource use,access to water, access to sanitation, environmental policy and environmental sustainability.
The education subcategory includes seven indicators measuring the educational system quality, education provision & quality, the ratio of pupils to teachers in primary school, primary school completion, progression to secondary school, tertiary enrolment and literacy.
The health subcategory includes six indicators measuring maternal mortality, child mortality, immunization (measles & DTP), Antiretroviral treatment provision, disease (malaria & TB) and undernourishment.
The Ibrahim Index is designed to be a tool a for citizens, governments, institutions and business to assess the delivery of public goods and services, and policy outcomes, across Africa. Its annual publication receives massive media attention from across the African continent and in the international media.
It is also a way to measure a government's governance performance in a manner that is as impartial as possible. This allows for the challenging of perceptions and stereotypes. The 2013 Index results showed that the countries that have experienced overall governance improvement since 2000 are today home to 94% of people living on the continent.
While no one questions the worthiness of the Index's ambitions, some scholars have questioned the effectiveness of the Index and particularly the need for civil society to engage with its results — the point is that there does not often exist in Africa a strong and effective civil society. Others maintain that such perspective ignores the important role that civil society is now beginning to play in African politics.
While the Index is comprehensive, there are a few notable anomalies thrown by the results. One example is the extremely high placing of Gabon (8 out of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries); however, while Gabon's political participation and human rights record may be poor, it does have relatively high human development indicators.
Previous critique suggested that the Index was limited to the 48 Sub-Saharan African countries, ignoring Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. To be a fully representative Index of African Governance, as it claimed, it needed to expand its coverage to include North Africa. The 2009 index included these countries.
|Rank||Country||Overall||13 Year Change|
|11||São Tomé and Príncipe||59.9||3.2|
|43||Republic of the Congo||43.0||8.0|
|49||Central African Republic||32.7||3.8|
|51||Democratic Republic of the Congo||31.3||7.3|
- Mo Ibrahim Foundation Official Website
- "Index Indicators: Personal Safety". The Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
- "Index Indicators: Rule of Law". The Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
- "Index Indicators: Accountability and Corruption". The Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
- "Index Indicators: National Security". The Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
- "Index Indicators: Participation". The Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Retrieved 2010-07-22.
- "Index Indicators: Rights". The Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Retrieved 2010-07-22.
- "Index Indicators: Gender". The Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Retrieved 2010-07-22.
- "Index Indicators: Economic Management". The Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Retrieved 2010-07-20.
- "Index Indicators: Private Sector". The Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Retrieved 2010-07-20.
- "Index Indicators: Infrastructure". The Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Retrieved 2010-07-20.
- "Index Indicators: Environment and Rural Sector". The Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Retrieved 2010-07-21.